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American Destiny: Narrative of a Nation, Concise Edition, Volume 1 (to 1877) (Second printing), 3rd Edition

By Mark C. Carnes, John A. Garraty

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Apr 29, 2008


With the political history of the nation as its organizational framework, American Destiny: Narrative of a Nation describes the development and growth of the United States as the product of the myriad actions, ideas, and forces of the immense variety of individuals and groups who together comprise the American people.


In richly detailed prose, the book examines the political, social, economic, and cultural developments that have shaped this country. This elegantly written, concise text offers a lower-price alternative to traditional U.S. history survey textbooks, while maintaining the efficacy of a full four-color map and image program.

Table of Contents

Detailed Contents


Maps and Graphs

Feature Essays

Re-viewing the Past

Debating the Past



Prologue Beginnings

First Peoples

The Demise of the Big Mammals

The Archaic Period: A World Without Big Mammals The First Sedentary Communities The Maize Revolution The Diffusion of Corn Population Growth After 800

Cahokia: The Hub of Mississippian Culture The Collapse of Urban Centers Eurasia and Africa Europe in Ferment DEBATING THE PAST Who—or What—Killed the Big Mammals?


Chapter 1 Alien Encounters: Europe in the Americas

Sightings Columbus’s Great Triumph—and Error Spain’s American Empire

Extending Spain’s Empire to the North Disease and Population Losses Ecological Imperialism Spain’s European Rivals The Protestant Reformation English Beginnings in America The Settlement of Virginia "Purifying" the Church of England Bradford and Plymouth Colony Winthrop and Massachusetts Bay Colony

Troublemakers: Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson Other New England Colonies Pequot War and King Philip’s War Maryland and the Carolinas French and Dutch Settlements The Middle Colonies Cultural Collisions Cultural Fusions DEBATING THE PAST How Many Indians Perished with European Settlement?


Chapter 2 American Society in the Making

Settlement of New France Society in New Mexico, Texas, and California The English Prevail on the Atlantic Seaboard The Chesapeake Colonies The Lure of Land "Solving" the Labor Shortage: Slavery Prosperity in a Pipe: Tobacco Bacon’s Rebellion The Carolinas Home and Family in the South Georgia and the Back Country Puritan New England Puritan Women and Children Visible Puritan Saints and Others Democracies Without Democrats The Dominion of New England Salem Bewitched A Merchant’s World The Middle Colonies: Economic Basis The Middle Colonies: An Intermingling of Peoples "The Best Poor Man’s Country"

The Politics of Diversity

Becoming Americans

Re-Viewing the Past

The Crucible


Were Puritan Communities Peaceable?


Chapter 3 America in the British Empire

The British Colonial System


The Navigation Acts

The Effects of Mercantilism

The Great Awakening

The Rise and Fall of Jonathan Edwards

The Enlightenment in America

Colonial Scientific Achievements

Repercussions of Distant Wars

The Great War for the Empire

Britain Victorious: The Peace of Paris

Burdens of an Expanded Empire

Tightening Imperial Controls

The Sugar Act

American Colonists Demand Rights

The Stamp Act: The Pot Set to Boiling

Rioters or Rebels?

Taxation or Tyranny?

The Declaratory Act

The Townshend Duties

The Boston Massacre

The Pot Spills Over

The Tea Act Crisis

From Resistance to Revolution


Was Economic Gain the Colonists’ Main Motivation?


Chapter 4 The American Revolution

"The Shot Heard Round the World"

The Second Continental Congress

The Battle of Bunker Hill

The Great Declaration

1776: The Balance of Forces


Early British Victories

Saratoga and the French Alliance

The War Moves South

Victory at Yorktown

Negotiating a Favorable Peace

National Government Under the Articles of Confederation Financing the War State Republican Governments Social Reform Effects of the Revolution of Women Growth of a National Spirit The Great Land Ordinances National Heroes Re-Viewing the Past The Patriot DEBATING THE PAST Was the American Revolution Rooted in Class Struggle?


Chapter 5 The Federalist Era: Nationalism Triumphant

Inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation Daniel Shays’s "Little Rebellion"

To Philadelphia, and the Constitution

The Great Convention

The Compromises that Produced the Constitution Ratifying the Constitution Washington as President Congress Under Way Hamilton and Financial Reform The Ohio Country: A Dark and Bloody Ground Revolution in France Federalists and Republicans: The Rise of Political Parties

1794: Crisis and Resolution

Jay’s Treaty

1795: All’s Well That Ends Well

Washington’s Farewell

The Election of 1796

The XYZ Affair

The Alien and Sedition Acts

The Kentucky and Virginia Resolves


What Ideas Shaped the Constitution?


Chapter 6 Jeffersonian Democracy

Jefferson Elected President

The Federalist Contribution

Thomas Jefferson: Political Theorist

Jefferson as President

Jefferson’s Attack on the Judiciary

The Barbary Pirates

The Louisiana Purchase

The Federalists Discredited

Lewis and Clark

The Burr Conspiracy

Napoleon and the British

The Impressment Controversy

The Embargo Act

Jeffersonian Democracy


Did Thomas Jefferson Father a Child by His Slave?


