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Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing, The: MLA Update Edition, 5th Edition

By John D. Ramage, John C. Bean, June Johnson

Published by Pearson

Published Date: May 21, 2009


Solidly grounded in current theory and research, yet eminently practical and teachable, The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing has set the standard for first-year composition courses in writing, reading, critical thinking, and inquiry.

Table of Contents

Writing Projects

Thematic Contents





1.  Thinking Rhetorically About Good Writing    

Concept 1: Good Writing Can Vary from Closed to Open Forms

    David Rockwood, “A Letter to the Editor”

    Thomas Merton, “A Festival of Rain”

    Distinctions between Closed and Open Forms of Writing

    Where to Place Your Writing Along the Continuum

Concept 2: Good Writers Pose Questions about Their Subject Matter   

    Shared Problems Unite Writers and Readers

    Posing Your Own Subject-Matter Questions

    Brittany Tinker, “Can the World Sustain an American Standard of Living?”

Concept 3: Good Writers Write for a Purpose to an Audience within a Genre

    How Writers Think about Purpose

    How Writers Think about Audience

    How Writers Think about Genre

    Chapter Summary    

Brief Writing Project 1: Posing a Good Subject-Matter Problem

Brief Writing Project 2: Understanding Rhetorical Context * 


2.  Thinking Rhetorically about Your Subject Matter    

Concept 4: Professors Value “Wallowing in Complexity”    

    Learning to Wallow in Complexity

    Seeing Each Academic Discipline as a Field of Inquiry and Argument

Concept 5: Good Writers Use Exploratory Strategies to Think Critically about Subject Matter Problems


    Focused Freewriting

    Idea Mapping

    Dialectic Talk

    Playing the Believing and Doubting Game

    "Believing and Doubting Paul Theroux’s Negative View of Sports”

Concept 6: A Strong Thesis Surprises Readers with Something New or Challenging

    Trying to Change Your Reader’s View of Your Subject

    Giving Your Thesis Tension through “Surprising Reversal”

Concept 7: Thesis Statements in Closed-Form Prose Are Supported Hierarchically with Points and Particulars

    How Points Convert Information to Meaning

    How Removing Particulars Creates a Summary

    How to Use Points and Particulars When You Revise

    Chapter Summary    

Brief Writing Project: Playing the Believing and Doubting Game


3.  Thinking Rhetorically about How Messages Persuade    

Concept 8: Messages Persuade through Their Angle of Vision 

    Recognizing the Angle of Vision in a Text

    Analyzing Angle of Vision

Concept 9: Messages Persuade through Appeals to Logos, Ethos, and Pathos

Concept 10: Nonverbal Messages Persuade Through Visual Strategies That Can Be Analyzed Rhetorically

    Visual Rhetoric

    The Rhetoric of Clothing and Other Consumer Items

    Chapter Summary    

    Brief Writing Project: Analyzing Angle of Vision in Two Passages about Nuclear Energy


4.  Thinking Rhetorically about Style and Document Design    

Concept 11: Good Writers Make Purposeful Stylistic Choices

    Factors That Affect Style

    Abstract Versus Concrete Words: Moving Up or Down the Scale of Abstraction

    Wordy Versus Streamlined Sentences: Cutting Deadwood to Highlight Your Ideas

    Coordination Versus Subordination: Using Sentence Structure to Control Emphasis

    Inflated Voice Versus a Natural Speaking Voice: Creating a Persona

Concept 12: Good Writers Make Purposeful Document Design Choices

    Using Type

    Using Space and Laying Out Documents

    Using Color

    Using Graphics and Images

    Examples of Different Document Designs

    Chapter Summary    

Brief Writing Project: Converting a Passage from Scientific to Popular Style




Writing to Learn


5. Seeing Rhetorically: The Writer as Observer     

Exploring Rhetorical Observation     

Understanding Observational Writing     

    Why “Seeing” Isn’t a Simple Matter  

    How to Analyze a Text Rhetorically  

Writing Project: Descriptions of the Same Place and a Self-Reflection     

    Exploring Rationales and Details for Your Two Descriptions  

    Generating Details  

    Shaping and Drafting for Your Two Descriptions  

    Using Show Words Rather than Tell Words  

    Revising Your Two Descriptions  

    Generating and Exploring Ideas for Your Self-Reflection  

    Questions for Peer Review  


    Clash on the Congo: Two Eyewitness Accounts  

    Tamlyn Rogers (student), “Two Descriptions of the Same Classroom and a Self-Reflection” *   


6. Reading Rhetorically: The Writer as Strong Reader     

Exploring Rhetorical Reading     

    Andrés Martin, “On Teenagers and Tattoos”    

Understanding Rhetorical Reading    

    What Makes College-Level Reading Difficult?

