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Backpack Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing [RENTAL EDITION], 6th Edition

By Dana Gioia, Joe (X. J.) Kennedy, X. J. Kennedy, Dan Stone

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 1, 2019

Description

This print textbook is available for students to rent for their classes. The Pearson print rental program provides students with affordable access to learning materials, so they come to class ready to succeed.


For introductory courses in Literature.


Cultivates a love of literature and an understanding of effective writing 

Kennedy/Gioia’s Backpack Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, 6th Edition is a brief version of the discipline's most popular literature anthology.  

 

Backpack Literature introduces students to the appreciation and experience of literature in its major forms – and develops their abilities to think critically and communicate effectively through, and about, writing. Authors X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia aim to help readers develop sensitivity to language, culture, and identity, see beyond the boundaries of their own selves, and view the world through the eyes of others. 

 

Each of the first three sections is devoted to one of the major literary forms of fiction, poetry, and drama; the fourth is a comprehensive introduction to critical writing. The 6th Edition of this trusted resource has been revised throughout for clarity and accessibility, and all chapters have been updated with a more visual appeal for current students. Packed with a variety of popular and provocative stories, poems, plays, and critical prose, it includes exciting and often-surprising contemporary selections. Every chapter has been reviewed and updated with relevant cultural references.    


0134756797 /  9780134756790  BACKPACK LITERATURE: AN INTRODUCTION TO FICTION, POETRY, DRAMA, AND WRITING [RENTAL EDITION], 6/e 

Table of Contents

FICTION

Talking with Amy Tan 


1. READING A STORY 

THE ART OF FICTION 

TYPES OF SHORT FICTION 

Sufi Legend, Death Has an Appointment in Samarra    A student tries to flee from Death in this brief, sardonic fable.

Aesop, The Fox and the Grapes    Ever wonder where the phrase “sour grapes” comes from? Find out in this classic fable.

Bidpai, The Camel and His Friends    With friends like these, you can guess what the camel doesn’t need.

Chuang Tzu, Independence    The Prince of Ch’u asks the philosopher Chuang Tzu to become his advisor and gets a surprising reply in this classic Chinese fable.

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death    Neither God nor the Devil came to the christening. In this stark folktale, a young man receives magical powers with a string attached.

PLOT

THE SHORT STORY

John Updike, A & P    In walk three girls in nothing but bathing suits, and Sammy finds himself no longer an aproned checkout clerk but an armored knight.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT PLOT

CHECKLIST: Writing about Plot

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PLOT

TERMS FOR REVIEW


2. POINT OF VIEW

IDENTIFYING POINT OF VIEW

TYPES OF NARRATORS

HOW MUCH DOES A NARRATOR KNOW?

STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily    Proud, imperious Emily Grierson defies the town from the fortress of her mansion. Who could have guessed the secret that lay within?

Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart    An omniscient infant narrator, able to access any conversation or scene on the planet, is born into a time of war.

Eudora Welty, A Worn Path    The smoldering eye at last extinguished, a murderer finds that, despite all his

attempts at a cover-up, his victim will be heard.

Flannery O’Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find   Wanted: The Misfit, a cold-blooded killer. An ordinary family vacation leads to horror—and one moment of redeeming grace.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT POINT OF VIEW

CHECKLIST: Writing About Point of View

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON POINT OF VIEW

TERMS FOR REVIEW


3. CHARACTER

CHARACTERIZATION

MOTIVATION 

Tobias Wolff, Bullet in the Brain    Anders is in line when armed robbers enter the bank, and he can’t help but get involved.

Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?    Alone in the house, Connie finds herself helpless before the advances of Arnold Friend, a spellbinding imitation teenager.

Toni Morrison, Recitatif    Over many decades, two women’s lives continue to collide, as they find that their relationship is complicated by the challenges of race, class, and circumstance.

Raymond Carver, Cathedral    He never expected to find himself trying to describe a cathedral to a blind man. He hadn’t even wanted to meet this odd, old friend of his wife.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT CHARACTER

CHECKLIST: Writing about Character

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON CHARACTER

TERMS FOR REVIEW


4. SETTING

ELEMENTS OF SETTING

HISTORICAL FICTION

REGIONALISM

NATURALISM

HOW SETTING CAN HARMONIZE WITH OTHER ELEMENTS OF A STORY

Kate Chopin, The Storm    Even with her husband away, Calixta feels happily, securely married. Why then should she not shelter an old admirer from the rain?

