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CCENT/CCNA ICND1 640-822 Official Cert Guide, CourseSmart eTextbook, 3rd Edition

By Wendell Odom

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Oct 3, 2011

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This new edition has been fully updated to refresh the content, add new exercises, and enhance certain essential CCENT and CCNA exam topics. In addition to the wealth of updated content, this new edition also includes a series of free hands-on exercises to help master several real-world configuration activities. These exercises can be performed on the CCNA Network Simulator, ICND1 Lite Edition. Finally, the practice test has been fully updated to the new Pearson IT Certification Practice Test software, offering a wealth of customization options and reporting features along with several hundred exam-realistic practice questions.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxvii

Part I: Networking Fundamentals 3

Chapter 1 Introduction to Computer Networking 5

    Perspectives on Networking 5

        The Flintstones Network: The First Computer Network? 8

Chapter 2 The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models 17

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 17

    Foundation Topics 21

    TCP/IP Networking Model 21

        History Leading to TCP/IP 21

        Overview of the TCP/IP Networking Model 23

        TCP/IP Application Layer 24

        TCP/IP Transport Layer 26

        TCP/IP Internet Layer 29

        TCP/IP Network Access Layer 33

        TCP/IP Model and Terminology 34

    OSI Networking Model 37

        Comparing OSI and TCP/IP 37

        Describing Protocols by Referencing the OSI Layers 38

        OSI Layers and Their Functions 39

        OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 41

        OSI Encapsulation Terminology 42

    Exam Preparation Tasks 43

        Review All the Key Topics 43

        Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 43

        Definitions of Key Terms 43

        OSI Reference 44

Chapter 3 Fundamentals of LANs 47

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 47

    Foundation Topics 51

    An Overview of Modern Ethernet LANs 51

    A Brief History of Ethernet 54

        The Original Ethernet Standards: 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 54

        Repeaters 56

        Building 10BASE-T Networks with Hubs 57

    Ethernet UTP Cabling 58

        UTP Cables and RJ-45 Connectors 58

        Transmitting Data Using Twisted Pairs 60

        UTP Cabling Pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX 61

        1000BASE-T Cabling 64

    Improving Performance by Using Switches Instead of Hubs 64

        Increasing Available Bandwidth Using Switches 67

        Doubling Performance by Using Full-Duplex Ethernet 68

        Ethernet Layer 1 Summary 69

    Ethernet Data-Link Protocols 69

        Ethernet Addressing 70

        Ethernet Framing 71

        Identifying the Data Inside an Ethernet Frame 73

        Error Detection 74

    Exam Preparation Tasks 75

    Review All the Key Topics 75

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 75

    Definitions of Key Terms 75

Chapter 4 Fundamentals of WANs 77

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 77

    Foundation Topics 80

    OSI Layer 1 for Point-to-Point WANs 80

        WAN Connections from the Customer Viewpoint 83

        WAN Cabling Standards 84

        Clock Rates, Synchronization, DCE, and DTE 86

        Building a WAN Link in a Lab 87

        Link Speeds Offered by Telcos 88

    OSI Layer 2 for Point-to-Point WANs 89

        HDLC 89

        Point-to-Point Protocol 91

        Point-to-Point WAN Summary 91

    Frame Relay and Packet-Switching Services 92

        The Scaling Benefits of Packet Switching 92

        Frame Relay Basics 93

    Exam Preparation Tasks 97

    Review All the Key Topics 97

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 97

    Definitions of Key Terms 97

Chapter 5 Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing 99

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 99

    Foundation Topics 104

    Overview of Network Layer Functions 104

        Routing (Forwarding) 105

        Network Layer Interaction with the Data Link Layer 107

        IP Packets and the IP Header 108

        Network Layer (Layer 3) Addressing 109

        Routing Protocols 110

    IP Addressing 111

        IP Addressing Definitions 111

        How IP Addresses Are Grouped 112

        Classes of Networks 113

    IP Routing 120

Host Routing 120

        Router Forwarding Decisions and the IP Routing Table 121

        IP Routing Protocols 124

    Network Layer Utilities 127

        Address Resolution Protocol and the Domain Name System 127

        Address Assignment and DHCP 129

        ICMP Echo and the ping Command 131

    Exam Preparation Tasks 132

    Review All the Key Topics 132

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 133

    Definitions of Key Terms 133

Chapter 6 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport, Applications, and Security 135

