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CCNA Routing and Switching Portable Command Guide, 3rd Edition

By Scott Empson

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Jun 12, 2013

Description

Here are all the CCNA-level Routing and Switching commands you need in one condensed, portable resource. The CCNA Routing and Switching Portable Command Guide, Third Edition, is filled with valuable, easy-to-access information and is portable enough for use whether you’re in the server room or the equipment closet.

 

The guide summarizes all CCNA certification-level Cisco IOS® Software commands, keywords, command arguments, and associated prompts, providing you with tips and examples of how to apply the commands to real-world scenarios. Configuration examples throughout the book provide you with a better understanding of how these commands are used in simple network designs.

 

This book has been completely updated to cover topics in the ICND1 100-101, ICND2 200-101, and CCNA 200-120 exams. Use this quick reference resource to help you memorize commands and concepts as you work to pass the CCNA Routing and Switching certification exam.

 

The book is organized into these parts:

• Part I TCP/IP v4

• Part II Introduction to Cisco Devices

• Part III Configuring a Router

• Part IV Routing

• Part V Switching

• Part VI Layer 3 Redundancy

• Part VII IPv6

• Part VIII Network Administration and Troubleshooting

• Part IX Managing IP Services

• Part X WANs

• Part XI Network Security

 

  • Quick, offline access to all CCNA Routing and Switching commands for research and solutions
  • Logical how-to topic groupings for a one-stop resource
  • Great for review before CCNA Routing and Switching certification exams
  • Compact size makes it easy to carry with you, wherever you go
  • “Create Your Own Journal” section with blank, lined pages allows you to personalize the book for your needs
  • “What Do You Want to Do?” chart inside back cover helps you to quickly reference specific tasks

 

 

Table of Contents

    Introduction xx

Part I TCP/IP v4

CHAPTER 1 How to Subnet 1

    Class A–E Addresses 1

    Converting Between Decimal Numbers and Binary 2

    Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary 2

    Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary 5

    Binary ANDing 9

        So Why AND? 10

        Shortcuts in Binary ANDing 11

    The Enhanced Bob Maneuver for Subnetting (or How to Subnet Anything in Under a Minute) 12

CHAPTER 2 VLSM 15

    IP Subnet Zero 15

    VLSM Example 16

        Step 1 Determine How Many H Bits Will Be Needed to Satisfy the Largest Network 16

