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Child Welfare and Family Services: Policies and Practice, CourseSmart eTextbook, 8th Edition

By Susan Whitelaw Downs, Ernestine Moore, Emily Jean McFadden, Lela B. Costin

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 25, 2008

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Description

This thorough revision of Child Welfare and Family Services reflects current issues, controversies, and innovative practice methods in both family and child services.  It provides a strong historical context to current programs, issues, and policy decisions; as well as in-depth information on legal and legislative frameworks. 

 

A new chapter on child welfare practice, including an expanded treatment of foster care, provides a foundation for social work interventions with children.  In addition, new and updated information covers topics such as; child welfare issues with immigrant families, child outcome measurements, forensic interviewing, advocacy, court documentation, federal legislation, child welfare in a global context, cultural competence, protective/preventive services, day care/child development programs, income security, kinship care, family preservation, and adoption.

Table of Contents

Preface

 

1.  An Introduction to Family and Child Services

The Changing American Family

Problems of Children and Young Persons

            Being Poor Means Being at Risk

            Alienation, Violence, and Substance Abuse

            Children of Vulnerable Families

Rights and Responsibilities

            Rights and Responsibilities of Children

            Rights and Responsibilities of Parents

            Rights and Responsibilities of Society

Historical Highlights of Services to Families and Children

            Indenture and “Outdoor Relief”

            Children’s Institutions and the Growth of Voluntary Agencies

            State Boards of Charities

            Federal Government Involvement

            Growth of Federal Programs

Public Policies for Families and Children

            Family Policy

Child and Family Services

            Principles of Child and Family Services

            Classification of Services

            Pyramid of Services

Race and Ethnicity in Child Welfare

The Organization of Services

            Public Child Welfare Services

            Voluntary Family and Child Agencies

            Proprietary Child Welfare Services

            Interagency Partnerships

            Program Example:  System of Care

Trends and Issues

Child Welfare in a Global Context

The Increasing Complexity of Child Welfare Practice

Disaster Planning

Chapter Summary

For Study and Discussion

Study and Discussion Questions

Internet Sites

References

 

2.  Government Programs to Support Families and Children

 

 

CASE EXAMPLE:  WELFARE REFORM CREATES HARD CHOICES FOR MOTHERS

FAMILY INCOME SECURITY

NATURE OF POVERTY AMONG CHILDREN

            Extent

            Factors Contributing to Poverty

PUBLIC ASSISTANCE:  TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

            Background of the TANF Program

            Provisions of TANF

WORK AND FAMILY SUPPORTS

            SCHIP and Medicaid

            Food Programs

            Earned Income Tax Credit

            Child Support Enforcement

            Social Insurance

            Supplemental Security Income

ASSESSMENT OF WELFARE REFORM

SUPPORTING FAMILIES WITH DAY CARE AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

            Federal Legislation

            The Family and Medical Leave Act

            Day Care Regulation

            Working Parents’ Child Care Arrangements

            Head Start

            Does Head Start Have Lasting Effects?

Policy Issues in Child Care: Availability, Cost, and Quality        

MEASURING THE WELL-BEING OF AMERICA’S CHILDREN

TRENDS AND ISSUES

            Income Supports for Immigrant Families

Welfare Reform:  Challenging Population

CHAPTER SUMMARY

FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION

            Study and Discussion Questions

            Internet Sites

REFERENCES

 

3. Services to Prevent Maltreatment and Support Families

Case Example:  Reaching Out to a Family at Risk for Child Maltreatment

Need for Preventive and Family Support Services

The Many Faces of Family Life

Single-Parent Families

Families with Lesbian or Gay Parents

Early Childbearing and the Family

Culturally Diverse Families

Immigrant Families

African American Families

Hispanic/Latino Families

Native American Families

Framework for Preventive and Family Support Services

Attributes of Preventive Services

Levels of Preventive Services

Attachment Theory

Social Learning Theory

Risk and Protective Factors in Child Abuse and Neglect

An Ecological Model:  Prevention of Maltreatment of Children with Disabilities

Family Support Services

Home Visiting:  Hawaii’s Healthy Start Program

Family Support Programs for Teen Parents

Special Services for Pregnant and Parenting Teens

Family Support Programs in Economically Deprived Communities

Assessment of Family Support Programs

Social Work Roles in Family Support

Other Approaches to Strengthening Families

Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents

Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs

Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programs

Community Approaches

Multiservice Centers for Chinese Immigrant Families

Interagency Cooperation to Prevent Child Maltreatment

Community Awareness Campaigns

Fatherhood Programs

Trends and Issues

Controversy over Corporal Punishment

Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Schools

Chapter Summary

For Study and Discussion

Study and Discussion Questions

Internet Sites

References

 

