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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

By Nivaldo J. Tro

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Dec 31, 2006

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving

1.1 Atoms and Molecules

1.2 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge

     The Nature of Science: Thomas S. Kuhn and Scientific Revolutions

1.3 The Classification of Matter

     The States of Matter: Solid, Liquid and Gas

     Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

     Separating Mixtures

1.4 Physical and Chemical Changes and Physical and Chemical Properties

1.5 Energy: A Fundamental Part of Physical and Chemical Change

1.6 The Units of Measurement

     A Meter: A Measure of Length

     The Kilogram: A Measure of Mass

     The Second:  A Measure of Time

     The Kelvin: A Measure of Temperature

     Prefix Multipliers

     Derived Units: Volume and Density

     Calculating Density

     Chemistry and Medicine: Bone Density

1.7 The Reliability of a Measurement

     Counting Significant Figures

     Exact Numbers

     Significant Figures in Calculations

     Precision and Accuracy

     Chemistry in Your Day: Integrity in Data Gathering

1.8 Solving Chemical Problems

     Converting From One Unit to Another

     General Problem-Solving Strategy

     Units Raised to a Power

     Order of Magnitude Estimations

     Problems Involving an Equation 


Chapter 2

Atoms and Elements

2.1 Imaging and Moving Individual Atoms

2.2 Early Ideas about the Building Blocks of Matter

2.3 Modern Atomic Theory and the Laws That Led to It

     The Law of Conservation of Mass

     The Law of Definite Proportions

     The Law of Multiple Proportions

     John Dalton and The Atomic Theory

     Chemistry in Your Day: Atoms and Humans

2.4 The Discovery of the Electron

     Cathode Rays

     Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment: The Charge of the Electron

2.5 The Structure of The Atom

2.6 Subatomic Particles: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons in Atoms

     Elements: Defined by Their Number of Protons

     Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies

     Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons

2.7 Finding Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table

     Ions and The Periodic Table

     Chemistry and Medicine: The Elements of Life

2.8 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element’s Atoms

     Mass Spectrometry: Measuring the Mass of Atoms and Molecules

2.9 Molar Mass: Counting Atoms by Weighing Them

     The Mole: A Chemist’s “Dozen”

     Converting between Number of Moles and Number of Atoms

     Converting between Mass and Amount (Number of Moles)


Chapter 3

Molecules, Compounds and Chemical Equations

3.1 Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water

3.2 Chemical Bonds

3.3 Representing Compounds: Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models

     Types of Chemical Formulas

     Molecular Models

3.4 An Atomic-Level Perspective of Elements and Compounds

3.5 Ionic Compounds: Formulas and Names

     Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

     Naming Ionic Compounds

     Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

     Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal that Forms More than One Kind of Cation

     Naming Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

     Hydrated Ionic Compounds

3.6 Molecular Compounds: Formulas and Names

     Naming Molecular Compounds

     Naming Acids

     Naming Binary Acids

     Naming Oxyacids

     Chemistry in the Environment: Acid Rain

3.7 Formula Mass and The Mole Concept for Compounds

     Molar Mass of a Compound

     Using Molar Mass to Count Molecules by Weighing

3.8 Composition of Compounds

     Mass Percent Composition as a Conversion Factor

     Conversion Factors from Chemical Formulas

     Chemistry and Medicine: Methylmercury in Fish

3.9 Determining a Chemical Formula from Experimental Data

     Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds

     Combustion Analysis

3.10 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

     How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations

3.11 Organic Compounds (optional section)


     Functionalized Hydrocarbons


Chapter 4

Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions

4.1 Global Warming and the Combustion of Fossil Fuels

4.2 Reaction Stoichiometry: How Much Carbon Dioxide?

     Making Pizza: The Relationship among Ingredients

     Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions

     Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions

4.3 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield

     Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield From Initial Reactant Masses