        Step 2 Pick a Subnet for the Largest Network to Use 17

        Step 3 Pick the Next Largest Network to Work With 18

        Step 4 Pick the Third Largest Network to Work With 20

        Step 5 Determine Network Numbers for Serial Links 21

CHAPTER 3 Route Summarization 25

    Example for Understanding Route Summarization 25

        Step 1: Summarize Winnipeg’s Routes 26

        Step 2: Summarize Calgary’s Routes 27

        Step 3: Summarize Edmonton’s Routes 27

        Step 4: Summarize Vancouver’s Routes 28

    Route Summarization and Route Flapping 30

    Requirements for Route Summarization 30

Part II Introduction to Cisco Devices

CHAPTER 4 Cables and Connections 31

    Connecting a Rollover Cable to Your Router or Switch 31

    Using a USB Cable to Connect to Your Router or Switch 31

    Terminal Settings 32

    LAN Connections 33

    Serial Cable Types 33

    Which Cable to Use? 35

    568A Versus 568B Cables 35

CHAPTER 5 The Command Line Interface 37

    Shortcuts for Entering Commands 37

    Using the † Key to Complete Commands 37

    Console Error Messages 38

    Using the Question Mark for Help 38

    enable Command 39

    exit Command 39

    disable Command 39

    logout Command 39

    Setup Mode 39

    Keyboard Help 40

    History Commands 41

    terminal Commands 41

    show Commands 42

    Using the Pipe Parameter (|) with the show Command 42

Part III Confi guring a Router

CHAPTER 6 Confi guring a Single Cisco Router 45

    Router Modes 45

    Entering Global Configuration Mode 46

    Configuring a Router Name 46

    Configuring Passwords 46

    Password Encryption 47

    Interface Names 47

    Moving Between Interfaces 50

    Configuring a Serial Interface 50

    Configuring a Fast Ethernet Interface 51

    Configuring a Gigabit Ethernet Interface 51

    Creating a Message-of-the-Day Banner 51

    Creating a Login Banner 51

    Setting the Clock Time Zone 52

    Assigning a Local Host Name to an IP Address 52

    The no ip domain-lookup Command 52

    The logging synchronous Command 52

    The exec-timeout Command 53

    Saving Configurations 53

    Erasing Configurations 53

    show Commands 53

    EXEC Commands in Configuration Mode: The do Command 54

    Configuration Example: Basic Router Configuration 54

        Boston Router 55

Part IV Routing

CHAPTER 7 Static Routing 57

    Configuring a Static Route on a Router 57

    The permanent Keyword (Optional) 58

    Static Routes and Administrative Distance (Optional) 58

    Configuring a Default Route on a Router 59

    Verifying Static Routes 59

    Configuration Example: Static Routes 60

        Boston Router 60

        Buffalo Router 61

        Bangor Router 61

CHAPTER 8 EIGRP 63

    Configuring Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) 63

    EIGRP Auto-Summarization 65

    EIGRP Manual Summarization 65

    Passive EIGRP Interfaces 65

    Equal-Cost Load Balancing: Maximum Paths 66

    Unequal-Cost Load Balancing: Variance 66

    Bandwidth Use 67

    Authentication 67

    Verifying EIGRP 68

    Troubleshooting EIGRP 69

    Configuration Example: EIGRP 69

        Austin Router 70

        Houston Router 71

CHAPTER 9 Single-Area OSPF 73

    Configuring OSPF 73

    Using Wildcard Masks with OSPF Areas 74

    Loopback Interfaces 75

        Router ID 75

    DR/BDR Elections 76

    Modifying Cost Metrics 76

    OSPF auto-cost reference-bandwidth 77

    Authentication: Simple 77

    Authentication: Using MD5 Encryption 78

    Timers 78

    Propagating a Default Route 78

    Verifying OSPF Configuration 79

    Troubleshooting OSPF 79

    Configuration Example: Single Area OSPF 80

        Austin Router 80

        Houston Router 81

        Galveston Router 82

CHAPTER 10 Multi-Area OSPF 83

    Configuring Multi-Area OSPF 83

    Passive Interfaces 84

        Route Summarization 84

    Configuration Example: Multi-Area OSPF 85

        ASBR Router 86

        ABR-1 Router 87

        ABR-2 Router 88

        Internal Router 89

Part V Switching

CHAPTER 11 Confi guring a Switch 91

    Help Commands 91

    Command Modes 91

    Verifying Commands 92

    Resetting Switch Configuration 92

    Setting Host Names 92

    Setting Passwords 93

    Setting IP Addresses and Default Gateways 93

    Setting Interface Descriptions 94

    The mdix auto Command 94

    Setting Duplex Operation 95

    Setting Operation Speed 95

    Managing the MAC Address Table 95

    Configuring Static MAC Addresses 95

    Switch Port Security 96

    Verifying Switch Port Security 96

    Sticky MAC Addresses 97

    Configuration Example 97

CHAPTER 12 VLANs 101

    Creating Static VLANs 101

        Using VLAN Configuration Mode 101

        Using VLAN Database Mode 102

    Assigning Ports to VLANs 102

    Using the range Command 103

    Verifying VLAN Information 103

    Saving VLAN Configurations 103

    Erasing VLAN Configurations 104

    Configuration Example: VLANs 104

CHAPTER 13 VLAN Trunking Protocol and Inter-VLAN Communication 107

    Dynamic Trunking Protocol 107

    Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) 108

    Setting the Encapsulation Type 108

    VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) 109

    Verifying VTP 110

        Inter-VLAN Communication Using an External Router: Router-on-a-Stick 110

    Inter-VLAN Communication on a Multilayer Switch Through a Switch Virtual Interface 111