    Using the Reading Strategies of Experts

    Reading with the Grain and Against the Grain

Understanding Summary Writing    

    Sean Barry (student), “Summary of Martin’s Article”    

Understanding Strong Response Writing   

    Strong Response as Rhetorical Critique*

    Strong Response as Ideas Critique*

    Strong Response as Reflection*

    Strong Response as a Blend*

    Sean Barry (student), “Why Do Teenagers Get Tattoos? A Response to Andrés Martin”    

    Writing a Summary/Strong Response of a Visual-Verbal Text

Writing Project: A Summary     

    Generating Ideas: Reading for Structure and Content

    Drafting and Revising

    Questions for Peer Review

Writing Project: A Summary/Strong Response Essay     

    Exploring Ideas for Your Strong Response

    Writing a Thesis for a Strong Response Essay

    Shaping and Drafting


    Questions for Peer Review 


    Thomas L. Friedman, “30 Little Turtles”  *  

    Stephanie Malinowski (student), “Questioning Thomas L. Friedman’s Optimism in ’30 Little Turtles’” *

    David Horsey, “Today’s Economic Indicator” (editorial cartoon)*

    Mike Lane, “Labor Day Blues” (editorial cartoon)*

    Froma Harrop, “New Threat to Skilled U.S. Workers” *


Writing to Explore

7. Writing an Autobiographical Narrative    

Exploring Autobiographical Narrative    

Understanding Autobiographical Writing    

    Autobiographical Tension: The Opposition of Contraries

    How Literary Elements Work in Autobiographical Narratives

Writing Project: Autobiographical Narrative    

    Generating and Exploring Ideas

    Shaping and Drafting Your Narrative


    Questions for Peer Review

Writing Project: Literacy Narrative*      

    What Is a Literacy Narrative?

    Typical Features of a Literacy Narrative

    Generating and Exploring Ideas

    Shaping and Drafting Your Literacy Narrative


    Questions for Peer Review


    Kris Saknussemm, “Phantom Limb Pain”

    Patrick Jose (student), “No Cats in America?”

    Anonymous (student), “Masks”

    Jennifer Ching (student), “Once Upon a Time” *


8. Writing an Exploratory Essay or Annotated Bibliography     

Exploring Exploratory Writing     

Understanding Exploratory Writing     

Writing Project: An Exploratory Essay     

    Generating and Exploring Ideas

    Taking “Double Entry” Research Notes

    Shaping and Drafting


    Questions for Peer Review

Writing Project: An Annotated Bibliography*       

    What Is an Annotated Bibliography?

    Features of Annotated Bibliography Entries

    Examples of Annotation Entries

    Writing a Critical Preface for Your Annotated Bibliography 

    Shaping, Drafting, and Revising

    Questions for Peer Review 


    James Gardiner (student), “How Do Online Social Networks Affect Communication?” * 

    James Gardiner (student), “The Effect of Online Social Networks on Communication Skills? An Annotated Bibliography” *

    Jane Tompkins, “’Indians’: Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History” *


Writing to Inform


9. Writing an Informative Essay or Report    

Exploring Informative (and Surprising) Writing, “Tarantulas”    

    Rod Crawford, “Myths about ‘Dangerous’ Spiders”    

Understanding Informative Writing    

    Need-to-Know Informative Prose*

    Informative Reports

    Informative Magazine Articles

Writing Project: A Set of Instructions*      

    Generating and Exploring Ideas

    Shaping and Drafting


    Questions for Peer Review

Writing Project: Informative Workplace Report*      

    Generating and Exploring Ideas

    Shaping and Drafting


    Questions for Peer Review

Writing Project: Informative Magazine Article    

    Generating and Exploring Ideas

    Shaping, Drafting, and Revising

    Questions for Peer Review


    Kerry Norton, “Winery Yeast Preparation Instructions” *

    Pew Research Center, “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream” *

    Kerri Ann Matsumoto (student), “How Much Does It Cost to Go Organic?”

