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Adaptive Learning and the Human Condition

By Jeffrey C. Levy

Published by Taylor and Francis

Published Date: Oct 4, 2012


How the human condition relates to classical and instrumental conditioning


Adaptive Learning and the Human Condition emphasizes the relationship between experimental research and classical and instrumental conditioning. The text addresses classical and instrumental conditioning while stressing the definition of learning as an adaptive process through which individuals acquire the ability to predict and control the environment. This approach creates a perspective within which it is possible to consider the fundamental nature of the learning process in understanding the human condition and in addressing significant individual and social concerns.


Learning Goals

Upon completing this book, readers should be able to:

  • Explain the significance of human condition through adaptive learning
  • Present the basic principles of classical and instrumental conditioning
  • Understand the significance of scientific research

Table of Contents

In this Section:
1) Brief Table of Contents

2) Full Table of Contents





Part 1:  A Science of Adaptive Learning

Chapter 1:  Science, Psychology, and Adaptive Learning                              

Chapter 2:  Adaptive Learning Research Methods                                                  

Part 2:  Predictive Learning

Chapter 3:  Predictive Learning: Basic Principles and Phenomena         

Chapter 4:  Predictive Learning: Basic Variables and Theoretical Issues 

Chapter 5:  Predictive Learning: Applications                                                       

Part 3:  Control Learning

Chapter 6:  Control Learning: Basic Principles and Phenomena               

Chapter 7:  Control Learning: Basic Variables and Theoretical Issues              

Chapter 8:  Control Learning: Applications                                        

Chapter 9:  Schedules of Reward and Maintenance of Learned Behavior

Part 4:  The Human Condition

Chapter 10:  Personality, Socialization, and Culture                                     

Chapter 11:  Becoming Human and Transforming the Human Condition

Chapter 12: Becoming Human through Indirect Social Learning   

Chapter 13:  Individual and Cultural Self-Actualization                        

Chapter 14:  Self-Actualization through Self-Control       



Part 1:  A Science of Adaptive Learning

Chapter 1.  Science, Psychology, and Adaptive Learning                                          

The Human Condition                                                                       Explanation and Empiricism                                                                     

The Scientific Method                                                                      

Early History of Psychology                                                                       

Psychology Today                                                                                           

Scientific Explanation in Psychology                                                    

Where Does Psychology Look for Explanations?                                             

Definitions of Learning                                                                           

Direct and Indirect Learning                                                          


Key Terms


Chapter 2.  Adaptive Learning Research Methods                                                      

Internal and External Validity                                                                    

Non-Experimental Research Methods                                                        

Experimental Research Methods                                                              

Adaptive Learning Research Methods and External Validity                              


Key Terms


Part 2.  Predictive Learning

Chapter 3.  Predictive Learning: Basic Principles and Phenomena             

Pavlov’s classical conditioning paradigm                                                    

Measurement Procedures                                                                       

Basic predictive learning phenomena                                                        

Predictive learning schema with excitatory and inhibitory stimuli            


Key Terms


Chapter 4.  Predictive Learning: Basic Variables and Theoretical Issues  

Variables influencing predictive learning                                                    

Theoretical Issues                                                                                 


Key Terms


Chapter 5.  Predictive Learning: Applications                                                    

Basic and applied science                                                                         

Direct classical conditioning of emotions                                                      

Indirect classical conditioning of emotions                                                    

Desensitization and sensitization procedures                                                

Classical conditioning of word meaning                                                        

Classical conditioning of attitudes                                                               

Classical conditioning of drug tolerance                                                       


Key Terms


Part 3.  Control Learning

Chapter 6.  Control Learning: Basic Principles and Phenomena                    

Thorndike and Skinner                                                                             

Apparatuses used to study control learning                                        

Skinner’s contingency schema                                                                   

Adaptive learning overview of predictive and control learning                          

Learned and unlearned appetitive and aversive stimuli                                   

Discriminative stimuli and warning stimuli                                           

Stimulus-response chains                                                                         

Basic control learning phenomena

Species specific characteristics and control learning

Other basic control learning phenomena                                                      


Key Terms


Chapter 7.  Control Learning: Basic Variables and Theoretical Issues                   

Variables influencing control learning                                                                    

Theoretical issues                                                                                 


Key Terms


Chapter 8:  Control Learning: Applications                                                       

Speech and Language (verbal symbolic behavior)                              


Treating behavioral problems with non-verbal individuals                    

Treating behavioral problems with verbal individuals                                    

Empirically validated therapeutic techniques

Using technology to facilitate control learning

Relapse prevention                                                                               


Key Terms


Chapter 9.  Schedules of Reward and Maintenance of Learned Behavior  

Skinnerian methodology

Skinner’s schema of intermittent schedules of reinforcement

Why do ratio schedules produce higher response rates than interval schedules?

Maintenance of learned behavior

Differential reinforcement schedules as alternatives to punishment

Extinction as an alternative to punishment

Non-contingent reinforcement as an alternative to punishment


Key Terms


Part 4.  The Human Condition

Chapter 10.  Personality, Socialization, and Culture                                      

Multiple schedules, personality, and culture

Stimulus control, baseball, and the human condition

Measuring stimulus control in the laboratory

Determinants of stimulus control test patterns

The peak shift and Spence’s model of discrimination learning

Attention theory and discrimination learning


Key Terms


Chapter 11.  Becoming Human and Transforming the Human Condition   

Concept learning

Learning to learn

Basic research in problem-solving

The general problem-solving process

Tools, technology, and the human condition

The phonetic alphabet and Arabic numbering system


Key Terms


Chapter 12.  Becoming Human through Indirect Social Learning    

Observational learning

Speech and language

Preparing for school and the 3 Rs


Key Terms


Chapter 13.  Individual and Cultural Self-Actualization                                  

The Nukak’s physiological needs

The Nukak’s shelter and safety needs

The Nukak’s love and interpersonal needs

The Nukak’s esteem needs

The Nukak’s self-actualization needs

Our physiological needs

Our shelter and safety needs

Our love and interpersonal needs

Developmental tasks and stages for the Nukak and us

Our esteem needs

Our self-actualization needs

Bridges, globalization, and the human condition


Key Terms


Chapter 14.  Self-Actualization through Self-Control                         

Concurrent schedules and the matching law

Self-control – magnitude and delay of reinforcement

Matching, impulsiveness, and adaptive learning

Determinism and Freedom

Lightning, sharks, and human predators

Will Power and Self-Control

Self-Control as Problem Solving

Improving the human condition through humanistic ecology


Key Terms

Purchase Info

ISBN-10: 0-205-20547-X

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-20547-9

Format: Book

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