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 135

    Foundation Topics 139

    TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols: TCP and UDP 139

        Transmission Control Protocol 140

        User Datagram Protocol 151

    TCP/IP Applications 152

        QoS Needs and the Impact of TCP/IP Applications 152

        The World Wide Web, HTTP, and SSL 155

    Network Security 159

        Perspectives on the Sources and Types of Threats 160

        Firewalls and the Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) 164

        Anti-x 166

        Intrusion Detection and Prevention 166

        Virtual Private Networks (VPN) 167

    Exam Preparation Tasks 169

    Review All the Key Topics 169

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 169

    Definitions of Key Terms 169

Part II: LAN Switching 171

Chapter 7 Ethernet LAN Switching Concepts 173

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 173

    Foundation Topics 177

    LAN Switching Concepts 177

        Historical Progression: Hubs, Bridges, and Switches 177

        Switching Logic 180

        LAN Switching Summary 188

    LAN Design Considerations 189

        Collision Domains and Broadcast Domains 189

        Virtual LANs (VLAN) 193

        Campus LAN Design Terminology 194

        Ethernet LAN Media and Cable Lengths 197

    Exam Preparation Tasks 200

    Review All the Key Topics 200

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 200

    Definitions of Key Terms 201

Chapter 8 Operating Cisco LAN Switches 203

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 203

    Foundation Topics 206

    Accessing the Cisco Catalyst 2960 Switch CLI 206

        Cisco Catalyst Switches and the 2960 Switch 207

        Switch Status from LEDs 208

        Accessing the Cisco IOS CLI 211

        User and Enable (Privileged) Modes 216

        CLI Help Features 217

        The debug and show Commands 219

    Configuring Cisco IOS Software 220

        Configuration Submodes and Contexts 221

        Storing Switch Configuration Files 223

        Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 226

        Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 227

    Exam Preparation Tasks 232

    Review All the Key Topics 232

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 232

    Definitions of Key Terms 232

    Command References 232

Chapter 9 Ethernet Switch Configuration 237

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 237

    Foundation Topics 241

    Configuration of Features in Common with Routers 241

        Securing the Switch CLI 241

        Console and vty Settings 251

    LAN Switch Configuration and Operation 254

        Configuring the Switch IP Address 254

        Configuring Switch Interfaces 257

        Port Security 259

        VLAN Configuration 262

        Securing Unused Switch Interfaces 265

    Exam Preparation Tasks 267

    Review All the Key Topics 267

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 267

    Definitions of Key Terms 268

    Command References 268

Chapter 10 Ethernet Switch Troubleshooting 273

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 273

    Foundation Topics 277

    Perspectives on Network Verification and Troubleshooting 277

        Attacking Sim Questions 277

        Simlet Questions 278

        Multiple-Choice Questions 279

        Approaching Questions with an Organized Troubleshooting Process 279

        Isolating Problems at Layer 3, and Then at Layers 1 and 2 281

        Troubleshooting as Covered in This Book 282

    Verifying the Network Topology with Cisco Discovery Protocol 283

    Analyzing Layer 1 and 2 Interface Status 288

        Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States 288

        Interface Speed and Duplex Issues 290

        Common Layer 1 Problems on Working Interfaces 293

    Analyzing the Layer 2 Forwarding Path with the MAC Address Table 295

        Analyzing the Forwarding Path 298

        Port Security and Filtering 299

    Exam Preparation Tasks 301

    Review All the Key Topics 301

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 301

    Definitions of Key Terms 301

    Command References 301

Chapter 11 Wireless LANs 305

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 305

    Foundation Topics 308

    Wireless LAN Concepts 308

        Comparisons with Ethernet LANs 309

        Wireless LAN Standards 310

        Modes of 802.11 Wireless LANs 311

        Wireless Transmissions (Layer 1) 313

        Media Access (Layer 2) 320

    Deploying WLANs 321

        Wireless LAN Implementation Checklist 321

    Wireless LAN Security 326

        WLAN Security Issues 326

        The Progression of WLAN Security Standards 328

    Exam Preparation Tasks 333

    Review All the Key Topics 333

        Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 333

        Definitions of Key Terms 333

Part III: IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting 335

Chapter 12 Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting 337

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 337

    Foundation Topics 340

    Introduction to Subnetting 340

    Subnetting Defined Through a Simple Example 340

        Operational View Versus Design View of Subnetting 341

        Analyze Subnetting and Addressing Needs 342

    Rules About Which Hosts Are in Which Subnet 342

        Determining the Number of Subnets 344

        Determining the Number of Hosts per Subnet 345

        One Size Subnet Fits All—Or Not 346

        Defining the Size of a Subnet 346

    Make Design Choices 349

        Choose a Classful Network 350

        Choose the Mask 354

        Build a List of All Subnets 359

    Plan the Implementation 360

        Choose Static and Dynamic Ranges per Subnet 362

    Exam Preparation Tasks 364

    Review All the Key Topics 364

