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Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching 200-120 Library Pearson uCertify Course and Cert Guide Bundle

By Wendell Odom

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Nov 26, 2013

Description

This bundle includes two uCertify Courses and the two texts, Odom: Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching 200-120 Official Cert Guide Library

and is an Academic package designed for instructor-led classroom environments. 

. The course includes;

Course Highlights

• Device ready! Online on your computer, tablet,

or your mobile device (Android,iOS)

• Simulator exercise guide within eBook

• Interactive e-courseware

• Pre and Post assessments

• Exercises, flash cards and quizzes

• Video Tutorials

• Study Planner for organized and thorough prep

• Guided Self-paced, Instructor Led, or Blended

Educator Features

• Super roster for course and student management

• Customizable assignment of tests

(individual, class, open enrollment)

• 100% control over result and feedback

(show nothing, result, feedback, or item level review)

• Student Engagement Analytics & Reports

• Support for scoring methodology

 

Table of Contents

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Introduction xxxi

Getting Started 2

Part I Networking Fundamentals 8

Chapter 1 The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models 10

Foundation Topics 11

Perspectives on Networking 11

TCP/IP Networking Model 12

    History Leading to TCP/IP 13

    Overview of the TCP/IP Networking Model 14

    TCP/IP Application Layer 15

        HTTP Overview 15

        HTTP Protocol Mechanisms 16

    TCP/IP Transport Layer 17

        TCP Error Recovery Basics 17

        Same-Layer and Adjacent-Layer Interactions 18

    TCP/IP Network Layer 18

        Internet Protocol and the Postal Service 18

        Internet Protocol Addressing Basics 20

        IP Routing Basics 21

    TCP/IP Link Layer (Data Link Plus Physical) 21

    TCP/IP Model and Terminology 23

        Comparing the Original and Modern TCP/IP Models 23

        Data Encapsulation Terminology 23

        Names of TCP/IP Messages 24

OSI Networking Model 25

    Comparing OSI and TCP/IP 25

    Describing Protocols by Referencing the OSI Layers 26

    OSI Layers and Their Functions 26

    OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 28

    OSI Encapsulation Terminology 28

Review Activities 30

Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs 34

Foundation Topics 35

An Overview of LANs 35

    Typical SOHO LANs 35

    Typical Enterprise LANs 36

    The Variety of Ethernet Physical Layer Standards 37

    Consistent Behavior over All Links Using the Ethernet Data Link Layer 38

Building Physical Ethernet Networks with UTP 38

    Transmitting Data Using Twisted Pairs 39

    Breaking Down a UTP Ethernet Link 39

    UTP Cabling Pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T 41

        Straight-Through Cable Pinout 41

        Crossover Cable Pinout 43

        Choosing the Right Cable Pinouts 43

    UTP Cabling Pinouts for 1000BASE-T 44

Sending Data in Ethernet Networks 44

    Ethernet Data Link Protocols 45

        Ethernet Addressing 45

        Identifying Network Layer Protocols with the Ethernet Type Field 47

        Error Detection with FCS 48

    Sending Ethernet Frames with Switches and Hubs 48

        Sending in Modern Ethernet LANs Using Full-Duplex 48

        Using Half-Duplex with LAN Hubs 49

Review Activities 52

Chapter 3 Fundamentals of WANs 56

Foundation Topics 57

Leased Line WANs 57

    Positioning Leased Lines with LANs and Routers 57

    Physical Details of Leased Lines 58

        Leased Line Cabling 59

        Building a WAN Link in a Lab 60

    Data Link Details of Leased Lines 60

        HDLC Basics 61

        How Routers Use a WAN Data Link 62

Ethernet as a WAN Technology 63

    Ethernet WANs that Create a Layer 2 Service 64

    How Routers Route IP Packets Using Ethernet Emulation 65

Accessing the Internet 65

    The Internet as a Large WAN 66

    Internet Access (WAN) Links 67

    Digital Subscriber Line 68

    Cable Internet 69

Review Activities 71

Chapter 4 Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing 74

Foundation Topics 75

Overview of Network Layer Functions 75

    Network Layer Routing (Forwarding) Logic 75

        Host Forwarding Logic: Send the Packet to the Default Router 76

        R1 and R2’s Logic: Routing Data Across the Network 77

        R3’s Logic: Delivering Data to the End Destination 77

    How Network Layer Routing Uses LANs and WANs 77

    IP Addressing and How Addressing Helps IP Routing 78

    Routing Protocols 79

IPv4 Addressing 80

    Rules for IP Addresses 80

    Rules for Grouping IP Addresses 81

        Class A, B, and C IP Networks 82

        The Actual Class A, B, and C IP Networks 83

    IP Subnetting 85

IPv4 Routing 87

    IPv4 Host Routing 87

    Router Forwarding Decisions and the IP Routing Table 87

        A Summary of Router Forwarding Logic 87