    Cheryl Carp (student), “Behind Stone Walls”

    Shannon King (student), “How Clean and Green are Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Cars?”

    Eugene Robinson, “You Have the Right to Remain a Target of Racial Profiling” *


Writing to Analyze and Synthesize


10. Analyzing Field Research Data     

Exploring the Analysis of Field Research Data     

Understanding the Analysis of Field Research Data     

    The Structure of an Empirical Research Report

    How Readers Typically Read a Research Report

    Posing Your Research Question

    Collecting Data Through Observation, Interviews, or Questionnaires

    Reporting Your Results in Text, Tables, and Graphs

    Analyzing Your Results

    Following Ethical Standards

Writing Project: An Empirical Research Report     

    Generating Ideas for Your Empirical Research Report

    Designing Your Empirical Study and Drafting the Introduction and Method Sections

    Doing the Research and Writing the Rest of the Report

    Revising Your Report 

    Questions for Peer Review      

    Writing in Teams

Writing Project: A Scientific Poster*       

    What Is a Scientific Poster?

    Content of a Poster    

    Features of an Effective Poster

Designing, Creating, and Revising Your Poster

Questions for Peer Review 


    Gina Escamilla, Angie L. Cradock, and Ichiro Kawachi, “Women and Smoking in Hollywood Movies: A Content Analysis”

    Lauren Campbell, Charlie Bourain, and Tyler Nishida (students), “A Comparison of Gender Stereotypes in Spongebob Squarepants and a 1930’s Mickey Mouse

    Cartoon” (APA-Style Research Paper)*

    Lauren Campbell, Charlie Bourain, and Tyler Nishida (students), “Spongebob Squarepants Has Fewer Gender Stereotypes than Mickey Mouse” (scientific poster)*


11.  Analyzing Images     

Exploring Image Analysis*      

Understanding Image Analysis    

    How Images Create a Rhetorical Effect

    How to Analyze an Advertisement

    How Advertisers Target Specific Audiences

    Sample Analysis of an Advertisement

    Cultural Perspectives on Advertisements

Writing Project: Analysis of Two Visual Texts*       

    Exploring and Generating Ideas for Your Analysis

    Shaping and Drafting Your Analysis


    Questions for Peer Review 


    Paul Messaris, Excerpt from Visual Persuasion

    Stephen Bean (student), How Cigarette Advertisers Address the Stigma Against Smoking


12. Analyzing a Short Story    

Exploring Literary Analysis     

    Evelyn Dahl Reed, “The Medicine Man”     

Understanding Literary Analysis    

    The Truth of Literary Events

    Writing (About) Literature

Writing Project: An Analysis of a Short Story    

    Reading the Story and Using Reading Logs

    Generating and Exploring Ideas

    Shaping, Drafting, and Revising

    Questions for Peer Review


    Alice Walker, “Everyday Use (For Your Grandmama)”

    Sherman Alexie, “The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven” *

    Betsy Weiler (student), “Who Do You Want to Be? Finding Heritage in Walker’s 'Everyday Use'"


13. Analyzing and Synthesizing Ideas    

Exploring the Analysis and Synthesis of Ideas     

    Nikki Swartz, “Mobile Phone Tracking Scrutinized” *     

    Terry J. Allen, “Reach Out and Track Someone” *     

Understanding Analysis and Synthesis    

    Posing a Synthesis Question

    Synthesis Writing as an Extension of Summary/Strong Response*

    Student Example of a Synthesis Essay

    Kate MacAuley (student), “Technology’s Peril and Potential”    