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 364

    Definitions of Key Terms 364

Chapter 13 Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks 367

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 367

    Foundation Topics 369

    Classful Network Concepts 369

        IPv4 Network Classes and Related Facts 369

        Number of Hosts per Network 373

        Deriving the Network ID and Related Numbers 373

    Practice with Classful Networks 376

        Practice Deriving Key Facts Based on an IP Address 377

        Practice Remembering the Details of Address Classes 377

        Additional Practice 378

    Exam Preparation Tasks 379

    Review All the Key Topics 379

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 379

    Definitions of Key Terms 379

    Practice 379

        Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 380

        Answers to Practice Problem 7 380

        Answers to Practice Problem 8 381

        Answers to Practice Problem 9 381

Chapter 14 Converting Subnet Masks 383

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 383

    Foundation Topics 366

    Subnet Mask Conversion 386

        Three Mask Formats 386

        Converting Between Binary and Prefix Masks 387

        Converting Between Binary and DDN Masks 388

        Converting Between Prefix and DDN Masks 390

    Practice Converting Subnet Masks 391

        Practice Problems for This Chapter 391

        Additional Practice 392

    Exam Preparation Tasks 393

    Review All the Key Topics 393

    Definitions of Key Terms 393

    Practice 393

        Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 394

Chapter 15 Analyzing Existing Subnet Masks 397

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 397

    Foundation Topics 400

    Defining the Format of IPv4 Addresses 400

        Masks Divide the Subnet’s Addresses into Two Parts 401

        Masks and Class Divide Addresses into Three Parts 402

        Classless and Classful Addressing 403

    Calculations Based on the IPv4 Address Format 403

    Practice Analyzing Subnet Masks 405

        Practice Problems for This Chapter 406

        Additional Practice 407

    Exam Preparation Tasks 408

    Review All the Key Topics 408

    Definitions of Key Terms 408

    Practice 408

    Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 408

Chapter 16 Designing Subnet Masks 411

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 411

    Foundation Topics 414

    Choosing the Mask(s) to Meet Requirements 414

        Review: Choosing the Minimum Number of Subnet and Host Bits 414

        No Masks Meet Requirements 416

        One Mask Meets Requirements 417

        Multiple Masks Meet Requirements 418

        The Formal Process 421

    Practice Choosing Subnet Masks 422

        Practice Problems for This Chapter 422

        Additional Practice 423

    Exam Preparation Tasks 424

    Review All the Key Topics 424

    Definitions of Key Terms 424

    Practice 424

        Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 425

Chapter 17 Analyzing Existing Subnets 427

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 427

    Foundation Topics 430

    Defining a Subnet 430

        An Example with Network and Four Subnets 430

        Subnet ID Concepts 432

        Subnet Broadcast Address 433

        Range of Usable Addresses 434

    Analyzing Existing Subnets: Binary 434

        Finding the Subnet ID: Binary 435

        Finding the Subnet Broadcast: Binary 437

        Binary Practice Problems 438

        Shortcut for the Binary Process 440

        Brief Note About Boolean Math 442

        Finding the Range of Addresses 442

    Analyzing Existing Subnets: Decimal 442

        Analysis with Easy Masks 443

        Predictability in the Interesting Octet 444

        Finding the Subnet ID: Difficult Masks 446

        Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Difficult Masks 449

Practice Analyzing Existing Subnets 451

    A Choice: Memorize or Calculate 451

        Practice Problems for This Chapter 452

        Additional Practice 452

    Exam Preparation Tasks 453

    Review All the Key Topics 453

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 453

    Definitions of Key Terms 453

    Practice 454

        Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 454

Chapter 18 Finding All Subnet IDs 459

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 459

    Foundation Topics 462

    Finding All Subnet IDs 462

        First Subnet ID: The Zero Subnet 462

        Finding the Pattern Using the Magic Number 463

    A Formal Process with Less Than 8 Subnet Bits 464

        Example 1: Network, Mask 465

        Example 2: Network, Mask 467

        Finding All Subnets with Exactly 8 Subnet Bits 469

        Finding All Subnets with More Than 8 Subnet Bits 469

    Practice Finding All Subnet IDs 472

        Practice Problems for This Chapter 473

        Additional Practice 473

    Exam Preparation Tasks 474

    Review All the Key Topics 474

    Definitions of Key Terms 474

    Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 474

        Answer, Practice Problem 1 474

        Answer, Practice Problem 2 475

        Answer, Practice Problem 3 476

Part IV: IPv4 Routing 479

Chapter 19 Operating Cisco Routers 481

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 481

    Foundation Topics 485

    Installing Cisco Routers 485

        Installing Enterprise Routers 485

        Installing Internet Access Routers 489

        Regarding the SOHO Devices Used in This Book 491

    Cisco Router IOS CLI 491

        Comparisons Between the Switch CLI and Router CLI 492

        Router Interfaces 493

        Router Auxiliary (Aux) Port 499

        Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 499

    Upgrading Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco IOS Software Boot Process 502