        Removing L2 Switchport Capability of a Switch Port 111

        Configuring Inter-VLAN Communication 111

    Inter-VLAN Communication Tips 112

    Configuration Example: Inter-VLAN Communication 112

        ISP Router 113

        CORP Router 114

        L2Switch2 (Catalyst 2960) 116

        L3Switch1 (Catalyst 3560) 118

        L2Switch1 (Catalyst 2960) 119

CHAPTER 14 Spanning Tree Protocol and EtherChannel 121

    Spanning Tree Protocol 121

        Enabling Spanning Tree Protocol 121

        Configuring the Root Switch 122

        Configuring a Secondary Root Switch 122

        Configuring Port Priority 123

        Configuring the Path Cost 123

        Configuring the Switch Priority of a VLAN 123

        Configuring STP Timers 124

        Verifying STP 124

        Optional STP Configurations 125

        Changing the Spanning-Tree Mode 126

        Extended System ID 126

        Enabling Rapid Spanning Tree 127

        Troubleshooting Spanning Tree 127

        Configuration Example: STP 127

    EtherChannel 129

        Interface Modes in EtherChannel 130

        Guidelines for Configuring EtherChannel 130

        Configuring Layer 2 EtherChannel 131

        Verifying EtherChannel 131

        Configuration Example: EtherChannel 132

Part VI Layer 3 Redundancy

CHAPTER 15 HSRP and GLBP 137

    Hot Standby Router Protocol 137

    Configuring HSRP on a Router 138

    Configuring HSRP on an L3 Switch 138

    Default HSRP Configuration Settings 139

    Verifying HSRP 139

    HSRP Optimization Options 139

        Preempt 140

        HSRP Message Timers 140

        Interface Tracking 141

    Multiple HSRP 141

    Debugging HSRP 142

    Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol 143

    Configuring VRRP 143

    Verifying VRRP 144

    Debugging VRRP 145

    Gateway Load Balancing Protocol 145

        Configuring GLBP 145

    Verifying GLBP 147

    Debugging GLBP 148

    Configuration Example: GLBP 148

        DLS1 149

        DLS2 150

Part VII IPv6

CHAPTER 16 IPv6 153

    Assigning IPv6 Addresses to Interfaces 153

    IPv6 and RIPng 154

    Configuration Example: IPv6 RIP 155

        Austin Router 155

    IPv6 Tunnels: Manual Overlay Tunnel 157

        Juneau Router 157

        Fairbanks Router 158

    Static Routes in IPv6 159

    Floating Static Routes in IPv6 160

    Default Routes in IPv6 160

    Verifying and Troubleshooting IPv6 160

    IPv6 Ping 162

    IPv6 Traceroute 162

CHAPTER 17 OSPFv3 163

    IPv6 and OSPFv3 163

    Enabling OSPF for IPv6 on an Interface 163

    Enabling an OSPF for IPv6 Area Range 164

    Enabling an IPv4 Router ID for OSPFv3 165

    Forcing an SPF Calculation 165

    Verifying and Troubleshooting IPv6 and OSPFv3 165

    Configuration Example: OSPFv3 166

    R3 Router 166

    R2 Router 167

    R1 Router 168

    R4 Router 169

CHAPTER 18 EIGRP for IPv6 171

    IPv6 and EIGRP 171

        Enabling EIGRP for IPv6 on an Interface 171

    Configuring the Percentage of Link Bandwidth Used by EIGRP 172

    Configuring Summary Addresses 172

    Configuring EIGRP Route Authentication 172

    Configuring EIGRP Timers 172

    Logging EIGRP Neighbor Adjacency Changes 173

    Adjusting the EIGRP for IPv6 Metric Weights 173

    Verifying and Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv6 173

    Configuration Example: EIGRP for IPv6 174

    R3 Router 174

    R2 Router 175

    R1 Router 176

Part VIII Network Administration and Troubleshooting

CHAPTER 19 Backing Up and Restoring Cisco IOS Software and Confi gurations 177

    Boot System Commands 177

    The Cisco IOS File System 178

    Viewing the Cisco IOS File System 178

    Commonly Used URL Prefixes for Cisco Network Devices 178

    Deciphering IOS Image Filenames 179

    Backing Up Configurations to a TFTP Server 180

    Restoring Configurations from a TFTP Server 180

    Backing Up the Cisco IOS Software to a TFTP Server 181

    Restoring/Upgrading the Cisco IOS Software from a TFTP Server 181

    Restoring the Cisco IOS Software from ROM Monitor Mode Using Xmodem 182

    Restoring the Cisco IOS Software Using the ROM Monitor Environmental Variables and tftpdnld Command 184

