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Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, CourseSmart eTextbook, 3rd Edition

By Daniel A. Crowl, Joseph F. Louvar

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: May 10, 2011

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Description

A new edition of the best-selling guide to chemical process safety - with important new content on reactivity, safe design, and much more

  • Extensive updates throughout, including an all-new chapter on chemical reactivity, responding to the U.S. Chemical Safety Board's new undergraduate chemical engineering education recommendations
  • Adds new coverage of safe design, including hot work permits, vessel entry, and more
  • An important new resource for today's growing number of chemical engineering students and practitioners

Table of Contents

Preface         xv

About the Authors         xvii

On the Cover         xviii

Nomenclature         xix


Chapter 1: Introduction          1

1-1 Safety Programs   2

1-2 Engineering Ethics   4

1-3 Accident and Loss Statistics   4

1-4 Acceptable Risk   12

1-5 Public Perceptions   14

1-6 The Nature of the Accident Process   15

1-7 Inherent Safety   20

1-8 Seven Significant Disasters   23

Suggested Reading   31

Problems   32

 

Chapter 2: Toxicology         37

2-1 How Toxicants Enter Biological Organisms   38

2-2 How Toxicants Are Eliminated from Biological Organisms   41

2-3 Effects of Toxicants on Biological Organisms   42

2-4 Toxicological Studies   43

2-5 Dose versus Response   44

2-6 Models for Dose and Response Curves   50

2-7 Relative Toxicity   56

2-8 Threshold Limit Values   56

2-9 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond   58

On-Line Resources   59

Suggested Reading   60

Problems   60

 

Chapter 3: Industrial Hygiene         65

3-1 Government Regulations   66

3-2 Industrial Hygiene: Anticipation and Identification   78

3-3 Industrial Hygiene: Evaluation   84

3-4 Industrial Hygiene: Control   99

On-Line Resources   109

Suggested Reading   109

Problems   110

 

Chapter 4: Source Models         119

4-1 Introduction to Source Models   119

4-2 Flow of Liquid through a Hole   122

4-3 Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank   126

4-4 Flow of Liquids through Pipes   131

4-5 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Holes   140

4-6 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Pipes   146

4-7 Flashing Liquids   163

4-8 Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling   169

4-9 Realistic and Worst-Case Releases   170

4-10 Conservative Analysis   172

Suggested Reading   173

Problems   174

 

Chapter 5: Toxic Release and Dispersion Models         185

5-1 Parameters Affecting Dispersion   186

5-2 Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models   190

5-3 Dense Gas Dispersion   209

5-4 Dense Gas Transition to Neutrally Buoyant Gas   219

5-5 Toxic Effect Criteria   225

5-6 Effect of Release Momentum and Buoyancy   233

5-7 Release Mitigation   234

Suggested Reading   235

Problems   236

 

Chapter 6: Fires and Explosions         245

6-1 The Fire Triangle   245

6-2 Distinction between Fires and Explosions   247

6-3 Definitions   247

6-4 Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors   249

6-5 Limiting Oxygen Concentration and Inerting   260

6-6 Flammability Diagram   262

6-7 Ignition Energy   270

6-8 Autoignition   270

6-9 Auto-Oxidation   271

6-10 Adiabatic Compression   272

6-11 Ignition Sources   273

6-12 Sprays and Mists   274

6-13 Explosions   275

Suggested Reading   304

Problems   305

 

Chapter 7: Concepts to Prevent Fires and Explosions         317

7-1 Inerting   318

7-2 Static Electricity   333

7-3 Controlling Static Electricity   356

7-4 Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments   363

7-5 Ventilation   367

7-6 Sprinkler Systems   370

7-7 Miscellaneous Concepts for Preventing Fires and Explosions   374

Suggested Reading   374

Problems   375

 

Chapter 8: Chemical Reactivity         381

8-1 Background Understanding   382

8-2 Commitment,Awareness, and Identification of Reactive Chemical Hazards   384

8-3 Characterization of Reactive Chemical Hazards Using Calorimeters   390

8-4 Controlling Reactive Hazards   416

Suggested Reading   418

Problems   418

 

Chapter 9: Introduction to Reliefs         429

9-1 Relief Concepts   430

9-2 Definitions   432

9-3 Location of Reliefs   433

9-4 Relief Types and Characteristics   436

9-5 Relief Scenarios   443

9-6 Data for Sizing Reliefs   444

9-7 Relief Systems   444

Suggested Reading   452

Problems   453

 

Chapter 10: Relief Sizing         459

10-1 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Liquid Service   460

10-2 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service   466

10-3 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Liquid Service   470

10-4 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service   471

10-5 Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief   472

10-6 Pilot-Operated and Bucking-Pin Reliefs   481

10-7 Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions   481

10-8 Venting for Fires External to Process Vessels   488

10-9 Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids   492

Suggested Reading   496

Problems   497

 

Chapter 11: Hazards Identification         505

11-1 Process Hazards Checklists   508

11-2 Hazards Surveys   508

11-3 Hazards and Operability Studies   524

11-4 Safety Reviews   530

11-5 Other Methods   537

Suggested Reading   538

Problems   538

 

Chapter 12: Risk Assessment         549

12-1 Review of Probability Theory   550

12-2 Event Trees   564

12-3 Fault Trees   569

12-4 QRA and LOPA   577

Suggested Reading   588

Problems   588

 

Chapter 13: Safety Procedures and Designs         597

13-1 Process Safety Hierarchy   598

13-2 Managing Safety   599

13-3 Best Practices   600

13-4 Procedures–Operating   600

13-5 Procedures–Permits   601

13-6 Procedures–Safety Reviews and Accident Investigations   603

13-7 Designs for Process Safety   604

13-8 Miscellaneous Designs for Fires and Explosions   615

13-9 Designs for Runaway Reactions   615

13-10 Designs for Handling Dusts   616

Suggested Reading   617

Problems   618

 

Chapter 14: Case Histories         621

14-1 Static Electricity   622

14-2 Chemical Reactivity   626

14-3 System Designs   631

14-4 Procedures   637

14-5 Training   642

14-6 Conclusion   645

Suggested Reading  646

Problems   646

 

Appendix A: Unit Conversion Constants         649

 

Appendix B: Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons         653

 

Appendix C: Detailed Equations for Flammability Diagrams         659

Equations Useful for Gas Mixtures   659

Equations Useful for Placing Vessels into and out of Service   664

 

Appendix D: Formal Safety Review Report for Example 10-4         669

 

Appendix E: Saturation Vapor Pressure Data         679

 

Appendix F: Special Types of Reactive Chemicals         681

 

Appendix G: Hazardous Chemicals Data for a Variety of Chemical Substances         687

 

Index 695

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Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, CourseSmart eTextbook, 3rd Edition
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$80.00 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-276246-5