     Chemistry in the Environment: MTBE in Gasoline

4.4 Solution Concentration and Solution Stoichiomentry

     Using Molarity in Calculations

     Solution Dilution

     Solution Stoichiomentry

4.5 Types of Aqueous Solutions and Solubility

     Electrolyte and Nonelectrolyte Solutions

     The Solubility of Ionic Compounds

4.6 Precipitation Reactions

4.7 Representing Aqueous Reactions: Molecular, Ionic, and Complete Ionic Equations

4.8 Acid-Base and Gas-Evolution Reactions

     Acid-Base Reactions

     Acid-Base Titrations

     Gas-Evolution Reactions

4.9 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

     Oxidation States

     Identifying Redox Reactions

     Chemistry in Your Day: Bleached Blonde

     Combustion Reactions


Chapter 5


5.1 Water from Wells: Atmospheric Pressure at Work

5.2 Pressure: The result of Molecular Collisions

     Pressure Units

     The Manometer: A Way to Measure Pressure in the Laboratory

     Chemistry and Medicine: Blood Pressure

5.3 The Simple Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Law

     Boyle’s Law: Volume and Pressure

     Chemistry in Your Day: Extra-Long Snorkels

     Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature

     Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Amount (in Moles)

5.4 The Ideal Gas Law

5.5 Applications of the Ideal Gas Law: Molar Volume, Density and Molar Mass of a Gas

     Molar Volume at Standard Temperature and Pressure

     Density of a Gas

     Molar Mass of a Gas

5.6 Mixtures of Gases and Partial Pressures

     Deep Sea Diving and Partial Pressure

     Collecting Gases Over Water

5.7 Gases in Chemical Reactions: Stoichiometry Revisited

     Molar Volume and Stoichiometry

5.8 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases

     Kinetic Molecular Theory and the Ideal Gas Law

     Temperature and Molecular Velocities

5.9 Mean Free Path, Diffusion, and Effusion of Gases

5.10 Real Gases: The Effects of Size and Intermolecular Forces

     The Effect of the Finite Volume of Gas Particles

     The Effect of Intermolecular Forces

     Van der Waal’s Equation

     Real Gases

5.11 Chemistry of the Atmosphere: Air Pollution and Ozone Depletion

     Air Pollution

     Ozone Depletion


Chapter 6


6.1 Light the Furnace: The Nature of Energy and Its Transformations

     The Nature of Energy: Key Definitions

     Units of Energy

6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics: There Is No Free Lunch

     Chemistry in Your Day: Redheffer’s Perpetual Motion Machine

     Internal Energy

6.3 Quantifying Heat and Work


     Work: Pressure-Volume Work

6.4 Measuring DE for Chemical Reactions: Constant-Volume Calorimetry

6.5 Enthalpy: The Heat Evolved in a Chemical Reaction at Constant Pressure

     Exothermic and Endothermic Processes: A Molecular View

     Stoichiometry Involving DH: Thermochemical Equations

6.6 Constant Pressure Calorimetry: Measuring DHrxn

6.7 Relationships Involving DHrxn

6.8 Enthalpies of Reaction from Standard Heats of Formation

     Standard States and Standard Enthalpy Changes

     Calculating The Standard Enthalpy Change for a Reaction

6.9 Energy Use and The Environment

     Environmental Problems Associated With Fossil Fuel Use

     Chemistry and The Environment: Renewable Energy


Chapter 7

The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom

7.1 Quantum Mechanics: A Theory That Explains the Behavior of the Absolutely Small

7.2 The Nature of Light

     The Wave Nature of Light

     The Electromagnetic Spectrum

     Chemistry and Medicine: Radiation Treatment for Cancer

     Interference and Diffraction

     The Particle Nature of Light

7.3 Atomic Spectroscopy and the Bohr Model

     Chemistry in Your Day: Atomic Spectroscopy, a Bar Code for Atoms

7.4 The Wave Nature of Matter: The de Broglie Wavelength, t he Uncertainty Principle, and Probability

     The de Broglie Wavelength

     The Uncertainty Principle

     Indeterminacy and Probability Distribution Maps

7.5 Quantum Mechanics and the Atom

     Solutions to the Schrödinger Equation for the Hydrogen Atom

          Atomic Spectroscopy Explained

7.6 The Shapes of Atomic Orbitals

     p Orbitals (l = 1)

     d Orbitals (l = 2)

     f Orbitals (l = 3)