Jack London, To Build a Fire    Seventy-five degrees below zero. Alone except for one mistrustful wolf dog, a man finds himself battling a relentless force.

Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark   A young man from Buenos Aires is trapped by a flood on an isolated ranch. To pass the time, he reads the Gospel to a family with unforeseen results.

Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets    A young woman flies with her father to China to meet two half-sisters she never knew existed.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT SETTING

CHECKLIST: Writing About Setting

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SETTING

TERMS FOR REVIEW


5. TONE AND STYLE

TONE

STYLE

DICTION

Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place    All by himself each night, the old man lingers in the bright café. What does he need more than brandy?

William Faulkner, Barn Burning    This time when Ab Snopes wields his blazing torch, his son Sarty faces a dilemma: whether to obey or defy the vengeful old man.

IRONY

O. Henry, The Gift of the Magi    A young husband and wife find ingenious ways to buy each other Christmas presents, in the classic story that defines the word “irony.”

Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings    John and Mary meet. What happens next? This witty experimental story offers several different outcomes.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT TONE AND STYLE

CHECKLIST: Writing about Tone and Style

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE AND STYLE

TERMS FOR REVIEW


6. THEME

PLOT VERSUS THEME

SUMMARIZING THE THEME

FINDING THE THEME

Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried    What each soldier carries into the combat zone is largely determined by

necessity, but each man’s necessities differ.

Sandra Cisneros, Barbie-Q    The trouble with buying Barbie dolls is that you want all the clothes, companions, and accessories. But in this neighborhood, things suddenly change.

Luke, The Parable of the Prodigal Son    A father has two sons. One demands his inheritance now and leaves to spend it with ruinous results.

Kurt Vonnegut Jr., Harrison Bergeron    Are you handsome? Then off with your eyebrows! Are you brainy? Then a transmitter will sound thought-shattering beeps inside your ear.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT THEME

CHECKLIST: Writing About Theme

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON THEME

TERMS FOR REVIEW


7. SYMBOL

ALLEGORY

SYMBOLS

RECOGNIZING SYMBOLS

John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums    Fenced-in Elisa feels emotionally starved—then her life promises to blossom with the arrival of the scissors-grinding man.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper    A doctor prescribes a “rest cure” for his wife after the birth of their child. The new mother tries to settle in to life in the isolated and mysterious country house they have rented for the summer. The cure proves worse than the disease in this Gothic classic.

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas    Omelas is the perfect city. All of its inhabitants are happy. But everyone’s prosperity depends on a hidden evil.

Shirley Jackson, The Lottery    Splintered and faded, the sinister black box has worked its annual terror for longer than anyone in town can remember.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS

CHECKLIST: Writing About Symbols

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLS

TERMS FOR REVIEW


8. GALLERY OF INTERNATIONAL VOICES

NIGERIA: Chinua Achebe, Dead Men’s Path    The new headmaster of the village school is determined to fight superstition, but the villagers do not agree.

MEXICO: Inés Arredondo, The Shunammite    When Luisa visits her dying uncle, she has no idea that her life is about to change forever.

COLUMBIA: Gabriel García Marquez, The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World   Even in death, a mysterious stranger has a profound effect on all of the people in the village.

CHINA: Ha Jin, Saboteur    When the police unfairly arrest Mr. Chiu, he hopes for justice. After witnessing their brutality, he quietly plans revenge.

ANTIGUA: Jamaica Kincaid, Girl    “Try to walk like a lady, and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming.” An old-fashioned mother tells her daughter how to live.

EGYPT: Naguib Mahfouz, The Lawsuit    He thought he’d seen the last of his late father’s second wife, but now she’s back to trouble his peaceful existence.

INDIA: Bharati Mukherjee, Saints    Shawn wanders around his neighborhood at night, imagining an existence other than the sad, confusing, and often frightening home life dominated by the unwelcome presence of his mom’s boyfriend, Wayne.



9. STORIES FOR FURTHER READING

Sherman Alexie, This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona    The only one who can help Victor when his father dies is a childhood friend he’s been avoiding for years.

T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake    Murky and strewn with beer cans, the lake appears to be a wasteland. One grim night on its shore, three “dangerous characters” learn a lesson.