CHAPTER 20 Password-Recovery Procedures and the Confi guration Register 187

    The Configuration Register 187

        A Visual Representation 187

        What the Bits Mean 187

        The Boot Field 188

        Console Terminal Baud Rate Settings 188

        Changing the Console Line Speed: CLI 189

        Changing the Console Line Speed: ROM Monitor Mode 189

    Password-Recovery Procedures for Cisco Routers 190

    Password Recovery for 2960 Series Switches 191

CHAPTER 21 Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) 193

    Cisco Discovery Protocol 193

CHAPTER 22 Remote Connectivity Using Telnet or SSH 195

    Configuring a Device to Accept a Remote Telnet Connection 195

    Using Telnet to Remotely Connect to Other Devices 196

    Verifying Telnet 197

    Configuring the Secure Shell Protocol (SSH) 197

    Verifying SSH 198

CHAPTER 23 Verifying End-to-End Connectivity 199

    ICMP Redirect Messages 199

    The ping Command 199

    Examples of Using the ping and the Extended ping Commands 200

    The traceroute Command 201

CHAPTER 24 Confi guring Network Management Protocols 203

    Configuring SNMP 203

    Configuring Syslog 204

    Syslog Message Format 204

    Syslog Severity Levels 205

    Syslog Message Example 205

    Configuring NetFlow 206

    Verifying NetFlow 206

CHAPTER 25 Basic Troubleshooting 207

    Viewing the Routing Table 207

    Clearing the Routing Table 208

    Determining the Gateway of Last Resort 208

    Determining the Last Routing Update 208

    OSI Layer 3 Testing 208

    OSI Layer 7 Testing 209

    Interpreting the show interface Command 209

    Clearing Interface Counters 209

    Using CDP to Troubleshoot 209

    The traceroute Command 209

    The show controllers Command 210

    debug Commands 210

    Using Time Stamps 210

    Operating System IP Verification Commands 211

    The ip http server Command 211

    The netstat Command 211

    The arp Command 211

CHAPTER 26 Cisco IOS Licensing 213

    Cisco Licensing Earlier Than IOS 15.0 213

    Cisco Licensing for the ISR G2 Platforms: IOS 15.0 and Later 215

    Verifying Licenses 215

    Cisco License Manager 215

    Installing a Permanent License 216

    Installing an Evaluation License 217

    Backing Up a License 217

    Uninstalling a License 217

Part IX Managing IP Services

CHAPTER 27 Network Address Translation 219

    Configuring Dynamic NAT: One Private to One Public Address Translation 219

    Configuring PAT: Many Private to One Public Address Translation 221

    Configuring Static NAT: One Private to One Permanent Public Address Translation 222

    Verifying NAT and PAT Configurations 223

    Troubleshooting NAT and PAT Configurations 224

    Configuration Example: PAT 224

        ISP Router 224

        Company Router 225

CHAPTER 28 Dynamic Host Confi guration Protocol (DHCP) 227

    Configuring a DHCP Server on an IOS Router 227

    Verifying and Troubleshooting DHCP Configuration 228

    Configuring a DHCP Helper Address 228

    DHCP Client on a Cisco IOS Software Ethernet Interface 229

    Configuration Example: DHCP 229

        Edmonton Router 229

        Gibbons Router 231

Part X WANs

CHAPTER 29 Confi guring Serial Encapsulation: HDLC and PPP 233

    Configuring HDLC Encapsulation on a Serial Line 233

    Configuring Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) on a Serial Line (Mandatory Commands) 233

    Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Compression 234

    Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Link Quality 234

    Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Multilink 234

    Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Authentication 234

    Verifying and Troubleshooting a Serial Link/PPP Encapsulation 235

    Configuration Example: PPP with CHAP Authentication 236

    Boston Router 236

    Buffalo Router 237

CHAPTER 30 Establishing WAN Connectivity Using Frame Relay 239

    Configuring Frame Relay 239

        Setting the Frame Relay Encapsulation Type 239

        Setting the Frame Relay Encapsulation LMI Type 239

        Setting the Frame Relay DLCI Number 240

        Configuring a Frame Relay map Statement 240

        Configuring a Description of the Interface (Optional) 240

        Configuring Frame Relay Using Subinterfaces 240

    Verifying Frame Relay 241

    Troubleshooting Frame Relay 242

    Configuration Example: Point-to-Point Frame Relay Using Subinterfaces and OSPF 242

        Houston Router 242

        Austin Router 244

        Galveston Router 244

        Laredo Router 245

    Configuration Example: Point-to-Multipoint Frame Relay Using Subinterfaces and EIGRP 246

        R1 Router 246

        R2 Router 247

        R3 Router 248

CHAPTER 31 Confi guring Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Tunnels 249

    Configuring a GRE Tunnel 249

        Branch Router 249

        HQ Router 250

    Verifying a GRE Tunnel 250

CHAPTER 32 Confi guring Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) 251

    Configuring a DSL Connection using PPPoE 251

        Step 1: Configure PPPoE (External Modem) 252

        Step 2: Configure the Dialer Interface 253

        Step 3: Define Interesting Traffic and Specify Default Routing 253

        Step 4: Configure NAT Using an ACL 254

        Step 5: Configure NAT Using a Route Map 254

        Step 6: Configure DHCP Service 255

        Step 7: Apply NAT Programming 255

        Step 8: Verify a PPPoE Connection 255

Part XI Network Security

CHAPTER 33 Managing Traffi c Using Access Control Lists (ACL) 257

    Access List Numbers 257

    Using Wildcard Masks 258

    ACL Keywords 258

    Creating Standard ACLs 259

    Applying Standard ACLs to an Interface 260

    Verifying ACLs 260

    Removing ACLs 260

    Creating Extended ACLs 261

    Applying Extended ACLs to an Interface 262

    The established Keyword (Optional) 262

    Creating Named ACLs 262

    Using Sequence Numbers in Named ACLs 263

    Removing Specific Lines in Named ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 264

    Sequence Number Tips 264

    Including Comments About Entries in ACLs 265

    Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 265

    Tips for Configuring ACLs 266

    ACLs and IPv6 266

    Configuration Examples: ACLs 267

Part XII Appendixes

APPENDIX A Binary/Hex/Decimal Conversion Chart 271

APPENDIX B Create Your Own Journal Here 279

9781587204302, TOC, 5/28/2013

 

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