On desktop computers, good user interface design is now almost universally
recognized as a crucial part of the software and hardware development process.
Almost every computing-related product touts itself as “easy to use,”
“intuitive,” or “designed with your needs in mind.” With the advent of virtual
environments, augmented reality, ubiquitous computing, and other “off-the
desktop” technologies, 3D user interface design is now becoming a critical area
for developers, students, and researchers to understand. The authors are all at
the forefront of this field, have presented on the topic at several conferences,
and lead the 3D UI mailing list. They provide information on existing software
tools; case studies of 3D UIs in real-world applications; implementation tips for
common interaction techniques; and principles for choosing appropriate
devices for 3d UIs. This is one of the most exciting areas of research in
computer science today, yet there have been very few if any books written
about it. 3D User Interfaces will be the first compilation of principles, research
results, and real-world examples for 3D UIs, and should become the seminal
work on the subject.
Table of Contents
I. FOUNDATIONS OF 3D USER INTERFACES.
1. Introduction to 3D User Interfaces.
What Are 3D User Interfaces?
Why 3D User Interfaces?
2. 3D User Interfaces: History and Roadmap.
History of 3D UIs.
Roadmap to 3D UIs.
Scope of This Book.
II. Hardware Technologies for 3D User Interfaces.
3. 3D User Interface Output Hardware.
Design Guidelines: Choosing Output Devices for 3D User Interfaces.
4. 3D User Interface Input Hardware.
Desktop Input Devices.
Special-Purpose Input Devices.
Direct Human Input.
Home-Brewed Input Devices.
Choosing Input Devices for 3D Interfaces.
III. 3D INTERACTION TECHNIQUES.
5. Selection and Manipulation.
3D Manipulation Tasks.
Manipulation Techniques and Input Devices.
Interaction Techniques for 3D Manipulation.
3D Travel Tasks.
User-Centered Wayfinding Support.
Environment-Centered Wayfinding Support.
Evaluating Wayfinding Aids.
8. System Control.
Multimodal System Control Techniques.
Case Study: Mixing System Control Methods.
9. Symbolic Input.
Symbolic Input Tasks.
Symbolic Input Techniques.
Beyond Text and Number Entry.
IV. DESIGNING AND DEVELOPING 3D USER INTERFACES.
10. Strategies for Designing and Developing 3D User Interfaces.
Designing for Humans.
Inventing 3D User Interfaces.
11. Evaluation of 3D User Interfaces.
Evaluation Metrics for 3D Interfaces.
Distinctive Characteristics of 3D Interface Evaluation.
Classification of 3D Evaluation Methods.
Two Multimethod Approaches.
Guidelines for 3D Interface Evaluation.
V. THE FUTURE OF 3D USER INTERFACES.
12. Beyond Virtual: 3D User Interfaces for the Real World.
AR Interfaces as 3D Data Browsers.
3D Augmented Reality Interfaces.
Augmented Surfaces and Tangible Interfaces.
Tangible AR Interfaces.
Agents in AR.
Transitional AR-VR Interfaces.
13. The Future of 3D User Interfaces.
Questions about 3D UI Technology.
Questions about 3D Interaction Techniques.
Questions about 3D UI Design and Development.
Questions about 3D UI Evaluation.
Appendix A: Quick Reference Guide to 3D User Interface Mathematics.