        A Detailed Routing Example 88

IPv4 Routing Protocols 89

Other Network Layer Features 91

    Using Names and the Domain Name System 91

    The Address Resolution Protocol 92

    ICMP Echo and the ping Command 93

Review Activities 95

Chapter 5 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications 100

Foundation Topics 101

TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols: TCP and UDP 101

    Transmission Control Protocol 102

        Multiplexing Using TCP Port Numbers 102

        Popular TCP/IP Applications 105

        Connection Establishment and Termination 106

    User Datagram Protocol 107

TCP/IP Applications 107

    QoS Needs and the Impact of TCP/IP Applications 107

        Defining Interactive and Batch Applications 108

        Real-Time Voice and Video Applications 108

    The World Wide Web, HTTP, and SSL 109

        Uniform Resource Locators 110

        Finding the Web Server Using DNS 110

        Transferring Files with HTTP 112

Review Activities 113

Part I Review 118

Part II Ethernet LANs and Switches 122

Chapter 6 Building Ethernet LANs with Switches 124

Foundation Topics 125

LAN Switching Concepts 125

    Historical Progression: Hubs, Bridges, and Switches 125

    Switching Logic 127

        The Forward-Versus-Filter Decision 127

        How Switches Learn MAC Addresses 128

        Flooding Frames 129

        Avoiding Loops Using Spanning Tree Protocol 130

        Internal Processing on Cisco Switches 130

    LAN Switching Summary 131

Design Choices in Ethernet LANs 132

    Collision Domains, Broadcast Domains, and VLANs 132

        Collision Domains 133

        Broadcast Domains 133

        The Impact of Collision and Broadcast Domains on LAN Design 134

        Virtual LANs (VLAN) 135

    Choosing Ethernet Technology for a Campus LAN 136

        Campus Design Terminology 136

        Ethernet LAN Media and Cable Lengths 138

    Autonegotiation 139

        Autonegotiation Results When Only One Node Uses Autonegotiation 140

        Autonegotiation and LAN Hubs 141

Review Activities 143

Chapter 7 Installing and Operating Cisco LAN Switches 148

Foundation Topics 149

Accessing the Cisco Catalyst 2960 Switch CLI 149

    Cisco Catalyst Switches and the 2960 Switch 149

    Switch Status from LEDs 150

    Accessing the Cisco IOS CLI 152

        Cabling the Console Connection 152

        Configuring the Terminal Emulator for the Console 153

        Accessing the CLI with Telnet and SSH 154

        Password Security for CLI Access 155

    User and Enable (Privileged) Modes 156

    CLI Help Features 157

    The debug and show Commands 158

Configuring Cisco IOS Software 159

    Configuration Submodes and Contexts 160

    Storing Switch Configuration Files 162

    Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 164

    Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 165

    IOS Version and Other Reload Facts 166

Review Activities 169

Chapter 8 Configuring Ethernet Switching 174

Foundation Topics 175

Configuration of Features in Common with Routers 175

    Securing the Switch CLI 175

        Securing Access with Simple Passwords 175

        Securing Access with Local Usernames and Passwords 178

        Securing Access with External Authentication Servers 179

        Configuring Secure Shell (SSH) 180

    Encrypting and Hiding Passwords 182

        Encrypting Passwords with the service password Command 182

        Hiding the Enable Password 184

        Hiding the Passwords for Local Usernames 185

    Console and vty Settings 185

        Banners 185

        History Buffer Commands 187

        The logging synchronous and exec-timeout Commands 187

LAN Switch Configuration and Operation 188

    Enabling IP for Remote Access 188

        Configuring IPv4 on a Switch 190

        Verifying IPv4 on a Switch 191

    Configuring Switch Interfaces 192

    Port Security 193

        Configuring Port Security 195

        Verifying Port Security 197

        Port Security Actions 198

    Securing Unused Switch Interfaces 198

Review Activities 199

Chapter 9 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs 208

Foundation Topics 209

Virtual LAN Concepts 209

    Creating Multiswitch VLANs Using Trunking 210

        VLAN Tagging Concepts 211

        The 802.1Q and ISL VLAN Trunking Protocols 212

    Forwarding Data Between VLANs 213

        Routing Packets Between VLANs with a Router 213

        Routing Packets with a Layer 3 Switch 215

VLAN and VLAN Trunking Configuration and Verification 216

    Creating VLANs and Assigning Access VLANs to an Interface 216

        VLAN Configuration Example 1: Full VLAN Configuration 217

        VLAN Configuration Example 2: Shorter VLAN Configuration 219

    VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) 220

    VLAN Trunking Configuration 221

    Controlling Which VLANs Can Be Supported on a Trunk 225

Review Activities 228

Chapter 10 Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs 234

Foundation Topics 236

Perspectives on Network Verification and Troubleshooting 236