        Upgrading a Cisco IOS Software Image into Flash Memory 502

        The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 505

    Exam Preparation Tasks 513

    Review All the Key Topics 513

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 513

    Definitions of Key Terms 514

    Read Appendix J Scenario 2 514

    Command References 514

Chapter 20 Routing Protocol Concepts and Configuration 517

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 517

    Foundation Topics 521

    Connected and Static Routes 521

    Connected Routes 521

        Static Routes 524

        Extended ping Command 526

        Default Routes 528

        Routing Protocol Overview 530

    RIP-2 Basic Concepts 531

        Comparing and Contrasting IP Routing Protocols 532

        Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols 533

        Summary of Interior Routing Protocols 537

    Configuring and Verifying RIP-2 538

        RIP-2 Configuration 538

        RIP-2 Verification 540

    Exam Preparation Tasks 549

    Review All the Key Topics 549

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 549

    Definitions of Key Terms 550

    Command References 550

Chapter 21 Troubleshooting IP Routing 553

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 553

    Foundation Topics 557

    IP Troubleshooting Tips and Tools 557

        IP Addressing 557

        Host Networking Commands 560

        Troubleshooting Host Routing Problems 564

        Finding the Matching Route on a Router 565

        Troubleshooting Commands 567

    A Routing Troubleshooting Scenario 573

        Scenario Part A: Tasks and Questions 573

        Scenario Part A: Answers 576

        Scenario Part B: Analyze Packet/Frame Flow 577

        Scenario Part B: Answers 578

        Scenario Part C: Analyze Connected Routes 585

        Scenario Part C: Answers 585

    Exam Preparation Tasks 587

    Review All the Key Topics 587

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 588

    Command Reference 588

Part V: Wide-Area Networks 591

Chapter 22 WAN Concepts 593

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 593

    Foundation Topics 596

    WAN Technologies 596

        Perspectives on the PSTN 596

        Analog Modems 599

        Digital Subscriber Line 601

        Cable Internet 605

        Comparison of Remote-Access Technologies 607

        ATM 607

        Packet Switching Versus Circuit Switching 609

        Ethernet as a WAN Service 609

    IP Services for Internet Access 610

        Address Assignment on the Internet Access Router 611

        Routing for the Internet Access Router 612

        NAT and PAT 613

    Exam Preparation Tasks 618

    Review All the Key Topics 618

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 618

    Definitions of Key Terms 619

Chapter 23 WAN Configuration 621

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 621

    Foundation Topics 624

    Configuring Point-to-Point WANs 624

        Configuring HDLC 624

        Configuring PPP 627

    Configuring and Troubleshooting Internet Access Routers 628

        Internet Access Router: Configuration Steps 629

        Internet Access Router Verification 639

    Exam Preparation Tasks 642

    Review All the Key Topics 642

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 642

    Definitions of Key Terms 642

    Command References 642

Part VI: Final Preparation 645

Chapter 24 Final Preparation 647

    Tools for Final Preparation 647

        Pearson Cert Practice Test Engine and Questions on the DVD 647

        The Cisco Learning Network 650

        Subnetting Preparation Tools 650

        Scenarios 651

    Study Plan 651

        Recall the Facts 652

        Practice Subnetting 652

        Build Troubleshooting Skills Using Scenarios 654

        Studying for ICND1 640-822 or CCNA 640-802 654

    Summary 655

Part VII: Appendixes 657

Appendix A Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes 659

Appendix B Numeric Reference Tables 681

Appendix C ICND1 Exam Updates: Version 1.0 689

Glossary 693

Part VIII: DVD-Only

Appendix D Practice for Chapter 13: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks

Appendix E Practice for Chapter 14: Converting Subnet Masks

Appendix F Practice for Chapter 15: Analyzing Existing Subnet Masks

Appendix G Practice for Chapter 16: Designing Subnet Masks

Appendix H Practice for Chapter 17: Analyzing Existing Subnets

Appendix I Practice for Chapter 18: Finding All Subnet IDs

Appendix J Additional Scenarios

Appendix K Subnetting Video Reference

Appendix L Memory Tables

Appendix M Memory Tables Answer Key

Appendix N ICND1 Open-Ended Questions

TOC, 8/25/2011, 9781587204258