Writing Project: A Synthesis Essay    

    Ideas for Synthesis Questions and Readings

    Using Learning Logs

    Exploring Your Texts Through Summary Writing

    Exploring Your Texts’ Rhetorical Strategies

    Exploring Main Themes and Similarities and Differences in Your Texts’ Ideas

    Generating Ideas of Your Own

    Taking Your Position in the Conversation: Your Synthesis

    Shaping and Drafting

    Writing a Thesis for a Synthesis Essay

    Organizing a Synthesis Essay


    Questions for Peer Review


    Dee, “Comprehensive Immigration Reform: PROs and ANTIs” *

    Shirah, “The Real–and Unspoken–Immigration Issue” *

    Byron Williams, “Immigration Frenzy Points Out Need for Policy Debate” *

    Victor Davis Hanson, “The Global Immigration Problem” *

    Mike Crapo, “Immigration Policy Must Help Economy While Preserving Ideals” *

    Trapper John, “The Progressive Case Against the Immigration Bill” *


Writing to Persuade


14. Writing a Classical Argument    

Exploring Classical Argument     

Understanding Classical Argument    

    Stages of Development: Your Growth as an Arguer

    Creating an Argument Frame: A Claim with Reasons

    Articulating Reasons

    Articulating Unstated Assumptions

    Using Evidence Effectively

    Evaluating Evidence: The STAR Criteria*

    Addressing Objections and Counterarguments

    Responding to Objections, Counterarguments, and Alternative Views

    Appealing to Ethos and Pathos    

    A Brief Primer on Informal Fallacies

Writing Project: A Classical Argument    

    Generating and Exploring Ideas

    Shaping and Drafting


    Questions for Peer Review


    Ross Taylor (student), “Paintball: Promoter of Violence or Healthy Fun?”

    William Sweet, “Why Uranium Is the New Green” *

    Stan Eales, “Welcome to Sellafield” (editorial cartoon)*

    Los Angeles Times, “No Nukes” *

    Leonard Pitts, Jr., “Spare the Rod, Spoil the Parenting”

    A. J. Chavez, “The Case for (Gay) Marriage”


15. Making an Evaluation    

Exploring Evaluative Writing*      

Understanding Evaluation Arguments    

    The Criteria-Match Process

    The Role of Purpose and Context in Determining Criteria

    Other Considerations in Establishing Criteria

    Using a Planning Schema to Develop Evaluation Arguments

    Conducting an Evaluation Argument: Evaluating a Museum

Writing Project: An Evaluation Argument    

    Generating and Exploring Ideas

    Shaping and Drafting


    Questions for Peer Review


    Jackie Wyngaard (student), “EMP: Music History or Music Trivia?”

    Diane Helman and Phyllis Bookspan, “Sesame Street: Brought to You by the Letters M-A-L-E”

    Teresa Filice (student), “Parents, The Anti-Drug: A Useful Site” *


16. Proposing a Solution    

Exploring Proposal Writing    

Understanding Proposal Writing    

    Special Demands of Proposal Arguments

    Developing an Effective Justification Section

    Proposals as Visual Arguments and PowerPoint Presentations*

Writing Project: A Proposal Argument    

    Generating and Exploring Ideas

    Shaping and Drafting


    Questions for Peer Review

Writing Project: Advocacy Ad or Poster

    Using Document Design Features

    Exploring and Generating Ideas

    Shaping and Drafting


    Questions for Peer Review

Writing Project: Proposal Speech with Visual Aids*      

    Developing, Shaping, and Outlining Your Proposal Speech

    Designing Your Visual Aids

    Delivering Your Speech


    Questions for Peer Review


    Jane Kester (student), “Visual Aids for a Proposal to Reduce High-Risk Drinking Through Student Awareness Workshops” *

    Rebekah Taylor (student), “A Proposal to Provide Cruelty-Free Products on Campus”

    Jennifer Allen, “The Athlete on the Sidelines” 

    Dylan Fujitani (student), "'The Hardest of the Hardcore': Let’s Outlaw Hired Guns”




