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Bridging the Gap, 11th Edition

By Brenda D. Smith, LeeAnn Morris

Published by Longman

Published Date: Jan 10, 2013

Description

Brenda Smith’s Bridging the Gap was the first college reading text to focus on reading for college, and through its eleven editions has been the most popular textbook choice of developmental reading educators.

Table of Contents

Preface

An Overview of Bridging the Gap

 

Chapter 1: Active Learning

What is Active Learning?

            What Are Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience?

            How Does the Brain Screen Messages?

                        Brain Boosters

                        Brain Boosters: Are You Paying Attention?

Cognitive Styles

            Cognitive Style Preferences

            Global Versus Analytical

            Sensory Learning Styles

            Multiple Intelligences: There Is More Than One Way to Be Smart

            What If I’m Not a Verbal or Logical Learner?

What is Concentration?

Poor Concentration: Cause and Cures

            External Distractions

            Internal Distractions

                        Brain Booster: Are You Curious?

                        Reader’s Tip: Improving Concentration

Successful Academic Behaviors

                        Reader’s Tip: Managing School and Work E-Mail

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SECTION 1: PSYCHOLOGY

Video: “Creativity”

“Becoming More Creative” By Carol Wade and Carol Tavris

Concept Prep for Psychology

SECTION 2: HISTORY

“Home Front Workers, Rosie the Riveter, and Victory Girls” by Jacqueline Jones, et al

Concept Prep for History

SECTION 3: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

“Volunteers Help protect the Environment” from www.peacecorps.gov

 

Chapter 2: Vocabulary

Remembering New Words

                        Brain Booster: Use Your Senses to Make More Sense!

            Associate Words in Phrases

            Associate Words with Rhymes or Sounds

            Associate Words with Images

            Associate Words in Families

            Seek Reinforcement

            Create Concept Cards

Using Context Clues

            Definition or Synonym

            Elaborating Details

            Examples

            Comparison

            Contrast

            Antonyms

            Limitations of Context Clues

            Multiple Meanings of a Word

Understanding the Structure of Words

Using a Dictionary

Using a Glossary

Using a Thesaurus

                        Brain Booster: Meaning Matters!

Word Origins

Using Analogies

                        Reader’s Tip: Categories of Analogy Relationships

Easily Confused Words

Recognizing Acronyms

Recognizing Transitional Words

                        Reader’s Tip: Types of Transitional Words

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

Vocabulary Booster: Over, Under, Around, and Through

 

Chapter 3: Strategic Reading and Study

What is Strategic Reading?

            Four Types of Readers

            The Stages of Reading

Stage 1: Strategies for Previewing

            Signposts for Previewing

                        Reader’s Tip: Asking Questions Before Reading

            Preview to Activate Schemata

                        Brain Booster: Schemata and Your Brain

Stage 2: Strategies for Integrating Knowledge with Reading

            Integrating Ideas: How Do Good Readers Think?

                        Reader’s Tip: Using Thinking Strategies While Reading

            Metacognition

                        Reader’s Tip: Developing Metacognition for Reading

Stage 3: Strategies for Recalling

            Recalling Through Writing

            The Three Steps of Recalling

                        Reader’s Tip: Recalling After Reading

                        Brain Booster: Use It To Remember It!

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SECTION 1: HISTORY

“Madam C.J. Walker: Business Savvy To Generous Philanthropy” from America.gov Archive

SECTION 2: HEALTH

“High-Risk Drinking and College Students” by Rebecca Donatelle

SECTION 3: BUSINESS

Video: TOMS Shoes: Changing the World

“TOMS Shoes” Be The Change You Want to See In the World”  by Gary Armstrong and Philip Kotler

Concept Prep For Business

Vocabulary Booster: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

 

Chapter 4: Main Idea

What is a Topic?

What is a Main Idea?

What are Supporting Details?

Distinguishing Topics, Main Ideas, and Details: A Closer Look

Strategies for Finding Main Idea

            Prior Knowledge and Constructing the Main Idea

            “Informed” Expert Readers

            “Uninformed” Expert Readers

            Identifying Main Ideas Among Sentences

            Questioning for the Main Idea

                        Reader’s Tip: Using Questions for Find the Main Idea

Stated Main Ideas

            The Topic Sentence

            How Common Are Stated Main Ideas?

            Where Are Stated Main Ideas Located?

What Are Major and Minor Details?

