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Articulatory and Phonological Impairments: A Clinical Focus, CourseSmart eTextbook, 4th Edition

By Jacqueline Bauman-Waengler

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 18, 2011

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Description

This text offers comprehensive coverage of a wide range of concepts related to articulation and phonology. The text’s strong, clinical emphasis along with the variety of helpful learning aids makes this text ideal for understanding critical topics.

 

In this comprehensive fourth edition of Articulatory and Phonological Impairments: A Clinical Focus, a range of topics are covered including, an overview of phonetic transcription and diacritics used to document disordered speech, several theoretical models, including newer nonlinear frameworks, phonological development, and relevant diagnostic and therapeutic suggestions for special populations discussed in detail. Additionally, the application of theoretical principles to practical examples creates a bridge for students between conceptual learning and the understanding of principles based on their application. These topics, coupled with the learning aids throughout the text, strengthen the conceptual framework and through application, demonstrate that the student has understood specific principles.

 

A large portion of the text is devoted to specific assessment and treatment details of articulatory and phonological disorders including a section on childhood apraxia of speech, cerebral palsy, cleft lip and palate, mental disability, hearing impairments, acquired dysarthrias, and apraxia of speech.  These topics are encompassed in a clinical framework which continues to provide practical examples and the application of principles to real-life situations.

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface

Chapter 1             Clinical Framework: Basic Terms and Concepts  

Communication, Speech, and Language

Subdivisions of Language  

Articulation and Speech Sounds: Phonology and Phonemes

Articulation Disorders versus Phonological Disorders

Summary  

Case Study  

Think Critically  
Test Yourself

Websites  

Further Readings 


Chapter 2             Phonetics — Articulatory Phonetics  

Phonetics: Definitions and Classification

Vowels versus Consonants  

        American English Vowels  

        American English Consonants  

Sounds in Context: Coarticulation and Assimilation  

Syllable Structure  

Summary 

Case Study  

Think Critically  
Test Yourself 

Websites  

Further Readings 


Chapter 3             Phonetic Transcription and Diacritics  

Phonetic Transcription as a Notational System  

Why Use Phonetic Transcription?  

Diacritics  

        Diacritics Used with Consonants  

        Diacritics Used with Vowels  

        Diacritics for Stress, Duration, and Syllable Boundaries  

Clinical Implications  

Summary 

Case Study

Think Critically 
Test Yourself  

Websites 

Further Readings 


Chapter 4             Theoretical Considerations and Practical Applications  

Phonology  

        What Is Phonology?  

        How Does Phonology Work?  

        How Did the Concept of the Phoneme Develop?  

        Speech Sound versus Phoneme: Clinical Application  

Distinctive Feature Theories  

        What Are Distinctive Features?  

        How Do Distinctive Features Work?  

        How Did Distinctive Feature Theories Develop?  

        Distinctive Feature Theories: Clinical Application  

Generative Phonology  

        What Is Generative Phonology?  

        How Does Generative Phonology Work?  

        How Did Generative Phonology Develop?  

        Distinctive Features and Generative Phonology: Clinical Application  

Natural Phonology  

        What Is Natural Phonology?  

        How Does Natural Phonology Work?  

        Phonological Processes  

        How Did Natural Phonology Develop?  

        Natural Phonology: Clinical Application  

Linear versus Nonlinear Phonologies  

        What Are Linear and Nonlinear Phonologies?  

        How Do Nonlinear Phonologies Work?  

        How Did Nonlinear Phonology Develop?  