    Preparing to Use an Organized Troubleshooting Process 236

    Troubleshooting as Covered in This Book 238

Analyzing LAN Topology Using Cisco Discovery Protocol 239

    Examining Information Learned by CDP 239

    Examining the Status of the CDP Protocols 242

Analyzing Switch Interface Status 242

    Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States 243

    Interface Speed and Duplex Issues 244

    Common Layer 1 Problems on Working Interfaces 247

Predicting Where Switches Will Forward Frames 248

    Predicting the Contents of the MAC Address Table 248

    Analyzing the Forwarding Path 250

    Port Security and Filtering 251

Analyzing VLANs and VLAN Trunks 252

    Ensuring That the Right Access Interfaces Are in the Right VLANs 252

    Access VLANs Not Being Defined 253

    Access VLANs Being Disabled 253

    Check the Allowed VLAN List on Both Ends of a Trunk 254

    Mismatched Trunking Operational States 255

Review Activities 257

Part II Review 264

Part III IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting 268

Chapter 11 Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting 270

Foundation Topics 271

Introduction to Subnetting 271

    Subnetting Defined Through a Simple Example 271

    Operational View Versus Design View of Subnetting 272

Analyze Subnetting and Addressing Needs 273

    Rules About Which Hosts Are in Which Subnet 273

    Determining the Number of Subnets 274

    Determining the Number of Hosts per Subnet 275

    One Size Subnet Fits All–Or Not 276

        Defining the Size of a Subnet 276

        One Size Subnet Fits All 277

        Multiple Subnet Sizes (Variable-Length Subnet Masks) 278

        This Book: One Size Subnet Fits All (Mostly) 278

Make Design Choices 278

    Choose a Classful Network 279

        Public IP Networks 279

        Growth Exhausts the Public IP Address Space 280

        Private IP Networks 281

        Choosing an IP Network During the Design Phase 281

    Choose the Mask 282

        Classful IP Networks Before Subnetting 282

        Borrowing Host Bits to Create Subnet Bits 283

        Choosing Enough Subnet and Host Bits 283

        Example Design: 172.16.0.0, 200 Subnets, 200 Hosts 284

        Masks and Mask Formats 285

    Build a List of All Subnets 286

Plan the Implementation 287

    Assigning Subnets to Different Locations 287

    Choose Static and Dynamic Ranges per Subnet 288

Review Activities 290

Chapter 12 Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks 294

Foundation Topics 295

Classful Network Concepts 295

    IPv4 Network Classes and Related Facts 295

        Actual Class A, B, and C Networks 296

        Address Formats 296

        Default Masks 297

    Number of Hosts per Network 298

    Deriving the Network ID and Related Numbers 298

    Unusual Network IDs and Network Broadcast Addresses 300

Practice with Classful Networks 300

    Practice Deriving Key Facts Based on an IP Address 301

    Practice Remembering the Details of Address Classes 301

    Additional Practice 302

Review Activities 303

Chapter 13 Analyzing Subnet Masks 308

Foundation Topics 309

Subnet Mask Conversion 309

    Three Mask Formats 309

    Converting Between Binary and Prefix Masks 310

    Converting Between Binary and DDN Masks 310

    Converting Between Prefix and DDN Masks 312

    Practice Converting Subnet Masks 313

Identifying Subnet Design Choices Using Masks 314

    Masks Divide the Subnet’s Addresses into Two Parts 314

    Masks and Class Divide Addresses into Three Parts 315

    Classless and Classful Addressing 316

    Calculations Based on the IPv4 Address Format 316

    Practice Analyzing Subnet Masks 318

Review Activities 320

Chapter 14 Analyzing Existing Subnets 326

Foundation Topics 327

Defining a Subnet 327

    An Example with Network 172.16.0.0 and Four Subnets 327

    Subnet ID Concepts 328

    Subnet Broadcast Address 329

    Range of Usable Addresses 330

Analyzing Existing Subnets: Binary 330

    Finding the Subnet ID: Binary 330

    Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Binary 332

    Binary Practice Problems 333

    Shortcut for the Binary Process 334

    Brief Note About Boolean Math 335

    Finding the Range of Addresses 336

Analyzing Existing Subnets: Decimal 336

    Analysis with Easy Masks 336

    Predictability in the Interesting Octet 337

    Finding the Subnet ID: Difficult Masks 338

        Resident Subnet Example 1 338

        Resident Subnet Example 2 339

        Resident Subnet Practice Problems 340

    Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Difficult Masks 340

        Subnet Broadcast Example 1 340

        Subnet Broadcast Example 2 341

        Subnet Broadcast Address Practice Problems 341

Practice Analyzing Existing Subnets 342

    A Choice: Memorize or Calculate 342

    Additional Practice 342

Review Activities 343

Part III Review 348

Part IV Implementing IP Version 4 352

Chapter 15 Operating Cisco Routers 354

Foundation Topics 355

Installing Cisco Routers 355

    Installing Enterprise Routers 355

        Cisco Integrated Services Routers 356