4:  Child Welfare Principles and Practice

Case Example:  The Jones Family Experiences the Child Welfare System

Introduction

            Nature and Use of Authority

Fundamental Principles of Child Welfare Practice

            Child Safety, Well-being and Permanency

            Child Focused, Family-centered Practice

The Casework Process

            What is Casework?

            Fundamentals of the Casework Process

Basic Tasks in Child Welfare Practice

            Information Gathering

            Assessment

            Service Planning and Service Delivery

            Case Record Documentation

            Crisis Intervention and Stabilization Services

Trends and Issues

Chapter Summary

For Study and Discussion

            Study and Discussion Questions

            Internet Sites

References

 

5.  Law and Procedure:  Court Intervention with Children, Youth, and Families

Introduction

The Juvenile Court Movement

            Philosophy and Purpose

            Founding

            The Early Question of Constitutionality

            Supreme Court Decisions:  New Procedural Directions

The Family Court Movement

The Criminal Court Movement

The Structure of the Legal System

            Trial and Appellate Courts

            Jurisdiction

            Evidence

            Standards of Proof

            Indian Child Welfare Act:  An Example of Federal Law Superseding State Law

Legal Matters in the Child Welfare System

            Abuse, Neglect, Abandonment, or Dependency

            Juvenile Delinquency

            Status Offenses

            Adoption

            Guardianship

            Paternity Establishment, Support, and Visitation

            Child Custody, Support, and Visitation

Court Procedures

            Processing the Abuse/Neglect or Delinquency Case in Juvenile or Family Court

            How a Juvenile Offender Comes before the Criminal Court

            Processing a Juvenile Offender in Criminal Court

The Role of the Caseworker in the Court Process

            Critical Elements in Forensic Interviewing

            Case Record Documentation

            Example:  Case Documentation

            Example:  Court Report

            Testifying

            Working with Other Professionals

Trends and Issues

Chapter Summary

For Study and Discussion

            Study and Discussion Questions

            Internet Sites

References

 

6:  Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect

Case Example:  A Protective Services Investigation

Incidence

Aims and Special Attributes of Child Protective Services

Historical Development of Protective Services

            Early Attitudes toward the Treatment of Children

            Beginnings of Care for Neglected Children

            Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children

            Who Should Do Protective Work?

            The Rediscovery of Child Abuse:  The Battered Child Syndrome

            The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act

            Shifting Priorities:  Child Safety and Family Preservation

The Definitional Dilemma

            Dimensions of Child Maltreatment

            Cultural Attitudes

Reporting Child Maltreatment

            Problems with the Reporting Law

            Filing a Report

An Ecological View of Child Maltreatment

            Social/Environmental Risk Factors

            Parental Characteristics

            Child Characteristics

Types of Child Maltreatment

            Child Neglect

            Types of Neglect

            Child Abuse

            Psychological Maltreatment

            Sexual Abuse of Children

Consequences of Child Maltreatment

            Child Fatalities

            The Resilient Child

The Practice of Child Protection

            Core Services of Child Protective Services

            Decision Making in Child Protective Services

            Assessing Risk and Safety

            Protecting Children at Home or in Foster Care

Aspects of Community Support and Influence

            Multidisciplinary Teams

            Advocacy Organizations

Trends and Issues

            Child Protective Services in a Comprehensive System

Chapter Summary

For Study and Discussion

            Study and Discussion Questions

            Internet Sites

References

 