Chapter 8

Periodic Properties of the Elements

8.1 Nerve Signal Transmission

8.2 The Development of the Periodic Table

8.3 Electron Configurations: How Electrons Occupy Orbitals

     Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

     Sublevel Energy Splitting in Multi-electron Atoms

     Electron Configurations for Multi-electron Atoms

8.4 Electron Configurations, Valence Electrons, and The Periodic Table

     Orbital Blocks in the Periodic Table

     Writing and Electron Configuration for an Element from Its position in The Periodic Table

     The Transition and Inner Transition Elements

8.5 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model

8.6 Periodic Trends in the Size of Atoms and Effective Nuclear Charge

     Effective Nuclear Charge

     Atomic Radii and the Transition Elements

8.7 Ions: Electron Configurations, Magnetic Properties, Ionic Radii, and Ionization Energy

     Electron Configurations and Magnetic Properties of Ions

     Ionic Radii

     Ionization Energy

     Trends in First Ionization Energy

     Exceptions to Trends in First Ionization Energy

     Trends in Second and Successive Ionization Energies

8.8 Electron Affinities and Metallic Character

     Electron Affinity

     Metallic Character

8.9 Some Examples of Periodic Chemical Behavior: The Alkali Metals, The Halogens and The Noble Gases

     The Alkali Metals (Group 1A)

     The Halogens (Group 7A)

     Chemistry and Medicine: Potassium Iodide in Radiation Emergencies

     The Noble Gases (Group 8A)


Chapter 9

Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory

9.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs

9.2 Types of Chemical Bonds

9.3 Representing Valance Electrons with Dots

9.4 Ionic Bonding: Lewis Structures and Lattice Energies

     Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

     Lattice Energy: The Rest of the Story

     The Born-Haber Cycle

     Trends in Lattice Energies: ion Size

     Trends in Lattice Energies: Ion Charge

     Ionic Bonding: Models and Reality

     Chemistry and Medicine: Ionic Compounds as Drugs

9.5 Covalent Bonding: Lewis Structure

     Single Covalent Bonds

     Double and Triple Covalent Bonds

     Covalent Bonding: Models and Reality

9.6 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity


     Bond Polarity, Dipole Moment, and Percent Ionic Character

9.7 Lewis Structures of Molecular Compounds and Polyatomic Ions

     Writing Lewis Structures for Molecular Compounds

     Writing Lewis Structures for Polyatomic Ions

9.8 Resonance and Formal Charge


     Formal Charge

9.9 Exceptions to the Octet Rule: Odd Electron Species, Incomplete Octets, and Expanded Octets

     Odd Electron Species

     Chemistry and the Environment: Free Radicals and the Atmospheric Vacuum Cleaner

     Incomplete Octets

     Expanded Octets

9.10 Bond Energies and Bond Lengths

     Bond Energy

     Using Bond Energies to Estimate Enthalpy Changes for Reactions

     Bond Lengths

     Chemistry and The Environment: The Lewis Structure of Ozone

9.11 Bonding in Metals: The Electron Sea Model


Chapter 10

Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes, Valance Bond Theory, and Molecular Orbital Theory

10.1 Artificial Sweeteners: Fooled by Molecular Shape

10.2 VSPER Theory: The Five Basic Shapes

     Two Electron Groups: Linear Geometry

     Three Electron Groups: Trigonal Planar Geometry

     Four Electron Groups: Tetrahedral Geometry

     Five Electron Groups: Octahedral Geometry

10.3 VSPER Theory: The Effect of Lone Pairs

     Four Electron Groups with Lone Pairs

     Five Electron Groups with Lone Pairs

     Six Electron Groups with Lone Pairs

     Summary of VSPER theory

10.4 VSPER Theory: Predicting Molecular Geometries

     Predicting the Shapes of Larger Molecules

10.5 Molecular Shape and Polarity

     Chemistry in Your Day: How Soap Works

10.6 Valence Bond Theory: Orbital Overlap as a Chemical Bond

10.7 Valence Bond Theory: Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

     sp2 Hybridization and Double Bonds

     Everryday Chemistry: The Chemistry of Vision

     sp Hybridization and Triple Bonds

     sp3d and sp3d2 Hybridization

     Writing Hybridization and Bonding Schemes

10.8 Molecular Orbital Theory: Electron Delocalization

     Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO)