Ray Bradbury, A Sound of Thunder    In 2055, you can go on a Time Safari to hunt dinosaurs 60 million years

ago. But put one foot wrong, and suddenly the future’s not what it used to be.

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour    “There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name.”

Neil Gaiman, How to Talk to Girls at Parties    Two teenage boys try to navigate their way through a party filled with exotic, mysterious girls.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown    Urged on through deepening woods, a young Puritan sees—or dreams he sees—good villagers hasten toward a diabolic rite.

Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat    Delia’s hard work paid for her small house. Now her drunken husband Sykes has promised it to another woman.

James Joyce, Araby    If only he can find her a token, she might love him in return. As night falls, a Dublin boy hurries to make his dream come true.

Franz Kafka, Before the Law   A man from the country comes in search of the Law. He never guesses what

will prevent him from finding it, in this modern parable.

Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill    Sundays had long brought joy to solitary Miss Brill, until one fateful day when she happens to share a bench with two lovers in the park.

Alice Walker, Everyday Use    When successful Dee visits from the city, she has changed her name to reflect her African roots. Her mother and sister notice other things have changed, too.

Virginia Woolf, A Haunted House    Whatever hour you wake, a door is shutting. From room to room the ghostly couple walks, hand in hand.


POETRY

Talking with Kay Ryan



10. READING A POEM

POETRY OR VERSE

HOW TO READ A POEM

PARAPHRASE

William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree

LYRIC POETRY

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

NARRATIVE POETRY

Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence

Robert Frost, “Out, Out—”

DRAMATIC POETRY

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess

DIDACTIC POETRY

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT PARAPHRASING

William Stafford, Ask Me

William Stafford, A Paraphrase of “Ask Me”

CHECKLIST: Writing a Paraphrase

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PARAPHRASING

TERMS FOR REVIEW


11. LISTENING TO A VOICE

TONE

Theodore Roethke, My Papa’s Waltz

Stephen Crane, The Wayfarer

Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual / Bilingüe

Franz Wright, Alcohol

Weldon Kees, For My Daughter

THE SPEAKER IN THE POEM

Natasha Trethewey, White Lies

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal

Anonymous, Dog Haiku

Langston Hughes, Theme for English B

Karen An-hwei Lee, Rainfall

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow

IRONY

Robert Creeley, Oh No

W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen

Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Second Fig

Thomas Hardy, The Workbox

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper

Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT TONE

CHECKLIST: Writing About Tone

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE

TERMS FOR REVIEW


12. WORDS

LITERAL MEANING: WHAT A POEM SAYS FIRST

William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say


DICTION

John Masefield, Cargoes

John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You


THE VALUE OF A DICTIONARY

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath

J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead

Samuel Menashe, Bread

Carl Sandburg, Grass


WORD CHOICE AND WORD ORDER

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia’s Clothes

Kay Ryan, Blandeur

Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid

Julie Larios, What Bee Did


FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town

Sarah Cortez, Adam

Anonymous, Carnation Milk

Gina Valdés, English con Salsa

William Wordsworth, My heart leaps up when I behold

William Wordsworth, Mutability

Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky


WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT DICTION

CHECKLIST: Writing About Diction

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON WORD CHOICE

TERMS FOR REVIEW


13. SAYING AND SUGGESTING

DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION

William Blake, London

Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O’Clock

Robert Frost, Fire and Ice

Timothy Steele, Epitaph

Hieu Minh Nguyen, Arranged

H.D., Sea Rose

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears

Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION

CHECKLIST: Writing About What A Poem Says And Suggests

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION

TERMS FOR REVIEW


14. IMAGERY

Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro

Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel

IMAGERY

T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down

Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar

Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish

Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence

Jean Toomer, Reapers

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty

ABOUT HAIKU

Arakida Moritake, The falling flower

Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak

Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool

Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell

Taniguchi Buson, Moonrise on mudflats

Kobayashi Issa, only one guy

Kobayashi Issa, Cricket

HAIKU FROM JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS

Suiko Matsushita, Cosmos in bloom

Hakuro Wada, Even the croaking of frogs

CONTEMPORARY HAIKU

Nick Virgilio, The Old Neighborhood

Adelle Foley, Learning to Shave 

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY 

John Keats, Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art 

William Carlos Williams, El Hombre 

Gary Snyder, Mid-August at Sourdough Mountain Lookout 

Angela Alaimo O’Donnell, Tattoo 

Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning 

Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter 

WRITING EFFECTIVELY 

THINKING ABOUT IMAGERY 

CHECKLIST: Writing About Imagery 

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON IMAGERY 

TERMS FOR REVIEW 


15. FIGURES OF SPEECH

WHY SPEAK FIGURATIVELY?