        Physical Installation 357

    Installing Internet Access Routers 357

        A SOHO Installation with a Separate Switch, Router, and Cable Modem 358

        A SOHO Installation with an Integrated Switch, Router, and DSL Modem 359

Enabling IPv4 Support on Cisco Routers 359

    Comparisons Between the Switch CLI and Router CLI 359

    Router Interfaces 360

        Interface Status Codes 362

        Router Interface IP Addresses 363

        Bandwidth and Clock Rate on Serial Interfaces 365

    Router Auxiliary (Aux) Port 366

    Operational Status with the show version Command 366

Review Activities 368

Chapter 16 Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Routes 374

Foundation Topics 376

IP Routing 376

    IPv4 Routing Process Reference 376

    An Example of IP Routing 378

        Host Forwards the IP Packet to the Default Router (Gateway) 379

        Routing Step 1: Decide Whether to Process the Incoming Frame 380

        Routing Step 2: Deencapsulation of the IP Packet 380

        Routing Step 3: Choosing Where to Forward the Packet 381

        Routing Step 4: Encapsulating the Packet in a New Frame 381

        Routing Step 5: Transmitting the Frame 382

    Internal Processing on Cisco Routers 382

        Potential Routing Performance Issues 383

        Cisco Router Fast Switching and CEF 383

Configuring Connected Routes 384

    Connected Routes and the ip address Command 384

    Routing Between Subnets on VLANs 386

        Configuring Routing to VLANs using 802.1Q on Routers 387

        Configuring Routing to VLANs Using a Layer 3 Switch 390

    Secondary IP Addressing 392

    Supporting Connected Routes to Subnet Zero 393

Configuring Static Routes 394

    Static Route Configuration 394

    Static Default Routes 396

Review Activities 399

Chapter 17 Learning IPv4 Routes with OSPFv2 404

Foundation Topics 405

Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features 405

    Routing Protocol Functions 405

    Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols 406

    Comparing IGPs 407

        IGP Routing Protocol Algorithms 407

        Metrics 408

        Other IGP Comparisons 409

    Administrative Distance 410

Understanding the OSPF Link-State Routing Protocol 411

    Building the LSDB and Creating IP Routes 411

        Topology Information and LSAs 412

        Applying Dijkstra SPF Math to Find the Best Routes 413

    Using OSPF Neighbor Relationships 413

        The Basics of OSPF Neighbors 413

        Meeting Neighbors and Learning Their Router ID 414

    Scaling OSPF Through Hierarchical Design 415

OSPF Configuration 417

    OSPF Single-Area Configuration 417

        Matching with the OSPF network Command 419

        Verifying OSPF 420

    Configuring the OSPF Router ID 423

    Miscellaneous OSPF Configuration Settings 424

        OSPF Passive Interfaces 424

        OSPF Default Routes 426

Review Activities 428

Chapter 18 Configuring and Verifying Host Connectivity 434

Foundation Topics 435

Configuring Routers to Support DHCP 435

    DHCP Protocol Messages and Addresses 435

    Supporting DHCP for Remote Subnets with DHCP Relay 437

    Information Stored at the DHCP Server 438

    DHCP Server Configuration and Verification on Routers 439

        IOS DHCP Server Configuration 439

        IOS DHCP Server Verification 441

        Detecting Conflicts with Offered Versus Used Addresses 442

Verifying Host IPv4 Settings 442

    IP Address and Mask Configuration 443

    Name Resolution with DNS 444

    Default Routers 445

Testing Connectivity with ping, traceroute, and telnet 447

    The ping Command 447

        Testing IP Routes with ping on a Router 448

        Controlling the Source IP Address with Extended ping 449

    The traceroute Command 451

        How the traceroute Command Works 452

        traceroute and Similar Commands 454

    Telnet and Suspend 455

Review Activities 458

Part IV Review 464

Part V Advanced IPv4 Addressing Concepts 468

Chapter 19 Subnet Design 470

Foundation Topics 471

Choosing the Mask(s) to Meet Requirements 471

    Review: Choosing the Minimum Number of Subnet and Host Bits 471

    No Masks Meet Requirements 472

    One Mask Meets Requirements 473

    Multiple Masks Meet Requirements 473

        Finding All the Masks: Concepts 473

        Finding All the Masks: Math 475

        Choosing the Best Mask 475

    The Formal Process 475

    Practice Choosing Subnet Masks 476

        Practice Problems for Choosing a Subnet Mask 476

        Additional Practice for Choosing the Subnet Mask 477

Finding All Subnet IDs 477

    First Subnet ID: The Zero Subnet 477

    Finding the Pattern Using the Magic Number 478

    A Formal Process with Less Than 8 Subnet Bits 479

        Example 1: Network 172.16.0.0, Mask 255.255.240.0 480

        Example 2: Network 192.168.1.0, Mask 255.255.255.224 481

    Finding All Subnets with Exactly 8 Subnet Bits 482

    Finding All Subnets with More Than 8 Subnet Bits 483

        Process with 9—16 Subnet Bits 483

        Process with 17 or More Subnet Bits 484