     Main Ideas in Applying LCAO-MO Theory

     Period Two Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules

     Period Two Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

     Polyatomic Molecules


Chapter 11

Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces

11.1 Climbing Geckos and Intermolecular Forces

11.2 Solids, Liquids, and Gases: A Molecular Comparison

     Changes Between Phases

11.3 Intermolecular Forces: The Forces that Hold Condensed Phases Together

     Dispersion Force

     Dipole-Dipole Force

     Hydrogen Bonding

     Ion-dipole Force

     Chemistry and Medicine: Hydrogen Bonding in DNA

11.4 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension, Viscosity, and Capillary Action

     Surface Tension


     Chemistry in Your Day: Viscosity and Motor Oil

     Capillary Action

11.5 Vaporization and Vapor Pressure

     The Process of Vaporization

     The Energetics of Vaporization

     Vapor Pressure and Dynamic Equilibrium

     Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point

     The Clausius Clapeyron Equation

     The Critical Point: The Transition to an Unusual Phase of Matter

11.6 Sublimation and Fusion



     Energetics of Melting and Freezing

11.7 Heating Curve for Water

11.8 Phase Diagrams

     The Major Features of a Phase Diagram

     Navigation Within a Phase Diagram

     The Phase Diagrams of Other Substances

11.9 Water: An Extraordinary Substance

     Chemistry in the Environment: Water Pollution

11.10 Crystalline Solids: Determining Their Structure by X-Ray Crystallography

11.11 Crystalline Solids: Unit Cells and Basic Structures

     Simple Cubic Unit Cell

     Close-Packed Structures

11.12 Crystalline Solids: The Fundamental Types

     Molecular Solids

     Ionic Solids

     Atomic Solids

11.13 Crystalline Solids: Band Theory

     Doping: Controlling the Conductivity of Semiconductors


Chapter 12


12.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Should Not Drink Seawater

12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility

     Nature’s Tendency Toward Mixing: Entropy

     The Effect of Intermolecular Forces

12.3 Energetics of Solution Formation

     Aqueous Solutions and Heats of Hydration

12.4 Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility

     The Temperature Dependence of the Solubility of Solids

     Factors Affecting the Solubility of Gases in Water

     Chemistry in the Environment: Lake Nyos

12.5 Expressing Solution Concentration



     Parts by Mass and Parts by Volume

     Mole Fraction and Mole Percent

12.6 The Vapor Pressure of a Solution

     Ionic Solutes and Vapor Pressure

     Ideal and Non-Ideal Solutions

12.7 Freezing Point Depression, Boiling Point Elevation, and Osmosis

     Freezing Point Depression

     Chemistry in Your Day: Antifreeze in Frogs

     Boiling Point Elevation


     Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions

     Colligative Properties and Medical Solutions   

12.8 Colloids


Chapter 13

Chemical Kinetics

13.1 Catching Lizards

13.2 Rate of a Chemical Reaction

     Measuring Reaction Rates

13.3 The Rate Law: The Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate

     Determining the Order of a Reaction

     Reaction Order for Multiple Reactants

13.4 The Integrated Rate Law: The Dependence of Concentration on Time

     First-order Integrated Rate Law  

     Second-order Integrated Rate Law

     Zero-order Integrated Rate Law   

     The Half-Life of a Reaction

     First-order Reaction Half-Life

     Second-order Reaction Half-Life

     Zero-order Reaction Half-Life

13.5 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate

     Arrhenius Plots: Experimental Measurements of the Frequency Factor and the Activation Energy

     The Collision Model: A Closer Look at the Frequency Factor

13.6 Reaction Mechanisms

     Rate Laws for Elementary Steps

     Rate-Determining Steps and Overall Reaction rate Laws

     Mechanisms with a Fast Initial Step

13.7 Catalysis

     Homogenous and Heterogenous Catalysis

     Enzymes: Biological Catalysts

     Chemistry and Medicine: Enzyme Catalysis and the Role of Chymotrypsin in Digestion


Chapter 14

Chemical Equilibrium

14.1 Fetal Hemoglobin and Equilibrium

14.2 The Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium

     Chemistry and Medicine: Life and Equilibrium

14.3 The Equilibrium Constant (K)

     Expressing Equilibrium Constants for Chemical Reactions

     The Significance of the Equilibrium Constant

     Relationships Between the Equilibrium Constant and the Chemical Equation

14.4 Expressing the Equilibrium Constant in Terms of Pressure

     Units of K

14.5 Heterogenous Equilibria: Reactions Involving Solids and Liquids

14.6 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant From Measured Equilibrium Concentrations

