## Description

For an advanced course in digital design for seniors and first-year graduate students in electrical engineering, computer engineering, and computer science.

This book builds on the student's background from a first course in logic design and focuses on developing, verifying, and synthesizing designs of digital circuits. The Verilog language is introduced in an integrated, but selective manner, only as needed to support design examples (includes appendices for additional language details). It addresses the design of several important circuits used in computer systems, digital signal processing, image processing, and other applications.

## Table of Contents

**1 Introduction to Digital Design Methodology 1**

1.1 Design Methodology–An Introduction

1.1.1 Design Specification

1.1.2 Design Partition

1.1.3 Design Entry

1.1.4 Simulation and Functional Verification

1.1.5 Design Integration and Verification

1.1.6 Presynthesis Sign-Off

1.1.7 Gate-Level Synthesis and Technology Mapping

1.1.8 Postsynthesis Design Validation

1.1.9 Postsynthesis Timing Verification

1.1.10 Test Generation and Fault Simulation

1.1.11 Placement and Routing

1.1.12 Physical and Electrical Design Rule Checks

1.1.13 Parasitic Extraction

1.1.14 Design Sign-Off

1.2 IC Technology Options

1.3 Overview

References

**2 Review of Combinational Logic Design 13**

2.1 Combinational Logic and Boolean Algebra

2.1.1 ASIC Library Cells

2.1.2 Boolean Algebra

2.1.3 DeMorgan’s Laws

2.2 Theorems for Boolean Algebraic Minimization

2.3 Representation of Combinational Logic

2.3.1 Sum-of-Products Representation

2.3.2 Product-of-Sums Representation

2.4 Simplification of Boolean Expressions

2.4.1 Simplification with Exclusive-Or

2.4.2 Karnaugh Maps (SOP Form)

2.4.3 Karnaugh Maps (POS Form)

2.4.4 Karnaugh Maps and Don’t-Cares

2.4.5 Extended Karnaugh Maps

2.5 Glitches and Hazards

2.5.1 Elimination of Static Hazards (SOP Form)

2.5.2 Summary: Elimination of Static Hazards in Two-Level Circuits

2.5.3 Static Hazards in Multilevel Circuits

2.5.4 Summary: Elimination of Static Hazards in Multilevel Circuits

2.5.5 Dynamic Hazards

2.6 Building Blocks for Logic Design

2.6.1 NAND—NOR Structures

2.6.2 Multiplexers

2.6.3 Demultiplexers

2.6.4 Encoders

2.6.5 Priority Encoder

2.6.6 Decoder

2.6.7 Priority Decoder

References

Problems

**3 Fundamentals of Sequential Logic Design 69**

3.1 Storage Elements

3.1.1 Latches

3.1.2 Transparent Latches

3.2 Flip-Flops

3.2.1 D-Type Flip-Flop

3.2.2 Master—Slave Flip-Flop

3.2.3 J-K Flip-Flops

3.2.4 T Flip-Flop

3.3 Busses and Three-State Devices

3.4 Design of Sequential Machines

3.5 State-Transition Graphs

3.6 Design Example: BCD to Excess-3 Code Converter

3.7 Serial-Line Code Converter for Data Transmission

3.7.1 Design Example: A Mealy-Type FSM for Serial Line-Code Conversion

3.7.2 Design Example: A Moore-Type FSM for Serial Line-Code Conversion

3.8 State Reduction and Equivalent States

References

Problems

**4 Introduction to Logic Design with Verilog 103**

4.1 Structural Models of Combinational Logic

4.1.1 Verilog Primitives and Design Encapsulation

4.1.2 Verilog Structural Models

4.1.3 Module Ports

4.1.4 Some Language Rules

4.1.5 Top-Down Design and Nested Modules

4.1.6 Design Hierarchy and Source-Code Organization

4.1.7 Vectors in Verilog

4.1.8 Structural Connectivity

4.2 Logic System, Design Verification, and Test Methodology

4.2.1 Four-Value Logic and Signal Resolution in Verilog

4.2.2 Test Methodology

4.2.3 Signal Generators for Testbenches

4.2.4 Event-Driven Simulation

4.2.5 Testbench Template

4.2.6 Sized Numbers

4.3 Propagation Delay

4.3.1 Inertial Delay

4.3.2 Transport Delay