    Practice Finding All Subnet IDs 485

        Practice Problems for Finding All Subnet IDs 486

        Additional Practice for Finding All Subnet IDs 486

Review Activities 487

Chapter 20 Variable-Length Subnet Masks 494

Foundation Topics 495

VLSM Concepts and Configuration 495

    Classless and Classful Routing Protocols 495

    VLSM Configuration and Verification 496

Finding VLSM Overlaps 497

    An Example of Finding a VLSM Overlap 498

    Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps 499

Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design 500

    An Example of Adding a New VLSM Subnet 500

    Practice Adding New VLSM Subnets 502

Review Activities 503

Chapter 21 Route Summarization 508

Foundation Topics 509

Manual Route Summarization Concepts 509

    Route Summarization Basics 509

    Route Summarization and the IPv4 Subnetting Plan 510

    Verifying Manually Summarized Routes 511

Choosing the Best Summary Routes 512

    The Process to Find the Best Summary Route 512

    Sample “Best” Summary on Router R3 513

    Sample “Best” Summary on Router R2 514

    Practice Choosing the Best Summary Routes 515

Review Activities 516

Part V Review 522

Part VI IPv4 Services 526

Chapter 22 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists 528

Foundation Topics 529

IPv4 Access Control List Basics 529

    ACL Location and Direction 529

    Matching Packets 530

    Taking Action When a Match Occurs 530

    Types of IP ACLs 531

Standard Numbered IPv4 ACLs 531

    List Logic with IP ACLs 532

    Matching Logic and Command Syntax 533

        Matching the Exact IP Address 533

        Matching a Subset of the Address with Wildcards 533

        Binary Wildcard Masks 535

        Finding the Right Wildcard Mask to Match a Subnet 535

        Matching Any/All Addresses 536

    Implementing Standard IP ACLs 536

        Standard Numbered ACL Example 1 537

        Standard Numbered ACL Example 2 538

    Troubleshooting and Verification Tips 540

Practice Applying Standard IP ACLs 541

    Practice Building access-list Commands 541

    Reverse Engineering from ACL to Address Range 542

Review Activities 544

Chapter 23 Advanced IPv4 ACLs and Device Security 550

Foundation Topics 552

Extended Numbered IP Access Control Lists 552

    Matching the Protocol, Source IP, and Destination IP 552

    Matching TCP and UDP Port Numbers 553

    Extended IP ACL Configuration 556

        Extended IP Access Lists: Example 1 557

        Extended IP Access Lists: Example 2 558

    Practice Building access-list Commands 559

Named ACLs and ACL Editing 560

    Named IP Access Lists 560

    Editing ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 562

    Numbered ACL Configuration Versus Named ACL Configuration 563

Router and Switch Security 564

    Review: Password Protections for the CLI 565

    Disable Services 565

    Controlling Telnet and SSH Access with ACLs 567

    ACL Implementation Considerations 567

    Network Time Protocol 568

Review Activities 571

Chapter 24 Network Address Translation 578

Foundation Topics 579

Perspectives on IPv4 Address Scalability 579

    CIDR 579

        Route Aggregation for Shorter Routing Tables 580

        IPv4 Address Conservation 580

    Private Addressing 581

Network Address Translation Concepts 581

    Static NAT 582

    Dynamic NAT 584

    Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation (PAT) 585

    NAT Overload (PAT) on Consumer Routers 587

NAT Configuration and Troubleshooting 588

    Static NAT Configuration 588

    Dynamic NAT Configuration 590

    Dynamic NAT Verification 592

    NAT Overload (PAT) Configuration 594

    NAT Troubleshooting 596

Review Activities 598

Part VI Review 604

Part VII: IP Version 6 608

Chapter 25 Fundamentals of IP Version 6 610

Foundation Topics 611

Introduction to IPv6 611

    The Historical Reasons for IPv6 611

    The IPv6 Protocols 612

    IPv6 Routing 614

    IPv6 Routing Protocols 615

IPv6 Addressing Formats and Conventions 616

    Representing Full (Unabbreviated) IPv6 Addresses 617

    Abbreviating and Expanding IPv6 Addresses 617

        Abbreviating IPv6 Addresses 617

        Expanding Abbreviated IPv6 Addresses 618

    Representing the Prefix Length of an Address 619

    Calculating the IPv6 Prefix (Subnet ID) 619

        Finding the IPv6 Prefix 620

        Working with More Difficult IPv6 Prefix Lengths 621

Review Activities 623

Chapter 26 IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting 628

Foundation Topics 629

Global Unicast Addressing Concepts 629

    A Brief Review of Public and Private IPv4 Addresses 629

        Review of Public IPv4 Addressing Concepts 629

        Review of Private IPv4 Addressing Concepts 631

        Public and Private IPv6 Addresses 631

    The IPv6 Global Routing Prefix 632

    Address Ranges for Global Unicast Addresses 633

    IPv6 Subnetting Using Global Unicast Addresses 634

        Deciding Where IPv6 Subnets Are Needed 634

        The Mechanics of Subnetting IPv6 Global Unicast Addresses 635