14.7 The Reaction Quotient: Predicting the Direction of Change

14.8 Finding Equilibrium Concentrations

     Simplifying Approximations in Working Equilibrium Problems

14.9 Le Châtelier’s Principle: How a System at Equilibrium Responds to Disturbances

     The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium

     The Effect of a Volume (or Pressure) Change on Equilibrium

     The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium


Chapter 15

Acids and Bases

15.1 Heartburn

15.2 The Nature of Acids and Bases

15.3 Definitions of Acids and Bases

     The Arrhenius Definition

     The Brønsted-Lowry definition

15.4 Acid Strength and the Acid Dissociation Constant (Ka)

     Strong Acids

     Weak Acids

     The acid ionization constant (Ka)

15.5 Autoionization of Water and pH

     The pH Scale: A Way to Quantify Acidity and Basicity

     pOH and Other p Scales

     Chemistry and Medicine: Ulcers

15.6 Finding the [H3O+] and pH of Strong and Weak Acid Solutions

     Percent Ionization of a Weak Acid

     Mixtures of Acids

     A Strong Acid and a Weak Acid

     A Mixture of Two Weak Acids

15.7 Base Solutions

     Strong Bases

     Weak Bases

     Finding [OH-] and pH of Basic Solutions

     Chemistry and Medicine: What’s in my Antacid?