7.  Family Preservation Services

Case Example:  Using Intensive Family-Based Services to Prevent Placement

Controversy Concerning Family Preservation Philosophy and Services

Characteristics of Family Preservation Services

            Principles of Family Preservation Services

            Theoretical Base

Programs that Prevent Placement and Preserve Families

            The Homebuilders Model

            Other Models

            Family Preservation and Domestic Violence

            Family Preservation and Children’s Mental Health Needs

            Family Preservation for Substance-Affected Families

The Practice of Family-Based Services

Case Study:  Protecting Children from Sexual Abuse and Domestic Violence in a     Rural Setting

Culturally Competent Family Preservation Services

Other Approaches that Help High-Risk Families

            Treating Loneliness

            Help with Reality Problems

Evaluation of Family Preservation Programs

Kinship Care as Family Preservation

            The Cultural Tradition of Kinship Care among American Indian Families

            The Cultural Tradition of Kinship Care among African American Families

            Family Group Decision Making

            Case Study of Mental Health Consumers

            Policy and Program Issues in Kinship Care

Trends and Issues

            Assessment of Family Functioning

Chapter Summary

For Study and Discussion

            Study and Discussion Questions

            Internet Sites

References

 

8.  Foster Care: History, Laws, Policies, and Structure

Introduction

Why Children Are Placed in Care

            Family Characteristics

Characteristics of Children in Care

            Age, Ethnicity, and Other Variables

Basic Characteristics of Foster Care

            Underlying Principles

Historical Development

            Indenture, Almshouses, and Institutions

            Orphan Trains and Free Foster Homes

            The White House Conference on Children

Child Welfare Reforms in the Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries

            Family Foster Care,  A Response to Institutional Care

            The Permanency Planning Movement

            Family Preservation

            Family Continuity and Kinship/Relative Care

            Safety, Well-being, and Permanency

            Residential Care — Renewed Interest

Federal Role in Child Welfare

            Title IV of the Social Security Act

            The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978

The Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 as Amended by the Interethnic Placement Provisions of 1996

            The Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997

The Foster Care Independence Act of 1999

            The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005

            The Safe and Timely Interstate Placement of Foster Children Act of 2006

            The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006

            The Child and Family Services Improvement Act of 2006

            The Child and Family Services Review Process

State Role in Child Welfare

            Policy Framework

            Funding Framework

            Service Delivery Framework

Foster Care Placement Options

            Kinship/Relative Foster Care

            Policy and Program Issues in Kinship Care

            Nonrelated Family Foster Care

            Types of Family Foster Homes

            Specialized and Treatment Foster Care

            Shared Family Care

            Residential Group Care

            Agency Group Homes

Independent Living Services

Professional Issues in Foster Care

            Staff Education, Training and Supervision

            Conflicts in Providing Services to Children and Parents

            Facilitating Effective Teamwork

            Resource Availability

            Foster Parent and Relative Caregiver Training and Monitoring

            Protecting Children and Youth in Out-of-Home Care

            Media or Advocacy Group Involvement

            Monitoring and Oversight

Trends and Issues

            Privatization and Managed Care

Minority Overrepresentation

            Subsidized Guardianship

            Paternal Relatives as Placement Options

            Class Action Litigation

Chapter Summary

For Study and Discussion

            Study and Discussion Questions

            Internet Sites

References

 

Chapter 9: Foster Care Practice and Issues  

Introduction

Standards for Decision Making     

Concurrent Planning

            Case Example: Concurrent Planning

What is Concurrent Planning?

            Concurrent Planning Practice

Working with the Placement Process

            Parental Involvement

            Selecting the Placement Type

            Child Assessment and Initial Placement Selection

Team Decision Making

            Information Sharing

            Engaging the Children, Parents, Natural Helpers, and Service Providers

Working with Parents

            Addressing Parental Conditions and Behaviors 

            Family Centered Practice for Family Reunification

            Parent-Child Visiting    

            Engaging the Parent in the Child’s Care during Foster Care

            Parent-Agency Service Agreement

            Case Review

            Case Example:  Family Reunification

            Post Reunification Services

            Reentry into Foster Care

            Termination of Parental Rights

Other Permanency Options

            Long-term Relative Care                      

            Legal or Subsidized Guardianship                                 

            Another Planned Permanent Living Arrangement

            Emancipation

Meeting the Needs of Children in Foster Care

            Relationships Count: Attachment and Separation

            Safety

            Child Well-being          

Education

            Physical Health

            Mental Health

            Permanency

Children Requiring Therapeutic Interventions

Children Requiring Intensive Casework Services  

            Sibling Groups

Older Children and Adolescents

            Children Re-entering Foster Care

            Children in the System as Legal Orphans

            Gay and Lesbian Youth

Preparing Youth for Independent Living and Aging Out

Supervision in Foster Care

            What Do We Mean by Competent and Committed?