                        Reader’s Tip: Signals for Significance

Unstated Main Ideas

            Unstated Main Ideas in Sentences

            Unstated Main Ideas in Paragraphs

Interpreting the Main Idea of Longer Selections

                        Reader’s Tip: Getting the Main Idea of Longer Selections

                        Brain Booster: Brains Need the Right Amount Of Sleep

Summary Writing: A Main Idea Skill

            Why Summarize?

                        Reader’s Tip: How to Summarize

                        Brain Booster: Chronic Stress and the Brain

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: PHYSCHOLOGY

Video: The Effects of Stress

            “Coping With Stress” by Carol Wade and Carol Tavris

            Concept Prep for Psychology

SELECTION 2: SHORT STORY

            “On the Sidewalk Bleeding” by Evan Hunter

            Concept Prep for Literature

SELECTION 3: CRIMINAL JUSTICE

            “Fighting Violent Gang Crime with Math” by Stuart Wolpert

Vocabulary Booster: Who’s Who in Medicine?

 

Chapter 5: Patterns of Organization

Textbook Organization: The Big Picture

What do Transitional Words Do?

            Words That Signal Addition

            Words That Signal Examples or Illustrations

            Words That Signal Time or Sequence

            Words That Signal Comparison

            Words That Signal Contrast

            Words That Signal Cause and Effect

                        Reader’s Tip: Signal Words for Transition

Patterns of Organization in Textbooks

            Simple Listing

            Definition

                        Brain Booster: Brains Like Patterns

            Description

            Time Order, Sequence, or Narration

            Comparison

            Contrast

            Comparison and Contrast

            Cause and Effect

            Classification

            Addition

            Summary

            Location or Spatial Order

            Generalization and Examples

                        Reader’s Tip: Patterns of Organization and Signal Words

Clues to the Organizational Pattern

                        Brain Booster: Watering the Brain

Mixed Organizational Patterns

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: NARRATIVE

            “Instant Message, Instant Girlfriend” by Roger Hobs

SELECTION 2: HISTORY

            “Women In History” by Leonard Pitt

 

Chapter 6: Organizing Textbook Information

The Demands of College Study

            Building Knowledge Networks

            The Study Process

            Organizing Textbook Information

                        Brain Booster: Exercise to Boost Brain Power

Annotating

            Why Annotate?

                        Reader’s Tip: How to Annotate

            When to Annotate

Note Taking

            The Cornell Method

                        Reader’s Tip: How to Take Notes: The Cornell Method

            Outlining

                        Reader’s Tip: Guidelines for Successful Outlining

                        Brain Booster: Sleep and Problem Solving

            Mapping

                        Reader’s Tip: How to Map

Summary Points

MyReaingLab

The Reading Workshop

SECTION 1: BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS

“Watch Your Language” by Gary Armstrong and Philip Kotler

            Concept Prep for Communications and Language

SECTION 2: HEALTH

            “Nutrition, Health, and Stress” by Barbara Brehm

            Concept Prep for Health

SECTION 3: CRIMINAL JUSTICE

            Video: DNA and the Criminal Justice System

            “Police DNA Collection Sparks Questions” by Carolyn Thompson

Vocabulary Booster: The Sun, The Moon, and The Stars

 

Chapter 7: Inference

What is an Inference?

What is Required to Make a Reasonable Inference?

            Implied Meaning in Humor

                        Brain Booster: The Brain’s Pleasure Center and Learning

Connotative Language

Euphemisms and Politically Correct language

Figurative Language

            Idioms

            Similes

            Metaphors

            Literary Analogies

            Hyperbole

            Personification

            Verbal Irony

Figurative Language in Poetry

More Types of Inferences

            Inferences from Facts

Inferences About a Speaker or Narrator

Inferences Based on Action and Description

Using Prior Knowledge to Make Inferences

                        Brain Booster: Boost Brain Power Through Collaboration

            Expanding Prior Knowledge

Drawing Conclusions

                        Reader’s Tip: Making Inferences

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: SHORT STORY

            “A Dip in the Poole” by Bill Pronzini

            Concept Prep for Philosophy and Literature

SELECTION 2: SHORT STORY

            “The Mountain Man” by Thaddeus Rutowski

SELECTION 3: PERSONAL NARRATIVE

            Video: Illiteracy in the United States

“Fear the College Years” from The Teacher Who Couldn’t Read: A Memoir by John Corcoran

Concept Prep for Political Science

Vocabulary Booster: Can I Get That In Writing?

 

Chapter 8: Point of View

Textbooks and Author’s Point of View

What is the Author’s Point of View?

            What is Bias?