15.8 The Acid-Base Properties of Ions and Salts

     Anions as Weak Bases

     Cations as Weak Acids

     Classifying Salt Solutions as Acidic, Basic, or Neutral

15.9 Polyprotic Acids

     Finding the pH of Polyprotic Acid Solutions

     Finding the concentration of the anions for a weak diprotic acid solutions

15.10 Acid Strength and Molecular Structure

     Binary Acids


15.11 Lewis Acids and Bases

     Molecules that act as Lewis Acids

     Cations that act as Lewis Acids

15.12 Acid rain

     Effects of Acid Rain


Chapter 16

Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium

16.1 The Danger of Antifreeze

16.2 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change

     Calculating the pH of a Buffer Solution

     The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation

     Calculating pH Changes in a Buffer Solution

     Buffers Containing a Base and Its Conjugate Acid

16.3 Buffer Effectiveness: Buffer Capacity and Buffer Range

     Relative Amounts of Acid and Base

     Absolute concentrations of the acid and conjugate base

     Buffer Range

     Buffer Capacity

     Chemistry and Medicine: Buffer Effectiveness in Human Blood

16.4 Titrations and pH Curves

     The Titration of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base

     The Titration of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base

     Titration of a Polyprotic Acid

     Indicators: pH-Dependent Colors

16.5 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product Constant

     Ksp and Molar Solubility

     Chemistry in Your Day: Hard Water

     Ksp and Relative Solubility

     The Effect of a Common Ion on Solubility

     The Effect of pH on Solubility

16.6 Precipitation

     Selective Precipitation

16.7 Qualitative Chemical Analysis

     Group I: Insoluble Chlorides

     Group II: Acid-Insoluble Sulfides

     Group III: Base-Insoluble Sulfides and Hydroxides

     Group IV: Insoluble Carbonates

     Group V: Alkali Metals and NH4+

16.8 Complex Ion Equilibria

     The Effect of Complex Ion Equilibria in Solubility

     The Solubility of Amphoteric Metal Hydroxides


Chapter 17

Free Energy and Thermodynamics

17.1 Nature’s Heat Tax: You Can’t Win and You Can’t Break Even

17.2 Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Processes

17.3 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics


     The Second Law of Thermodynamics

     The Entropy Change Associated with a Change in State

17.4 Heat Transfer and Changes in the Entropy of the Surroundings

     The Temperature Dependence of ΔSsurr

     Quantifying Entropy Changes in the Surroundings

17.5 Gibbs Free Energy

     The Effect of ΔH, ΔS, and T on Spontaneity

17.6Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Calculating ΔSrxn°

     Standard Molar Entropies (S°)and the Third Law of Thermodynamics

     Relative Standard Entropies: Gases, Liquids, and Solids

     Relative Standard Entropies: Molar Mass

     Relative Standard Entropies: Allotropes

     Relative Standard Entropies: Molecular Complexity

     Relative Standard Entropies: Dissolution

     Calculating the Standard Entropy Change (ΔSrxn°) for a Reaction

17.7 Free Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Calculating (ΔGrxn°)

     Calculating Free Energy Changes using ΔGrxn° = ΔHrxn° - T ΔSrxn°

     Calculating ΔGrxn°  using Tabulated Values of Free Energies of Formation

     Determining ΔGrxn° for a Stepwise Reaction from the Changes in Free Energy for Each of the Steps

     Chemistry in Your Day: Making a Nonspontaneous Process Spontaneous

     Why Free Energy is “Free”

17.8 Free Energy Changers for Non-Standard States: The Relationship between ΔGrxn° and ΔGrxn

     The Free Energy of reaction under Nonstandard Conditions

17.9 Free Energy and Equilibrium: Relating ΔGrxn° to the Equilibrium Constant (K)

     The Temperature Dependence of the Equilibrium Constant



Chapter 18


18.1 Pulling the Plug on the Power Grid

18.2 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations

18.3 Voltaic (or Galvanic) Cells: Generating Electricity from Spontaneous Chemical Reactions

     Electrochemical Cell Notation

18.4 Standard Reduction Potentials

     Predicting the Spontaneous Direction of an Oxidation-Reduction Reaction

     Predicting Whether a Metal Will Dissolve in Acid

18.5 Cell Potential, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant

       The Relationship Between ΔGo and Eocell

     The Relationship between Eocell and K

18.6 Cell Potential and Concentration


     Chemistry and Medicine: Concentration Cells in Human Nerve Cells

18.7 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity

     Dry-Cell Batteries

     Lead-Acid Storage Batteries

     Other Rechargeable Batteries

     Fuel Cells

     Chemistry In Your Day: The Fue-Cell Breathalyzer

18.8 Electrolysis: Driving Non-spontaneous Chemical Reactions with Electricity

     Predicting the Products of Electrolysis

     Stoichiometry of Electrolysis

18.9 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions

     Preventing Corrosion


Chapter 19

Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

19.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis

19.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity

19.3 Types of Radioactivity

     Alpha (α) Decay

     Beta (β) Decay

     Gamma (γ) Ray Emission

     Postitron Emission

     Electron Capture

19.4 The Valley of Stability: Predicting the Type of Radioactivity

     Magic Numbers

     Radioactive Decay Series

19.5 Detecting Radioactivity

19.6 The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay and Radiometric Dating

     Chemistry in the Environment: Environmental Radon

     The Integrated Rate Law

     Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Artifacts

     Chemistry in your Day: Radiocarbon Dating and The Shroud of Turin

     Uranium-Lead Dating

     The Age of the Earth

19.7 The Discovery of Fission: The Atomic Bomb and Nuclear Power

     Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity

19.8 Converting Mass to Energy: Mass Defect and Nuclear Binding Energy

     Mass Defect

19.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun

19.10 Nuclear Transmutation and Transuranium Elements

19.11 The Effects of Radiation on Life

     Acute Radiation Damage

     Increased Cancer Risk

     Genetic Defects

     Measuring Radiation Exposure

19.12 Radioactivity in Medicine and Other Applications

     Diagnosis in Medicine

     Radiotherapy in Medicine

     Other Applications


Chapter 20

Organic Chemistry

20.1 Fragrances and Odor

20.2 Carbon: Why It Is Unique

     Chemistry In Your Day: Vitalism and the Perceived Difference Between Organic and Inorganic

20.3 Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing Only Carbon and Hydrocarbon