        Nonlinear Phonologies: Clinical Implications  

Summary  

Case Study 

Think Critically  

Test Yourself  

Websites 

Further Readings 

Appendix 4.1  


Chapter 5             Normal Phonological Development  

Aspects of Structural and Functional Development  

Aspects of Perceptual Development  

Prelinguistic Stages: Before the First Words  

         Vocoids  

        Contoids  

        Syllable Shapes  

        Babbling and Its Relationship to Later Language Development  

        Prosodic Feature Development  

Transition from Babbling to First Words  

The First Fifty Words  

        Segmental Form Development  

        Prosodic Feature Development  

The Preschool Child  

        Segmental Form Development: Vowels  

        Segmental Form Development: Consonants  

        Phonological Processes  

        Prosodic Feature Development

        English as a Second Language: Considerations for Phonological Development in Children                                                              

The School-Age Child  

                Segmental Form Development  

                Phonological Awareness, Emerging Literacy, and Phonological Disorders  

                Prosodic Feature Development  

Summary

Case Study 

Think Critically  

Test Yourself  

Websites 

Further Readings


Chapter 6             Appraisal: Collection of Data  

Evaluation by the Clinician  

Initial Impression  

Articulation Tests  

        Some Advantages and Disadvantages of Articulation Tests  

        Factors to Consider When Selecting a Measure of Articulation

        Assessment Procedures to Supplement Articulation Tests  

        Organizing Articulation Test Results: Describing the Error  

        Stimulability Testing  

Spontaneous Speech Sample  

        Organizing the Continuous Speech Sample  

Evaluation of the Speech Mechanism  

        What to Look for When Evaluating the Speech Mechanism  

Selection of Additional Assessment Measures  

        Hearing Screening  

        Language Testing  

        Specific Auditory Perceptual Testing  

    Cognitive Appraisal  

Special Considerations  

        The Child with Emerging Phonology  

        The Unintelligible Child  

Summary of the Data  

Summary 

Case Study  

Think Critically 

Test Yourself 

Websites 

Further Readings

Appendix 6.1: Speech-Motor Assessment Screening Form

  

Chapter 7             Dialects and English as a Second Language

Dialects

        Regional Dialects

        Ethnicity

        African American Vernacular English

The Speaker of English as a Second Language

        Spanish American English

        Vietnamese American English

        Cantonese American English

        Hmong American English

        Korean American English

        Arabic American English       

Implications for Appraisal

Summary 

Case Study  

Think Critically 

Test Yourself

Websites  

Further Readings

 

 

Chapter 8             Diagnosis: Articulation versus Phonological Emphasis  

Preliminary Analysis: Inventory and Distribution of Speech Sounds

        Using a Matrix to Examine the Inventory and Distribution of Speech Sounds  

        Phonemic Contrasts: Differentiating Articulation from Phonological Disorders  

Decision Making: Primarily Articulatory Difficulties  

        Guidelines for Beginning Therapy: Phonetic Disorder  

Decision Making: Primarily Phonological Difficulties  

        Inventory and Distribution of Speech Sounds  

        Syllable Shapes and Constraints  

        Phonological Contrasts  

        Phonological Error Patterns  

Measures of Intelligibility and Severity  

        Measures of Intelligibility  

        Measures of Severity  

Summary 

Case Study 

Think Critically  

Test Yourself 

Websites

Further Readings

Appendix 8.1: Single-Word Responses to Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation for Child H. H.

Appendix 8.2: Preliminary Matrix for Recording Utterances

Appendix 8.3:  Matrix for Recording Phones According to Pre-, Inter-, and Postvocalic Word Positions for Child H. H.

Appendix 8.4: Overall Inventory of Phones for Child H. H.

Appendix 8.5: Proportional Occurrence of Consonant Phonemes in First-Grade, Third-Grade, and Fifth-Grade Children’s Speech 


Chapter 9             Therapy for Articulation Errors  

Decision Making: When to Use a Phonetic Approach  

        Articulation Errors  

        Decision Making: A Phonetic Approach with Phonological Disorders ?        