Chapter 7 National Growing Pains

Madison in Power

Tecumseh and Indian Resistance

Depression and Land Hunger

Opponents of War

The War of 1812

Britain Assumes the Offensive

"The Star Spangled Banner"

The Treaty of Ghent

The Hartford Convention

The Battle of New Orleans

Victory Weakens the Federalists

Anglo-American Rapprochement

The Transcontinental Treaty

The Monroe Doctrine

The Era of Good Feelings

New Sectional Issues

The Missouri Compromise

The Election of 1824

John Quincy Adams as President

Calhoun’s Exposition and Protest

The Meaning of Sectionalism


How Did Indians and Settlers Interact?


Chapter 8 Toward a National Economy

Gentility and the Consumer Revolution

Birth of the Factory

An Industrial Proletariat?

Lowell’s Waltham System: Women as Factory Workers

Irish and German Immigrants

The Persistence of the Household System

Rise of Corporations

Cotton Revolutionizes the South

Revival of Slavery

Roads to Market

Transportation and Government

Development of Steamboats

The Canal Boom

New York City: Emporium of the Western World

The Marshall Court


Did a "Market Revolution" Transform Early Nineteenth-Century America?


Chapter 9 Jacksonian Democracy

"Democratizing" Politics

1828: The New Party System in Embryo

The Jacksonian Appeal

The Spoils System

President of All the People

Jackson: "The Bank . . . I Will Kill It!"

Jackson’s Bank Veto

Jackson Versus Calhoun

Indian Removals

The Nullification Crisis

Boom and Bust

The Jacksonians

Rise of the Whigs

Martin Van Buren: Jacksonianism Without Jackson

The Log Cabin Campaign


For Whom Did Jackson Fight?


Chapter 10 The Making of Middle-Class America

Tocqueville: Democracy in America

The Family Recast

The Second Great Awakening

Backwoods Utopias

The Age of Reform

"Demon Rum"

The Abolitionist Crusade

Women’s Rights

The Romantic View of Life

Emerson and Thoreau

Edgar Allan Poe

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Herman Melville

Walt Whitman

Education for Democracy

The State of the Colleges


Did the Antebellum Reform Movement Improve Society?


Chapter 11 Westward Expansion

Tyler’s Troubles

The Webster-Ashburton Treaty

The Texas Question

Manifest Destiny

Life on the Trail

California and Oregon

The Election of 1844

Polk as President

War with Mexico

To the Halls of Montezuma

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

The Fruits of Victory: Further Enlargement of the United States

Slavery: Storm Clouds Gather

The Election of 1848

The Gold Rush

The Compromise of 1850


Did the Frontier Change Women’s Roles?


Chapter 12 The Sections Go Their Ways

The Economics of Slavery

The Sociology of Slavery

Psychological Effects of Slavery

Manufacturing in the South

The Northern Industrial Juggernaut

A Nation of Immigrants

How Wage Earners Lived

Foreign Commerce

Steam Conquers the Atlantic

Canals and Railroads

Financing the Railroads

Railroads and the Economy

Railroads and the Sectional Conflict

The Economy on the Eve of Civil War


Did Slaves and Masters Form Emotional Bonds?


Chapter 13 The Coming of the Civil War

The Slave Power Comes North

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Diversions Abroad: The "Young America" Movement

Stephen Douglas: "The Little Giant"

The Kansas-Nebraska Act

Know-Nothings, Republicans, and the Demise of the Two-Party System

"Bleeding Kansas"

Senator Sumner Becomes a Martyr for Abolitionism

Buchanan Tries His Hand

The Dred Scott Decision

The Proslavery Lecompton Constitution

The Emergence of Lincoln

The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

John Brown’s Raid

The Election of 1860

The Secession Crisis


Was the Civil War Avoidable?


Chapter 14 The War to Save the Union

Lincoln’s Cabinet

Fort Sumter: The First Shot

The Blue and the Gray

The Test of Battle: Bull Run

Paying for the War

Politics as Usual

Behind Confederate Lines

War in the West: Shiloh

McClellan: The Reluctant Warrior

Lee Counterattacks: Antietam

The Emancipation Proclamation

The Draft Riots

The Emancipated People

African American Soldiers

Antietam to Gettysburg

Lincoln Finds His General: Grant at Vicksburg

Economic and Social Effects, North and South

Women in Wartime

Grant in the Wilderness

Sherman in Georgia

To Appomattox Court House

Winners, Losers, and the Future

Re-Viewing the Past



Why Did the South Lose the Civil War?


Chapter 15 Reconstruction and the South

The Assassination of Lincoln

Presidential Reconstruction

Republican Radicals

Congress Rejects Johnsonian Reconstruction

The Fourteenth Amendment

The Reconstruction Acts

Congress Supreme

The Fifteenth Amendment

"Black Republican" Reconstruction: Scalawags and Carpetbaggers

The Ravaged Land

Sharecropping and the Crop-Lien System

The White Backlash

Grant as President

The Disputed Election of 1876

The Compromise of 1877


Were Reconstruction Governments Corrupt?



The Declaration of Independence

The Constitution of the United States of America

Amendments to the Constitution

Supplementary Reading

Present-day United States

Present-day World



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