     Drawing Hydrocarbon Structures

     Stereo and Optical Isomerism

20.4 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons

     Naming Alkanes

20.5 Alkenes and Alkynes

     Naming Alkenes and Alkynes

     Geometric (cis-trans) Isomerism in Alkenes

20.6 Hydrocarbon Reactions

     Reactions of Alkanes

     Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes

20.7 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

     Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons

     Reactions of Aromatic Compounds

20.8 Functional Groups

20.9 Alcohols

     Naming Alcohols

     About Alcohols

     Alcohol Reactions

20.10 Aldehydes and Ketones

     Naming Aldehydes and Ketones

     About Aldehydes and Ketones

     Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions

20.11 Carboxylic Acids and Esters

     Naming Carboxylic Acids and Esters

     About Carboxylic Acids and Esters

     Carboxylic Acid and Ester Reactions

20.12 Ethers

     Naming Ethers

     About Ethers

20.13 Amines

     Amine Reactions

20.14 Polymers

     Chemistry in Your Day: Kevlar


Chapter 21


21.1 Diabetes and the Synthesis of Human Insulin

21.2 Lipids

     Fatty Acids

     Fats and Oils

     Chemistry and Health: Dietary Fat: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

     Other Lipids

21.3 Carbohydrates

     Simple Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Disaccharides

     Complex Carbohydrates

21.4 Proteins and Amino Acids

     Amino Acids: The Building Blocks of Proteins

     Peptide Bonding Between Amino Acids

     Chemistry and Medicine: The Essential Amino Acids

21.5 Protein Structure

     Primary Structure

     Secondary Structure

     Tertiary Structure

     Quaternary Structure

21.6 Nucleic Acids: Blueprints for Proteins

     Basic Structure of Nucleic Acids

     The Genetic Code

21.7 DNA Replication, the Double Helix, and Protein Synthesis

     DNA Replication and the Double Helix 

     Protein Synthesis

     Chemistry and Medicine: The Human Genome Project


Chapter 22

Chemistry of the Nonmetals

22.1 Insulated Nanowires

22.2 The Main-Group Elements: Bonding and Properties

     Atomic size and Types of Bonds

22.3 The Most Common Matter: Silicates

     Quartz and Glass


     Individual Silicate Units, Silicate Chains, and Silicate Sheets

22.4 Boron: An Intersting Group 3A Element and Its Amazing Structures

     Elemental Boron

     Boron Compounds: Trihalides

     Boron-Oxygen Compounds

     Boron-Hydrogen Compounds: Boranes

22.5 Carbon, Carbides, and Carbonates



     Carbon Oxides


22.6 Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Essential Elements for Life

     Elemental Nitrogen and Phosphorus

     Nitrogen Compounds

     Nitrogen Hydrides

     Nitrogen Oxides

     Nitric Acid, Nitrates, and Nitrides

     Phosphorus Compounds


     Phosphorus Halides

     Phosphorous Oxides

     Phosphoric Acid and Phosphates

22.7 Oxygen

     Elemental Oxygen

     Uses for Oxygen



22.8 Sulfur: A Dangerous but Useful Element

     Elemental Sulfur

     Hydrogen Sulfide and Metal Sulfides

     Sulfur Dioxide

     Sulfuric Acid

22.9 Halogens: Reactive Chemicals with High Electronegativity

     Elemental Fluorine and Hydrofluoric Acid

     Elemental Cl and HCl

     Halogen Compounds

     Interhalogen Compounds

     Halogen Oxides


Chapter 23

Metals and Metallurgy

23.1 Vanadium: A Problem and an Opportunity

23.2 The General Properties and Natural Distribution of Metals

23.3 Metallurgical Processes





     Powder Metallurgy

23.4 Metal Structures and Alloys


     Substitutional Alloys: Miscible Solid Solutions

     Alloys with Limited Solubility

     Interstital Alloys

23.5 Sources, Properties, and Products of Some of the 3d Transition Metals









Chapter 24

Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

24.1 The Colors of Rubies and Emeralds

24.2 Properties of Transition Metals

     Electronic Configurations

     Atomic Size

     Ionization Energy


     Oxidation States

24.3 Coordination Compounds

     Naming Coordination Compounds

24.4 Structure and Isomerization

     Structural Isomerism


24.5 Bonding in Coordinate Compounds

     Valance Bond Theory

     Crystal Field Theory

     Octahedral Complexes

     The Color of Complex Ions and Crystal Field Strength

     Magnetic Properties

     Tetrahedral and Square Planar Complexes

     Chelating Agents

     Chemical Analysis

     Coloring Agents


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