            Techniques for Nurturing and Growing Staff

            Planned Meetings                                

Trends and Issues

            Role of Youth in Foster Care

            Children who AWOL

Chapter Summary

For Study and Discussion

            Study and Discussion Questions

            Internet Sites

References and Other Resources

 

10.  Families by Adoption

Case Example:  Helping an Older Child Use Adoption

The Changing World of Adoption

Historical Development

            Early Adoption Practices in the United States

            Infant Adoptions

            Adoption Today:  Adoption of Children from the Child Welfare System

            Adoption Today:  The Cooperative Adoption Movement

Some Adoption Facts and Patterns

            Agency and Independent Placements

Underlying Principles of the Agency Adoptive Process

The Experience of Adoption

            The Birth Parents

            The Child

            The Adoptive Family

The Legal Framework for Adoption

            Parental Consent or Termination of Parental Rights

            Serving the Child’s Best Interests

            Confidentiality

Postadoption Services

            The Jenkins Siblings:  An Example of Postadoption Services

            Dynamics in Adoptive Family Development

            Survival Behaviors or Coping Strategies

            Adoption Disruption and Dissolution

            Searches and Reunions

Adoption of Children from the Public Child Welfare System

            Children Who Wait

            Overcoming Barriers to Timely Adoption

            Adoption Subsidies

            Adoption Resource Exchanges

            Kinship Adoption

Adoption of Children of Color

            African American Children

            Native American Children

            Hispanic/Latino Children

            Strengthening Transracial Placements

Intercountry Adoptions

Trends and Issues

            Gay/Lesbian Adoptive Parents

            Open Adoption:  Continuing Contact after Adoption

            Adoption of Older Children and Adolescents

            Paternal Relative Adoptions:  Sibling Splits

Chapter Summary

For Study and Discussion

            Study and Discussion Questions

            Internet Sites

References

 

11.  Juvenile Delinquents:  The Community’s Dilemma

Case Example

Juvenile Offender Categories

Scope of the Problem

Historical Development of Juvenile Delinquency Services

            From Adult Criminal Court to Juvenile Court

            Federal Government Leadership

            Back to the Criminal Court

Risk Factors for Delinquency

Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Intervention Strategies

            Prevention and Intervention with Status Offenders

            Prevention and Early Intervention with Nonchronic Offenders

            Intervention with Chronic or Serious Juvenile Offenders

The Female Juvenile Offender

Trends and Issues

            Overrepresentation of Minorities

            Alternatives to the Use of Secure Detention

            Community Readiness to Support Alternative Programs

Chapter Summary

For Study and Discussion

            Study and Discussion Questions

            Internet Sites

References

 

12.  Professional Responsibilities:  Ethics and Advocacy

Case Example:  Balancing Client Advocacy and Ethical Requirements

            Case Commentary

Professional Responsibility

            National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics

            Professional Malpractice and Liability

            Confidentiality and Privileges

            Working with Other Professionals

            Self-care:  Preventing Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, or Vicarious Traumatization

Special Issues in Child Welfare Practice

            Treatment in a Managed Care Environment

            Duty to Warn and Report

            Forensic Social Work Practice

            Testifying in Administrative and Judicial Proceedings

Child Advocacy

            Responsibility for Advancing Social and Economic Justice

            Advocacy in the Local and Global Context

            What is Advocacy?

            Case, Class, and Policy Advocacy

            Components of Child Advocacy

            Case Example:  Using Different Advocacy Strategies and Skills

Trends and Issues

Chapter Summary

            For Study and Discussion

            Internet Sites

References

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Child Welfare and Family Services: Policies and Practice, CourseSmart eTextbook, 8th Edition
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