4.4 Truth Table Models of Combinational and Sequential Logic with Verilog

References

Problems

**5 Logic Design with Behavioral Models of Combinational**

**and Sequential Logic 141**

5.1 Behavioral Modeling

5.2 A Brief Look at Data Types for Behavioral Modeling

5.3 Boolean Equation-Based Behavioral Models of Combinational Logic

5.4 Propagation Delay and Continuous Assignments

5.5 Latches and Level-Sensitive Circuits in Verilog

5.6 Cyclic Behavioral Models of Flip-Flops and Latches

5.7 Cyclic Behavior and Edge Detection

5.8 A Comparison of Styles for Behavioral Modeling

5.8.1 Continuous Assignment Models

5.8.2 Dataflow/RTL Models

5.8.3 Algorithm-Based Models

5.8.4 Naming Conventions: A Matter of Style

5.8.5 Simulation with Behavioral Models

5.9 Behavioral Models of Multiplexers, Encoders, and Decoders

5.10 Dataflow Models of a Linear-Feedback Shift Register

5.11 Modeling Digital Machines with Repetitive Algorithms

5.11.1 Intellectual Property Reuse and Parameterized Models

5.11.2 Clock Generators

5.12 Machines with Multicycle Operations

5.13 Design Documentation with Functions and Tasks: Legacy or Lunacy?

5.13.1 Tasks

5.13.2 Functions

5.14 Algorithmic State Machine Charts for Behavioral Modeling

5.15 ASMD Charts

5.16 Behavioral Models of Counters, Shift Registers, and Register Files

5.16.1 Counters

5.16.2 Shift Registers

5.16.3 Register Files and Arrays of Registers (Memories)

5.17 Switch Debounce, Metastability, and Synchronizers for Asynchronous Signals

5.18 Design Example: Keypad Scanner and Encoder

References

Problems

**6 Synthesis of Combinational and Sequential Logic 235**

6.1 Introduction to Synthesis

6.1.1 Logic Synthesis

6.1.2 RTL Synthesis

6.1.3 High-Level Synthesis

6.2 Synthesis of Combinational Logic

6.2.1 Synthesis of Priority Structures

6.2.2 Exploiting Logical Don’t-Care Conditions

6.2.3 ASIC Cells and Resource Sharing

6.3 Synthesis of Sequential Logic with Latches

6.3.1 Accidental Synthesis of Latches

6.3.2 Intentional Synthesis of Latches

6.4 Synthesis of Three-State Devices and Bus Interfaces

6.5 Synthesis of Sequential Logic with Flip-Flops

6.6 Synthesis of Explicit State Machines

6.6.1 Synthesis of a BCD-to-Excess-3 Code Converter

6.6.2 Design Example: Synthesis of a Mealy-Type NRZ-to-Manchester

Line Code Converter

6.6.3 Design Example: Synthesis of a Moore-Type NRZ-to-Manchester

Line Code Converter

6.6.4 Design Example: Synthesis of a Sequence Recognizer 284

6.7 Registered Logic

6.8 State Encoding

6.9 Synthesis of Implicit State Machines, Registers, and Counters

6.9.1 Implicit State Machines

6.9.2 Synthesis of Counters

6.9.3 Synthesis of Registers

6.10 Resets

6.11 Synthesis of Gated Clocks and Clock Enables

6.12 Anticipating the Results of Synthesis

6.12.1 Synthesis of Data Types

6.12.2 Operator Grouping

6.12.3 Expression Substitution

6.13 Synthesis of Loops

6.13.1 Static Loops without Embedded Timing Controls

6.13.2 Static Loops with Embedded Timing Controls

6.13.3 Nonstatic Loops without Embedded Timing Controls

6.13.4 Nonstatic Loops with Embedded Timing Controls

6.13.5 State-Machine Replacements for Unsynthesizable Loops

6.14 Design Traps to Avoid

6.15 Divide and Conquer: Partitioning a Design

References

Problems

**7 Design and Synthesis of Datapath Controllers 345**

7.1 Partitioned Sequential Machines

7.2 Design Example: Binary Counter

7.3 Design and Synthesis of a RISC Stored-Program Machine

7.3.1 RISC SPM: Processor

7.3.2 RISC SPM:ALU

7.3.3 RISC SPM: Controller

7.3.4 RISC SPM: Instruction Set

7.3.5 RISC SPM: Controller Design

7.3.6 RISC SPM: Program Execution

7.4 Design Example: UART

7.4.1 UART Operation

7.4.2 UART Transmitter

7.4.3 UART Receiver