What is the Reader’s Point of View?

                        Brain Booster: Male and Female Brains and Their Points of View

What Are Fact and Opinion?

                        Reader’s Tip: Questions to Uncover Bias

What is the Author’s Purpose?

What is the Author’s Tone?

                        Reader’s Tip: Recognizing an Author’s Tone

Point of View in Editorial Cartoons

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: PHILOSOPHY

            “Decision” by Gary Kirby and Jeffrey Goodpaster

SELECTION 2: SCIENCE

            Video: Global Warming

            “The Role of Humansin Global Warming” by Teresa Audesirk

SELECTION 3: HEALTH

            “Steroids” by Rebecca J. Donatelle

Vocabulary Booster

 

Chapter 9: Critical Thinking

What is Thinking?

What is Critical Thinking

            Critical Thinking Skills and College Goals

                        Reader’s Tip: Four Habits of Effective Critical Thinkers

            Barriers to Critical Thinking

Recognizing an Argument

Steps in Analyzing and Evaluating and Argument

            Step 1: Identify the Position on the Issue

            Step 2: Identify the Support in the Argument

            Step 3: Evaluate the Support

                        Reader’s Tip: Types of Support for Arguments

            Step 4: Evaluate the Argument

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Applying the Four Steps of Critical Thinking

            Explanation of the Four Steps

Creative and Critical Thinking

                        Brain Booster: The Creative Plan

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: ESSAY

            Video: The Magic Number of Beauty

            “The Importance of being Beautiful” by Sidney Katz

SELECTION 2: ESSAY

            “Give the Ref a Gavel” by Eldon L. Ham

SELECTION 3: ESSAY

            “How Boys Become Men” by John Katz

Vocabulary Booster: Lights, Camera, Action!

 

Chapter 10: Graphic Illustrations

What Graphics Do

                        Reader’s Tip: How to Read Graphic Material

Diagrams

Tables

Maps

Pie Graphs

Bar Graphs

Line Graphs

Flowcharts

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: PERSONAL NARRATIVE

            “Little Income, Big Debt: Managing Money in College” by Trent Hamm

SELECTION 2: SCIENCE

            Video: The American Diet

            “The Risks and Benefits of Weight Loss Plans” by Campbell, et al.

SELECTION 3: SOCIOLOGY

            “Technology and the Environment” by John J. Macionis

Vocabulary Booster: Play It Again, Sam

 

Chapter 11: Rate Flexibility

Why is Reading Rate Important?

What is Your Baseline Reading Rate?

Factors Affecting Reading Rate and Technique

            Varying rate and technique to Fit Purpose

            Rate Variations and Prior Knowledge

                        Brain Booster: Music to Our Ears and to Our Brains

Habits for Faster Reading

            Concentrate

            Stop Regressing

            Expand Fixations

            Stop Vocalizing

            Preview

            Use Your Pen as a Pacer

            Push and Pace: Set a Time Goal

Skimming

                        Reader’s Tip: Techniques for Skimming

Scanning

                        Reader’s Tip: Techniques for Scanning

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

Vocabulary Booster: Foreign Terms

 

Chapter 12: Test Taking

Can Being Test Wise Improve Your Score?

                        Brain Booster: Balance Memorization and Application in Test Preparation

General Strategies for Mental and Physical Preparation

            Before Taking a Test

                        Reader’s Tip: Preparing For a Test

            During the Test

            After the Test

                        Brain Booster: Turn Mistakes into Success

Strategies for Standardized Reading Tests

            Anticipate What is Coming Next

            Read Rapidly, but Don’t Allow Yourself to Feel Rushed

            Read to Learn and Enjoy

            Self-Test for the Main Idea

            Consider All Alternatives Before Choosing an Answer

Recognizing the Major Question Types on Reading Comprehension Tests

            Main Idea Questions

            Detail Questions

            Inference Questions

            Author’s Purpose Questions

            Vocabulary Questions

Strategies for Content Exams

            Multiple-Choice, True-False, and Matching Items

            Short-Answer Items

            Essay Questions

                        Reader’s Tip: Key Words in Essay Questions

Locus of Control

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

 

Appendix 1: ESL: Making Sense of Figurative Language and Idions

                        Reader’s Tip: Categorizing Idioms

Appendix 2: The Reading Workshop: Topics and formats for Book Discussion

 

Glossary

Index

Photo Credits

Text Credits

An Overview of Concept Preps (Inside Front Cover)

Progress Chart for Reading Selections (Inside Rear Cover)

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