Therapy Sequence  

        General Overview of Therapy Progression  

Individual Sound Errors  

Misarticulations of [s] and [z]  

        Phonetic Description  

        Linguistic Function  

        Initial Remarks  

        Types of Misarticulation  

        Therapeutic Suggestions  

        Coarticulatory Conditions  

Misarticulations of [ʃ] and [ʒ]  

Phonetic Description  

        Linguistic Function  

        Initial Remarks  

        Types of Misarticulation  

        Therapeutic Suggestions  

        Coarticulatory Conditions  

Misarticulations of [k] and [g]  

        Phonetic Description  

        Linguistic Function  

        Initial Remarks  

        Types of Misarticulation  

        Therapeutic Suggestions  

        Coarticulatory Conditions  

Misarticulations of [l]  

        Phonetic Description  

        Linguistic Function  

        Initial Remarks  

        Types of Misarticulation  

        Therapeutic Suggestions  

            Coarticulatory Conditions  

Misarticulations of [r] and the Central Vowels  with R-Coloring  

        Phonetic Description  

        Linguistic Function  

        Initial Remarks  

        Types of Misarticulation  

        Therapeutic Suggestions  

        Coarticulatory Conditions  

Misarticulations of [θ] and [ð]  

        Phonetic Description  

        Linguistic Function  

        Types of Misarticulation  

        Therapeutic Suggestions  

        Coarticulatory Conditions  

Misarticulations of [f] and [v]  

        Phonetic Description  

        Types of Misarticulation  

        Therapeutic Suggestions  

        Coarticulatory Conditions  

Affricate Problems  

        Phonetic Description  

        Types of Misarticulation  

        Therapeutic Suggestions  

        Coarticulatory Conditions  

Voicing Problems  

        Therapeutic Suggestions  

Consonant Cluster Problems  

        Therapeutic Suggestions  

        Coarticulatory Conditions  

Summary  

Case Study  

Think Critically 

Test Yourself  

Websites 

Further Readings


Chapter 10 Treatment of Phonemic Errors  


Treatment Principles  

Minimal Pair Contrast Therapy  

        Minimal Opposition Contrast Therapy  

        Maximal Oppositions Approach

        Evolution of Maximal Oppositions: The Complexity Approach  

           Multiple Oppositions Approach  

        Phonological Process Therapy  

Cycles Training  

Metaphon Therapy: A Phonological Awareness Approach  

Phonological Disorders with Concurrent Language Problems: Therapeutic Suggestions  

        Connecting Phonology to Morphosyntax: Morphosyntax Intervention  

        Connecting Phonology to Semantics: Vocabulary Intervention  

The Child with an Emerging Phonological System: Therapeutic Suggestions  

        Combining Phonology with Semantics: Developing a Lexicon 

Treatment of Multiple Vowel Errors  

        The Child with a Very Limited Vowel Inventory: Therapeutic Suggestions  

        The Child with a High Proportion of Vowel Substitutions: Therapeutic Suggestions  

Summary  

Case Study  

Think Critically  

Test Yourself 

Websites  

Further Readings


Chapter 11           Articulatory/Phonological Disorders in Selected Populations  

Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Disorder of Speech  Motor Control  

        Definition and General Features  

        Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics  

        Clinical Implications: Diagnostics  

        Clinical Implications: Therapeutics  

Motor Speech Disorders: Cerebral Palsy  

        Definition and General Features  

        Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics  

        Clinical Implications: Diagnostics  

            Clinical Implications: Therapeutics  

Clefting: Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip  

        Definition and General Features  

        Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics  

        Clinical Implications: Diagnostics  

        Clinical Implications: Therapeutics  

Mental Disability  

        Definition and General Features  

        Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics  

        Clinical Implications: Diagnostics  

        Clinical Implications: Therapeutics  

Hearing Impairment  

        Definition and General Features  

        Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics  

        Clinical Implications: Diagnostics  

        Clinical Implications: Therapeutics  

Motor Speech Disorders: Acquired Apraxia of Speech  

        Definition and General Features  

        Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics  

        Clinical Implications: Diagnostics  

        Clinical Implications: Therapeutics  

Motor Speech Disorders: The Dysarthrias  

        Definition and General Features  

        Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics  

        Clinical Implications: Diagnostics  

        Clinical Implications: Therapeutics  

Summary  

Case Study  

Think Critically  

Test Yourself  

Websites  

Further Readings

Glossary  

References  

Author Index  

Subject Index

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Articulatory and Phonological Impairments: A Clinical Focus, CourseSmart eTextbook, 4th Edition
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$71.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-256400-7