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle

William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?

METAPHOR AND SIMILE

Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood – a Loaded Gun

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall

William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors

N. Scott Momaday, Simile

Jill Alexander Essbaum, The Heart

Cody Walker, I’m Like

OTHER FIGURES OF SPEECH

James Stephens, The Wind

Robinson Jeffers, Hands

Dana Gioia, Money

Carl Sandburg, Fog

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT METAPHORS

CHECKLIST: Writing About Metaphors

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON FIGURES OF SPEECH

TERMS FOR REVIEW


16. SOUND

SOUND AS MEANING

William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus?

Edgar Allan Poe, from Ulalume

William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal

ALLITERATION AND ASSONANCE

Frances Cornford, The Watch

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls

RIME

Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus

Bob Kaufman, No More Jazz at Alcatraz

David Barber, Aria

Gerard Manley Hopkins, God’s Grandeur

HOW TO READ A POEM ALOUD

Gerald Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall

Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT A POEM’S SOUND

CHECKLIST: Writing About a Poem’s Sound

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SOUND

TERMS FOR REVIEW


17. RHYTHM

STRESSES AND PAUSES

STRESS AND MEANING

LINE ENDINGS

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break

Dorothy Parker, Résumé

METER

Edith Sitwell, Mariner Man

A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty

Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee

Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums!

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT RHYTHM

CHECKLIST: Scanning a Poem

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON RHYTHM

TERMS FOR REVIEW


18. CLOSED FORM

THE VALUE OF FORM

FORMAL PATTERNS

Ernest Dowson, Days of wine and roses

John Donne, Song (“Go and catch a falling star”)

BALLADS

Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan

Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham

THE SONNET

William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds

Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why

Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night

Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You

R.S. Gwynn, Shakespearean Sonnet

Sherman Alexie, The Facebook Sonnet

THE EPIGRAM

Sir John Harrington, Of Treason

Anonymous, Epitaph on a dentist

Wendy Videlock, If Not for the Dark

OTHER FORMS

Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night

Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask

Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT A SONNET

CHECKLIST: Writing About A Sonnet

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON CLOSED FORM

TERMS FOR REVIEW


19. OPEN FORM

Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway

FREE VERSE

E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill ’s

William Carlos Williams, The Dance

Stephen Crane, The Heart

Walt Whitman, I Hear America Singing

Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

E. E. Cummings, in Just-

Langston Hughes, I, Too

Francisco X. Alarcón, Frontera/Border

Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT FREE VERSE

CHECKLIST: Writing About Line Breaks

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON OPEN FORM

TERMS FOR REVIEW


20. SYMBOL

THE MEANINGS OF A SYMBOL

T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript

Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork

IDENTIFYING SYMBOLS

Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It

William Butler Yeats, He wishes for the Cloths of Heaven

ALLEGORY

Matthew, The Parable of the Good Seed

George Herbert, Redemption

Edwin Markham, Outwitted

Suji Kwock Kim, Occupation

Antonio Machado, Proverbios y Cantares (XXIX) 

Translated by Michael Ortiz, Traveler

Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken

Christina Rossetti, Up-Hill

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

Mary Oliver, Wild Geese

Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus

Karen Holden, Bats in a Box

Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover

Tami Haaland, Lipstick

Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS

CHECKLIST: Writing about Symbols

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLISM

TERMS FOR REVIEW


21. MYTH

THE SUBJECTS AND USES OF MYTH

Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay

William Wordsworth,The world is too much with us

H.D., Helen

ARCHETYPE

Louise Bogan, Medusa

John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci

A.E. Stallings, First Love: A Quiz

PERSONAL MYTH

William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming

Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle School

Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus

MYTH AND POPULAR CULTURE

Aimee Nezhukumatathil, What I Learned from the Incredible Hulk

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT MYTH

CHECKLIST: Writing About Myth

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON MYTH

TERMS FOR REVIEW


22. WHAT IS POETRY? 

Dante, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Thomas Hardy, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Mina Loy, W. H. Auden, José Garcia Villa, Christopher Fry, Elizabeth Bishop, Joy Harjo, Octavio Paz, Lucille Clifton, Charles Simic