        Listing the IPv6 Subnet Identifier 637

        List All IPv6 Subnets 637

        Assign Subnets to the Internetwork Topology 638

    Assigning Addresses to Hosts in a Subnet 638

Unique Local Unicast Addresses 639

    Subnetting with Unique Local IPv6 Addresses 640

    The Need for Globally Unique Local Addresses 640

Review Activities 642

Chapter 27 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers 646

Foundation Topics 647

Implementing Unicast IPv6 Addresses on Routers 647

    Static Unicast Address Configuration 648

        Configuring the Full 128-Bit Address 648

        Enabling IPv6 Routing 649

        Verifying the IPv6 Address Configuration 649

        Generating a Unique Interface ID Using EUI-64 651

    Dynamic Unicast Address Configuration 654

Special Addresses Used by Routers 654

    Link-Local Addresses 655

        Link-Local Address Concepts 655

        Creating Link-Local Addresses on Routers 656

    IPv6 Multicast Addresses 657

        Broadcasts Versus Multicasts 657

        Common Local Scope Multicast Addresses 658

        Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 658

    Miscellaneous IPv6 Addresses 660

Review Activities 661

Chapter 28 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts 666

Foundation Topics 668

The Neighbor Discovery Protocol 668

    Discovering Routers with NDP RS and RA 669

    Discovering Addressing Info for SLAAC with NDP RS and RA 669

    Discovering Neighbor Link Addresses with NDP NS and NA 670

    Discovering Duplicate Addresses Using NDP NS and NA 671

    NDP Summary 672

Dynamic Configuration of Host IPv6 Settings 673

    Dynamic Configuration Using Stateful DHCP and NDP 673

        Differences Between DHCPv6 and DHCPv4 674

        DHCPv6 Relay Agents 674

    Using Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 676

        Building an IPv6 Address Using SLAAC 676

        Combining SLAAC with NDP and Stateless DHCP 677

Verification of Host IPv6 Connectivity 678

    Verifying Host IPv6 Connectivity from Hosts 678

    Verifying Host Connectivity from Nearby Routers 680

Review Activities 683

Chapter 29 Implementing IPv6 Routing 688

Foundation Topics 689

Connected and Local IPv6 Routes 689

    Rules for Connected and Local Routes 689

    Example of Connected IPv6 Routes 690

    Examples of Local IPv6 Routes 691

Static IPv6 Routes 692

    Static Routes Using the Outgoing Interface 692

    Static Routes Using Next-Hop IPv6 Address 693

        Example Static Route with a Global Unicast Next-Hop Address 694

        Example Static Route with a Link-Local Next-Hop Address 695

    Static Default Routes 696

Dynamic Routes with OSPFv3 697

    Comparing OSPF for IPv4 and IPv6 697

        OSPF Routing Protocol Versions and Protocols 697

        Comparing OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 698

    Configuring Single-Area OSPFv3 700

        OSPFv3 Single-Area Configuration Example 701

        OSPFv3 Passive Interfaces 703

    Verifying OSPFv3 Status and Routes 703

        Verifying OSPFv3 Configuration Settings 704

        Verifying OSPFv3 Neighbors 706

        Examining the OSPFv3 Database 707

        Examining IPv6 Routes Learned by OSPFv3 707

Review Activities 709

Part VII Review 714

Part VIII: Final Review 718

Chapter 30 Final Review 720

Advice About the Exam Event 720

    Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial 720

    Think About Your Time Budget Versus Numbers of Questions 721

    A Suggested Time-Check Method 722

    Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions 722

    Exam-Day Advice 722

Exam Review 723

    Practice Subnetting and Other Math-Related Skills 723

    Take Practice Exams 725

        Practicing Taking the ICND1 Exam 726

        Practicing Taking the CCNA Exam 726

        Advice on How to Answer Exam Questions 728

    Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review 729

    Practice Hands-On CLI Skills 731

        Review Mind Maps from Part Review 731

        Do Labs 731

    Other Study Tasks 732

    Final Thoughts 732

Part IX Appendixes 734

Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables 736

Appendix B ICND1 Exam Updates 744

Glossary 746

DVD-only Appendixes

Appendix C: Answers to Review Questions

Appendix D: Practice for Chapter 12: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks

Appendix E: Practice for Chapter 13: Analyzing Subnet Masks

Appendix F: Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Existing Subnets

Appendix G: Practice for Chapter 19: Subnet Design

Appendix H: Practice for Chapter 20: Variable-Length Subnet Masks

Appendix I: Practice for Chapter 21: Route Summarization

Appendix J: Practice for Chapter 22: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists

Appendix K: Practice for Chapter 25: Fundamentals of IP Version 6

Appendix L: Practice for Chapter 27: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers

Appendix M: Memory Tables

Appendix N: Memory Tables Answer Key

Appendix O: Mind Map Solutions

Appendix P: Study Planner

9781587144851    TOC    5/23/2013

 