17. Writing as a Problem-Solving Process    

Skill 1: Understand Why Expert Writers Use Multiple Drafts    

    Why Expert Writers Revise So Extensively

    An Expert’s Writing Processes Are Recursive

Skill 2: Revise Globally as Well as Locally    

Skill 3: Develop Ten Expert Habits to Improve Your Writing Processes    

Skill 4: Use Peer Reviews to Help You Think Like an Expert    

    Become a Helpful Reader of Classmates’ Drafts

    Use a Generic Peer Review Guide

    Participate in Peer Review Workshops

    Respond to Peer Reviews

    Chapter Summary 


18. Composing and Revising Closed-Form Prose    

Skill 5: Understand Reader Expectations   

    Unity and Coherence

    Old before New

    Forecasting and Fulfillment

Skill 6: Convert Loose Structures into Thesis/Support Structures    

    And Then Writing, or Chronological Structure

    All About Writing, or Encyclopedic Structure

    Engfish Writing, or Structure without Surprise

Skill 7: Plan and Visualize Your Structure    

    Use Scratch Outlines Early in the Writing Process

    Before Making a Detailed Outline, “Nutshell” Your Argument

    Articulate a Working Thesis and Main Points

    Sketch Your Structure Using an Outline, Tree Diagram, or Flowchart

    Let the Structure Evolve

Skill 8: Create Effective Titles   

Skill 9: Create Effective Introductions    

    What Not to Do: The “Funnel” Introduction

    From Old to New: The General Principle of Closed-Form Introductions

    Typical Elements of a Closed-Form Introduction

    Forecast the Whole with a Thesis Statement, Purpose Statement, or Blueprint Statement

Skill 10: Create Effective Topic Sentences for Paragraphs   

    Place Topic Sentences at the Beginning of Paragraphs

    Revise Paragraphs for Unity

    Add Particulars to Support Points

Skill 11: Guide Your Reader with Transitions and Other Signposts    

    Use Common Transition Words to Signal Relationships

    Write Major Transitions between Parts

    Signal Transitions with Headings and Subheadings

Skill 12: Bind Sentences Together by Placing Old Information Before New Information         

    The Old/New Contract in Sentences

    How to Make Links to the “Old”

    Avoid Ambiguous Use of “This” to Fulfill the Old/New Contract

    How the Old/New Contract Modifies the Rule “Avoid Weak Repetition”

    How the Old/New Contract Modifies the Rule “Prefer Active over Passive Voice”

Skill 13: Use Four Expert Moves for Organizing and Developing Ideas    

    The For Example Move

    The Summary/However Move

    The Division-into-Parallel Parts Move

    The Comparison/Contrast Move       

Skill 14: Write Effective Conclusions     


19. Composing and Revising Open-Form Prose    

Skill 15: Make Your Narrative a Story, not an And Then Chronology    

    Patrick Klein (student), “Berkeley Blues”

    Depiction of Events Through Time


    Tension or Conflict

    Resolution, Recognition, or Retrospective Interpretation

Skill 16: Write Low on the Ladder of Abstraction    

    Concrete Words Evoke Images and Sensations

    Use Revelatory Words and Memory-Soaked Words

Skill 17: Disrupt Your Reader’s Desire for Direction and Clarity    

    Disrupt Predictions and Make Odd Juxtapositions

    Leave Gaps

Skill 18: Tap the Power of Figurative Language    

Skill 19: Expand Your Repertoire of Styles    

Skill 20: Use Open-Form Elements to Create “Voice” in Closed-Form Prose

    Introduce Some Humor    

    Use Techniques from Popular Magazines


Annie Dillard, “Living Like Weasels”




20. Asking Questions, Finding Sources      

An Overview of Research Writing

Skill 21: Argue Your Own Thesis in Response to a Research Question    

    Formulating a Research Question

    Establishing Your Role as a Researcher

    A Case Study: James Gardiner’s Research on Online Social Networks*

Skill 22: Understand Differences Among Kinds of Sources    

    Looking at Sources Rhetorically

Skill 23: Use Purposeful Strategies for Searching Libraries, Databases, and Web Sites    

    Checking Your Library’s Homepage

    Finding Books: Searching Your Library’s Online Catalog

    Finding Print Articles: Searching a Licensed Database

    Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web


21. Evaluating Sources     

Skill 24: Read Sources Rhetorically and Take Purposeful Notes    

    Read with Your Own Goals in Mind

    Read Your Sources Rhetorically

    Take Purposeful Notes

Skill 25: Evaluate Sources for Reliability, Credibility, Angle of Vision, and Degree of Advocacy    



    Angle of Vision and Political Stance

    Degree of Advocacy

Skill 26: Use Your Rhetorical Knowledge to Evaluate Web Sources    

    The Web as a Unique Rhetorical Environment

    Criteria for Evaluating a Web Source

    Analyzing Your Own Purposes for Using a Web Source


22. Incorporating Sources Into Your Own Writing     

    Roger D. McGrath, “The Myth of Violence in the Old West”    

Skill 27: Keep Your Focus on Your Own Argument    

    Writer 1: An Analytical Paper on Causes of Violence in Contemporary Society

    Writer 2: A Persuasive Paper Supporting Gun Control

    Writer 3: An Informative Paper Showing Shifting Definitions of Crime

Skill 28: Know When and How to Use Summary, Paraphrase, Quotation, and Attributive Tags    