Some Definitions of Poetry



23. POEMS FOR FURTHER READING

Aaron Abeyta, thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla

Francisco X. Alarcón, The X in My Name

Anonymous (Navajo chant), Last Words of the Prophet

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach

W. H. Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts

Elizabeth Bishop, One Art

William Blake, The Tyger

Gwendolyn Brooks, the mother

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways

Charles Bukowski, Dostoevsky

Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceañera

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan

Billy Collins, Introduction to Poetry

E. E. Cummings, somewhere i have never travelled, gladly beyond

Emily Dickinson, Wild Nights—Wild Nights!

Emily Dickinson, I felt a Funeral, in my Brain

Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death

John Donne, Death be not proud

John Donne, The Flea

T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

Robert Frost, Mending Wall

Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California

Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain

Seamus Heaney, Digging

William Ernest Henley, Invictus

George Herbert, Easter Wings

Juan Felipe Herrera, El Ángel de la Guarda 

Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time

Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover 

A. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now 

Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers 

Langston Hughes, Harlem [Dream Deferred] 

Robinson Jeffers, Fire on the Hills 

Ben Jonson, On My First Son 

Donald Justice, On the Death of Friends in Childhood 

John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to be 

Philip Larkin, Poetry of Departures 

D. H. Lawrence, Piano 

Li-Young Lee, Night Mirror 

Denise Levertov, O Taste and See 

Li Po, Translated by Arthur Waley, Drinking Alone by Moonlight 

Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Learning to love America 

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress 

Claude McKay, If We Must Die 

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo 

John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent 

Marilyn Nelson, A Strange Beautiful Woman 

Pablo Neruda, Translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many 

Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter 

Henry Reed, Naming of Parts 

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy

Christina Rossetti, Song (“When I am dead, my dearest”) 

William Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes (Sonnet 29) 

William Shakespeare, My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun (Sonnet 30) 

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias 

Wallace Stevens, The Snow Man 

Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill 

Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer 

Walt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain! 

William Carlos Williams, The Widow’s Lament in Springtime 

William Carlos Williams, Queen-Anne’s-Lace 

William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge 

William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium 

William Butler Yeats, When You Are Old


DRAMA

Talking with David Ives


24. READING A PLAY

INTERPRETING PLAYS

THEATRICAL CONVENTIONS

ELEMENTS OF A PLAY

Susan Glaspell, Trifles    Was Minnie Wright to blame for the death of her husband? While the menfolk try to unravel a mystery, two women in the kitchen turn up revealing clues.

ANALYZING Trifles 

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT A PLAY

CHECKLIST: Writing About a Play

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON Trifles

TERMS FOR REVIEW


25. TRAGEDY AND COMEDY

TRAGEDY

Christopher Marlowe, Scene from Doctor Faustus    In this scene from the classic drama, a brilliant scholar sells his soul to the devil. How smart is that?

COMEDY

Oscar Wilde, Scene from The Importance of Being Earnest (Act 1, Scene 1—Lady Bracknell Interviews Her Daughter’s Suitor)    Lady Bracknell is no softie when interviewing a potential future son-in-law.

David Ives, Sure Thing    Bill wants to pick up Betty in a cafe, but he makes every mistake in the book. Luckily, he not only gets a second chance, but a third and a fourth as well.


WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT COMEDY

CHECKLIST: Writing About Comedy

TOPICS FOR WRITING ABOUT TRAGEDY

TOPICS FOR WRITING ABOUT COMEDY

TERMS FOR REVIEW


26. THE THEATER OF SOPHOCLES

THEATER IN ANCIENT GREECE

THE CIVIC ROLE OF GREEK DRAMA

ARISTOTLE’S CONCEPT OF TRAGEDY

SOPHOCLES

THE ORIGINS OF Oedipus The King

Sophocles, Oedipus the King (Translated by David Grene)    The dark story of Oedipus is considered by many to be the greatest example of classical Greek tragedy.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT GREEK TRAGEDY

CHECKLIST: Writing About Greek Drama

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SOPHOCLES

TERMS FOR REVIEW


27. THE THEATER OF SHAKESPEARE

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

A NOTE ON OTHELLO

PICTURING OTHELLO

William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice   Here is a story of jealousy, that “green-eyed monster which doth mock/The meat it feeds on”—of a passionate, suspicious man and his blameless wife, of a serpent masked as a friend.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

UNDERSTANDING SHAKESPEARE

CHECKLIST: Writing About Shakespeare

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SHAKESPEARE


28. THE MODERN THEATER

REALISM

Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun    In this Civil Rights-era classic, a poor family from Chicago’s South Side tries to cope with the forces of poverty, external challenges, and internal conflict.