References

Problems

**8 Programmable Logic and Storage Devices 415**

8.1 Programmable Logic Devices

8.2 Storage Devices

8.2.1 Read-Only Memory (ROM)

8.2.2 Programmable ROM (PROM)

8.2.3 Erasable ROMs

8.2.4 ROM-Based Implementation of Combinational Logic

8.2.5 Verilog System Tasks for ROMs

8.2.6 Comparison of ROMs

8.2.7 ROM-Based State Machines

8.2.8 Flash Memory

8.2.9 Static Random Access Memory (SRAM)

8.2.10 Ferroelectric Nonvolatile Memory

8.3 Programmable Logic Array (PLA)

8.3.1 PLA Minimization

8.3.2 PLA Modeling

8.4 Programmable Array Logic (PAL)

8.5 Programmability of PLDs

8.6 Complex PLDs (CPLDs)

8.7 Field-Programmable Gate Arrays

8.7.1 The Role of FPGAs in the ASIC Market

8.7.2 FPGA Technologies

8.7.3 XILINX Virtex FPGAs

8.8 Embeddable and Programmable IP Cores for a System-on-a-Chip (SoC)

8.9 Verilog-Based Design Flows for FPGAs

8.10 Synthesis with FPGAs

References

Related Web Sites

Problems and FPGA-Based Design Exercises

**9 Algorithms and Architectures for Digital Processors 515**

9.1 Algorithms, Nested-Loop Programs, and Data Flow Graphs

9.2 Design Example: Halftone Pixel Image Converter

9.2.1 Baseline Design for a Halftone Pixel Image Converter

9.2.2 NLP-Based Architectures for the Halftone Pixel Image Converter

9.2.3 Minimum Concurrent Processor Architecture for a Halftone Pixel Image Converter

9.2.4 Halftone Pixel Image Converter: Design Tradeoffs

9.2.5 Architectures for Dataflow Graphs with Feedback

9.3 Digital Filters and Signal Processors

9.3.1 Finite-Duration Impulse Response Filter

9.3.2 Digital Filter Design Process

9.3.3 Infinite-Duration Impulse Response Filter

9.4 Building Blocks for Signal Processors

9.4.1 Integrators (Accumulators)

9.4.2 Differentiators

9.4.3 Decimation and Interpolation Filters

9.5 Pipelined Architectures

9.5.1 Design Example: Pipelined Adder

9.5.2 Design Example: Pipelined FIR Filter

9.6 Circular Buffers

9.7 Asynchronous FIFOs–Synchronization across Clock Domains

9.7.1 Simplified Asynchronous FIFO

9.7.2 Clock Domain Synchronization for an Asynchronous FIFO

References

Problems

**10 Architectures for Arithmetic Processors 627**

10.1 Number Representation

10.1.1 Signed Magnitude Representation of Negative Integers

10.1.2 Ones Complement Representation of Negative Integers

10.1.3 Twos Complement Representation of Positive and Negative Integers

10.1.4 Representation of Fractions

10.2 Functional Units for Addition and Subtraction

10.2.1 Ripple-Carry Adder

10.2.2 Carry Look-Ahead Adder

10.2.3 Overflow and Underflow

10.3 Functional Units for Multiplication

10.3.1 Combinational (Parallel) Binary Multiplier

10.3.2 Sequential Binary Multiplier

10.3.3 Sequential Multiplier Design: Hierarchical Decomposition

10.3.4 STG-Based Controller Design

10.3.5 Efficient STG-Based Sequential Binary Multiplier

10.3.6 ASMD-Based Sequential Binary Multiplier

10.3.7 Efficient ASMD-Based Sequential Binary Multiplier

10.3.8 Summary of ASMD-Based Datapath and Controller Design

10.3.9 Reduced-Register Sequential Multiplier

10.3.10 Implicit-State-Machine Binary Multiplier

10.3.11 Booth’s Algorithm Sequential Multiplier

10.3.12 Bit-Pair Encoding

10.4 Multiplication of Signed Binary Numbers

10.4.1 Product of Signed Numbers: Negative Multiplicand,

Positive Multiplier

10.4.2 Product of Signed Numbers: Positive Multiplicand,

Negative Multiplier

10.4.3 Product of Signed Numbers: Negative Multiplicand,

Negative Multiplier

10.5 Multiplication of Fractions

10.5.1 Signed Fractions: Positive Multiplicand, Positive Multiplier

10.5.2 Signed Fractions: Negative Multiplicand, Positive Multiplier

10.5.3 Signed Fractions: Positive Multiplicand, Negative Multiplier