***

Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-101 Official Cert Guide, Academic
Edition Table of Contents

 

 

 

Introduction xxvi

Getting Started 3

Part I: LAN Switching 9

Chapter 1 Spanning Tree Protocol Concepts 10

Foundation Topics 11

LAN Switching Review 11

    LAN Switch Forwarding Logic 11

    Switch Verification 12

        Viewing the MAC Address Table 12

        Determining the VLAN of a Frame 13

        Verifying Trunks 15

Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D) 15

    The Need for Spanning Tree 16

    What IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Does 18

    How Spanning Tree Works 19

        The STP Bridge ID and Hello BPDU 20

        Electing the Root Switch 21

        Choosing Each Switch’s Root Port 23

        Choosing the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment 24

    Influencing and Changing the STP Topology 25

        Making Configuration Changes to Influence the STP Topology 25

        Reacting to State Changes That Affect the STP Topology 26

        How Switches React to Changes with STP 26

        Changing Interface States with STP 28

Optional STP Features 29

    EtherChannel 29

    PortFast 30

    BPDU Guard 30

    Rapid STP (IEEE 802.1w) 31

Review Activities 32

Chapter 2 Spanning Tree Protocol Implementation 36

Foundation Topics 37

STP Configuration and Verification 37

    Setting the STP Mode 37

    Connecting STP Concepts to STP Configuration Options 38

        Per-VLAN Configuration Settings 38

        The Bridge ID and System ID Extension 39

        Per-VLAN Port Costs 40

        STP Configuration Option Summary 40

    Verifying STP Operation 40

    Configuring STP Port Costs 43

    Configuring Priority to Influence the Root Election 45

    Configuring PortFast and BPDU Guard 46

    Configuring EtherChannel 47

        Configuring a Manual EtherChannel 48

        Configuring Dynamic EtherChannels 50

STP Troubleshooting 50

    Determining the Root Switch 51

    Determining the Root Port on Nonroot Switches 52

        STP Tiebreakers When Choosing the Root Port 53

        Suggestions for Attacking Root Port Problems on the Exam 54

    Determining the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment 54

        Suggestions for Attacking Designated Port Problems on the Exam 55

    STP Convergence 56

    Troubleshooting EtherChannel 56

        Incorrect Options on the channel-group Command 57

        Configuration Checks Before Adding Interfaces to EtherChannels 58

Review Activities 60

Chapter 3 Troubleshooting LAN Switching 64

Foundation Topics 65

Generalized Troubleshooting Methodologies 65

    Analyzing and Predicting Normal Network Operation 65

        Data Plane Analysis 66

        Control Plane Analysis 67

        Predicting Normal Operations: Summary of the Process 68

    Problem Isolation 68

    Root Cause Analysis 69

    Real World Versus the Exams 70

Troubleshooting the LAN Switching Data Plane 70

    An Overview of the Normal LAN Switch Forwarding Process 71

    Step 1: Confirm the Network Diagrams Using CDP 72

    Step 2: Isolate Interface Problems 73

        Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States 74

        The notconnect State and Cabling Pinouts 75

        Determining Switch Interface Speed and Duplex 76

        Issues Related to Speed and Duplex 77

    Step 3: Isolate Filtering and Port Security Problems 79

    Step 4: Isolate VLAN and Trunking Problems 82

        Ensuring That the Right Access Interfaces Are in the Right VLANs 83

        Access VLANs Not Being Defined or Not Being Active 83

        Identify Trunks and VLANs Forwarded on Those Trunks 84

Troubleshooting Examples and Exercises 86

    Troubleshooting Example 1: Find Existing LAN Data Plane Problems 86

        Step 1: Verify the Accuracy of the Diagram Using CDP 87

        Step 2: Check for Interface Problems 88

        Step 3: Check for Port Security Problems 90

        Step 4: Check for VLAN and VLAN Trunk Problems 91

    Troubleshooting Example 2: Predicting LAN Data Plane Behavior 94

        PC1 ARP Request (Broadcast) 95

        R1 ARP Reply (Unicast) 98

Review Activities 102

Part I Review 104

Part II: IP Version 4 Routing 109

Chapter 4 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part I 110

Foundation Topics 111

Predicting Normal IPv4 Routing Behavior 111

    Host IPv4 Routing Logic 111

    Routing Logic Used by IPv4 Routers 112

        IP Routing Logic on a Single Router 112

        IP Routing from Host to Host 113

        Building New Data Link Headers Using ARP Information 114

Problem Isolation Using the ping Command 115

    Ping Command Basics 115

    Strategies and Results When Testing with the ping Command 116

        Testing Longer Routes from Near the Source of the Problem 117

        Using Extended Ping to Test the Reverse Route 119

        Testing LAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 121

        Testing LAN Neighbors with Extended Ping 122

        Testing WAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 122