    Effective Use of Summary, Paraphrase, or Quotation

    Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags

Skill 29: Understand the Mechanics of Quoting     

    Quoting a Complete Sentence Introduced by an Attributive Tag

    Inserting Quoted Words and Phrases into Your Own Sentences

    Using Brackets to Modify a Quotation

    Using Ellipses to Indicate Omissions from a Quotation

    Using Single and Double Quotation Marks for a Quotation Within a Quotation

    Using Block Indentation for Quotations More Than Four Lines Long

Skill 30:  Understand and Avoid Plagiarism    


23. Citing and Documenting Sources     

Skill 31: Understand How Parenthetical Citations Work    

    Connect the Body of the Paper to the Bibliography with Citations 

    Citation Problems with Database and Web Sources 

Skill 32: Cite and Document Sources Using MLA Style    

    Cite from an Indirect Source 

    Cite Page Numbers for Downloaded Material 

    Document Sources in a “Works Cited” List  

    MLA Citation Models 

    James Gardiner (student), “Why Facebook Might Not Be Good For You” (MLA-Style Research Paper)

Skill 33: Cite and Document Sources Using APA Style    

    APA Formatting for In-Text Citations 

    Cite from an Indirect Source      

    Document Sources in a “References” List 

    APA Citation Models 

    Student Example of an APA-Style Paper 




24. Essay Examinations: Writing Well Under Pressure     

How Essay Exams Differ from Other Essays

Preparing for an Exam: Learning Subject Matter     

    Identifying and Learning Main Ideas

    Applying Your Knowledge

    Making a Study Plan

Analyzing Exam Questions    

    Understanding the Use of Outside Quotations

    Recognizing Organizational Cues

    Interpreting Key Terms

Dealing with the Limits of the Test Situation

Producing an “A” Response     

Chapter Summary 


25. Assembling a Portfolio and Writing a Reflective Essay     

Understanding Portfolios     

    Collecting Work for Paper and Electronic Portfolios

    Selecting Work for Your Portfolio

Understanding Reflective Writing    

    Why Is Reflective Writing Important?

Reflective Writing Assignments    

    Single Reflection Assignments

    Guidelines for Writing a Single Reflection

    Comprehensive Reflection Assignments

    Guidelines for Writing a Comprehensive Reflection

    Guidelines for Writing a Comprehensive Reflective Letter


    Jaime Finger (student), “A Single Reflection on an Exploratory Essay”

    Bruce Urbanik (student), “A Comprehensive Reflective Letter”




Handbook 1. Improving Your Editing Skills

Why Editing Is Important

Overview of This Guide to Editing

Improving Your Editing and Proofreading Processes

Microtheme Projects on Editing


Handbook 2. Understanding Sentence Structure

The Concept of the Sentence

Basic Sentence Patterns

Parts of Speech

Types of Phrases

Types of Clauses

Types of Sentences


Handbook 3. Punctuating Boundaries of Sentences, Clauses, and Phrases

Why Readers Need Punctuation

Rules for Punctuating Clauses and Phrases Within a Sentence

Identifying and Correcting Sentence Fragments

Identifying and Correcting Run-Ons and Comma Splices

Overview of Methods for Joining Clauses


Handbook 4. Editing for Standard English Usage

Fixing Grammatical Tangles

Maintaining Consistency

Maintaining Agreement

Maintaining Parallel Structure

Avoiding Dangling or Misplaced Modifiers

Choosing Correct Pronoun Cases

Choosing Correct Verb Forms

Choosing Correct Adjective and Adverb Forms


Handbook 5. Editing for Style

Pruning Your Prose

Enlivening Your Prose

Avoiding Broad or Unclear Pronoun Reference

Putting Old Information Before New Information

Deciding Between Active and Passive Voice

Using Inclusive Language


Handbook 6. Editing for Punctuation and Mechanics

Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points



Colons, Dashes, and Parentheses


Quotation Marks

Underlining (Italics)

Brackets, Ellipses, and Slashes

Capital Letters



Manuscript Form


A Guide to Avoiding Plagiarism





Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing, The: MLA Update Edition, 5th Edition

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