10.5.4 Signed Fractions: Negative Multiplicand, Negative Multiplier

10.6 Functional Units for Division

10.6.1 Division of Unsigned Binary Numbers

10.6.2 Efficient Division of Unsigned Binary Numbers

10.6.3 Reduced-Register Sequential Divider

10.6.4 Division of Signed (2s Complement) Binary Numbers

10.6.5 Signed Arithmetic

References

Problems

**11 Postsynthesis Design Tasks 749**

11.1 Postsynthesis Design Validation

11.2 Postsynthesis Timing Verification

11.2.1 Static Timing Analysis

11.2.2 Timing Specifications

11.2.3 Factors That Affect Timing

11.3 Elimination of ASIC Timing Violations

11.4 False Paths

11.5 System Tasks for Timing Verification

11.5.1 Timing Check: Setup Condition

11.5.2 Timing Check: Hold Condition

11.5.3 Timing Check: Setup and Hold Conditions

11.5.4 Timing Check: Pulsewidth Constraint

11.5.5 Timing Check: Signal Skew Constraint

11.5.6 Timing Check: Clock Period

11.5.7 Timing Check: Recovery Time

11.6 Fault Simulation and Manufacturing Tests

11.6.1 Circuit Defects and Faults

11.6.2 Fault Detection and Testing

11.6.3 *D*-Notation

11.6.4 Automatic Test Pattern Generation for Combinational Circuits

11.6.5 Fault Coverage and Defect Levels

11.6.6 Test Generation for Sequential Circuits

11.7 Fault Simulation

11.7.1 Fault Collapsing

11.7.2 Serial Fault Simulation

11.7.3 Parallel Fault Simulation

11.7.4 Concurrent Fault Simulation

11.7.5 Probabilistic Fault Simulation

11.8 JTAG Ports and Design for Testability

11.8.1 Boundary Scan and JTAG Ports

11.8.2 JTAG Modes of Operation

11.8.3 JTAG Registers

11.8.4 JTAG Instructions

11.8.5 TAP Architecture

11.8.6 TAP Controller State Machine

11.8.7 Design Example:Testing with JTAG

11.8.8 Design Example: Built-In Self-Test

References

Problems

**A Verilog Primitives 851**

A.1 Multiinput Combinational Logic Gates

A.2 Multioutput Combinational Gates

A.3 Three-State Logic Gates

A.4 MOS Transistor Switches

A.5 MOS Pull-Up/Pull-Down Gates

A.6 MOS Bidirectional Switches

**B Verilog Keywords 863**

**C Verilog Data Types 865**

C.1 Nets

C.2 Register Variables

C.3 Constants

C.4 Referencing Arrays of Nets or Regs

**D Verilog Operators 873**

D.1 Arithmetic Operators

D.2 Bitwise Operators

D.3 Reduction Operators

D.4 Logical Operators

D.5 Relational Operators

D.6 Shift Operators

D.7 Conditional Operator

D.8 Concatenation Operator

D.9 Expressions and Operands

D.10 Operator Precedence

D.11 Arithmetic with Signed Data Types

D.12 Signed Literal Integers

D.13 System Functions for Sign Conversion

2.1.1 Assignment Width Extension

**E Verilog Language Formal Syntax 885**

**F Verilog Language Formal Syntax 887**

F.1 Source text

F.2 Declarations

F.3 Primitive instances

F.4 Module and generated instantiation

F.5 UDP declaration and instantiation

F.6 Behavioral statements

F.7 Specify section

F.8 Expressions

F.9 General

**G Additional Features of Verilog 913**

G.1 Arrays of Primitives

G.2 Arrays of Modules

G.3 Hierarchical Dereferencing

G.4 Parameter Substitution

G.5 Procedural Continuous Assignment

G.6 Intra-Assignment Delay

G.7 Indeterminate Assignment and Race Conditions

G.8 wait STATEMENT

G.9 fork join Statement

G.10 Named (Abstract) Events

G.11 Constructs Supported by Synthesis Tools

**H Flip-Flop and Latch Types 925**

**I Verilog-2001, 2005 927**

I.1 ANSI C Style Changes

I.2 Code Management

I.3 Support for Logic Modeling

I.4 Support for Arithmetic

I.5 Sensitivity List for Event Control

I.6 Sensitivity List for Combinational Logic

I.7 Parameters

I.8 Instance Generation

**J Programming Language Interface 949**

**K Web sites 951**

**L Web-Based Resources 953**

**Index 965**

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