Henrik Ibsen, A Doll’s House (Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp, revised by Viktoria Michelsen)  The founder of modern drama portrays a troubled marriage. Helmer, the bank manager, regards his wife, Nora, as a “little featherbrain”—not knowing that the truth may shatter his smug world.

EXPERIMENTAL DRAMA

Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer    Nineteen-year-old Margarita Suarez wants to win a Southern California distance swimming race. Is her family behind her? Quite literally!

DOCUMENTARY DRAMA

Anna Deavere Smith, Scenes from Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992    The violence that tore apart a city, in the words of those who were there. 

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

THINKING ABOUT DRAMATIC REALISM

CHECKLIST: Writing About a Realist Play

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON REALISM

TERMS FOR REVIEW


29. PLAYS FOR FURTHER READING

Sharon E. Cooper, Mistaken Identity   An odd couple tries to find common ground in an English pub.

David Henry Hwang, The Sound of a Voice   A strange man arrives at a solitary woman’s home in the remote countryside. As they fall in love, they discover disturbing secrets about one another’s past.

Brighde Mullins, Click    A long-distance phone call leads to darkly comic misunderstandings between this man and woman. 

August Wilson, Fences    A proud man’s love for his family is choked by his rigidity and self-righteousness, in this powerful drama by one of the great American playwrights of our time.



WRITING


30. WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE

READ ACTIVELY

Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay

THINK ABOUT THE READING 

PLAN YOUR ESSAY 

PREWRITING: GENERATE IDEAS AND ISSUES 

Sample Student Prewriting Exercises 

DEVELOP YOUR ARGUMENT 

STRENGTHEN YOUR ARGUMENT: RHETORICAL APPEALS 

Logical Argumentation: Evidence and Organization

Emotional Argumentation 

Credibility: Tone and Balance 

CHECKLIST: Developing an Argument

DRAFT YOUR ARGUMENT 

Sample Student Paper, Rough Draft 

REVISE YOUR ARGUMENT 

CHECKLIST: Revising Your Argument 

SOME FINAL ADVICE ON REWRITING 

Sample Student Paper, Revised Draft 

WHAT’S YOUR PURPOSE? COMMON APPROACHES TO WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE 


Explication 

Sample Student Paper, Fiction Explication 

Robert Frost, Design 

Sample Student Paper, Poetry Explication 


Analysis 

Sample Student Paper, Poetry Analysis 

Sample Student Paper, Drama Analysis 


Comparison and Contrast 

Sample Student Paper, Fiction Comparison and Contrast 


Response Paper 

Sample Student Paper, Fiction Response 


THE FORM OF YOUR FINISHED PAPER 

TOPICS FOR WRITING



31. WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER

BROWSE THE RESEARCH

CHOOSE A TOPIC: FORMULATE YOUR ARGUMENT

BEGIN YOUR RESEARCH

Reliable Web Sources

Print Resources

Online Databases

CHECKLIST: Finding Reliable Sources

Visual Images

CHECKLIST: Using Visual Images

EVALUATE YOUR SOURCES

CHECKLIST: Evaluating Your Sources

ORGANIZE YOUR RESEARCH

ORGANIZE YOUR PAPER 

MAINTAIN ACADEMIC INTEGRITY 

ACKNOWLEDGE ALL SOURCES 

Using Quotations 

Citing Ideas 

DOCUMENT SOURCES USING MLA STYLE 

Keep a List of Sources 

Use Parenthetical References 

Create a Works-Cited List 

Cite Sources in MLA Style 

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS


REFERENCE GUIDE FOR MLA CITATIONS


Literary Credits 

Photo Credits 

Index of Authors and Titles 

Index of Literary Terms