    Using Ping with Names and with IP Addresses 123

Problem Isolation Using the traceroute Command 124

    traceroute Basics 124

        How the traceroute Command Works 125

        Standard and Extended traceroute 126

    Using traceroute to Isolate the Problem to Two Routers 127

Review Activities 130

Chapter 5 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part II 132

Foundation Topics 133

Problems Between the Host and the Default Router 133

    Root Causes Based on a Host’s IPv4 Settings 133

        Ensure IPv4 Settings Correctly Match 133

        Mismatched Masks Impact Route to Reach Subnet 134

        Typical Root Causes of DNS Problems 136

        Wrong Default Router IP Address Setting 137

    Root Causes Based on the Default Router’s Configuration 137

        Mismatched VLAN Trunking Configuration with Router on a Stick 138

        DHCP Relay Issues 140

        Router LAN Interface and LAN Issues 141

Problems with Routing Packets Between Routers 143

    IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route 143

        Using show ip route and Subnet Math to Find the Best Route 144

        Using show ip route address to Find the Best Route 145

        show ip route Reference 145

    Routing Problems Caused by Incorrect Addressing Plans 146

        Recognizing When VLSM Is Used or Not 147

        Overlaps When Not Using VLSM 147

        Overlaps When Using VLSM 148

        Configuring Overlapping VLSM Subnets 149

    Router WAN Interface Status 150

    Filtering Packets with Access Lists 151

Review Activities 153

Chapter 6 Creating Redundant First-Hop Routers 156

Foundation Topics 157

FHRP Concepts 157

    The Need for Redundancy in Networks 157

    The Need for a First Hop Redundancy Protocol 159

    The Three Solutions for First-Hop Redundancy 160

    HSRP Concepts 160

        HSRP Failover 161

        HSRP Load Balancing 162

    GLBP Concepts 163

FHRP Configuration and Verification 164

    Configuring and Verifying HSRP 164

    Configuring and Verifying GLBP 167

Review Activities 170

Chapter 7 Virtual Private Networks 176

Foundation Topics 177

VPN Fundamentals 177

    IPsec VPNs 179

    SSL VPNs 181

GRE Tunnels 181

    GRE Tunnel Concepts 182

        Routing over GRE Tunnels 182

        GRE Tunnels over the Unsecured Network 183

    Configuring GRE Tunnels 185

    Verifying a GRE Tunnel 187

Review Activities 190

Part II Review 194

Part III: IP Version 4 Routing Protocols 199

Chapter 8 Implementing OSPF for IPv4 200

Foundation Topics 201

OSPF Protocols and Operation 201

    OSPF Overview 201

    Becoming Neighbors and Exchanging the LSDB 202

        Agreeing to Become Neighbors 202

        Fully Exchanging LSAs with Neighbors 203

        Maintaining Neighbors and the LSDB 204

        Using Designated Routers on Ethernet Links 205

    Scaling OSPF Using Areas 206

        OSPF Areas 207

        How Areas Reduce SPF Calculation Time 208

        OSPF Area Design Advantages 209

    Link-State Advertisements 209

        Router LSAs Build Most of the Intra-Area Topology 210

        Network LSAs Complete the Intra-Area Topology 211

        LSAs in a Multi-Area Design 212

    Calculating the Best Routes with SPF 214

    Administrative Distance 215

OSPF Configuration and Verification 216

    OSPFv2 Configuration Overview 216

    Multi-Area OSPFv2 Configuration Example 217

        Single-Area Configurations 218

        Multi-Area Configuration 219

    Verifying the Multi-Area Configuration 220

        Verifying the Correct Areas on Each Interface on an ABR 221

        Verifying Which Router Is DR and BDR 221

        Verifying the Number and Type of LSAs 222

        Verifying OSPF Routes 223

    OSPF Metrics (Cost) 223

        Setting the Cost Based on Interface Bandwidth 224

        The Need for a Higher Reference Bandwidth 225

    OSPF Load Balancing 225

Review Activities 226

Chapter 9 Understanding EIGRP Concepts 230

Foundation Topics 231

EIGRP and Distance Vector Routing Protocols 231

    Introduction to EIGRP 231

    Basic Distance Vector Routing Protocol Features 233

        The Concept of a Distance and a Vector 233

        Full Update Messages and Split Horizon 234

        Route Poisoning 236

    EIGRP as an Advanced DV Protocol 237

        EIGRP Sends Partial Update Messages, As Needed 237

        EIGRP Maintains Neighbor Status Using Hello 237

        Summary of Interior Routing Protocol Features 238

EIGRP Concepts and Operation 239

    EIGRP Neighbors 239

    Exchanging EIGRP Topology Information 240

    Calculating the Best Routes for the Routing Table 241

        The EIGRP Metric Calculation 241

        An Example of Calculated EIGRP Metrics 242

        Caveats with Bandwidth on Serial Links 243

    EIGRP Convergence 244

        Feasible Distance and Reported Distance 244

        EIGRP Successors and Feasible Successors 245

        The Query and Reply Process 246

Review Activities 248

Chapter 10 Implementing EIGRP for IPv4 252

Foundation Topics 253

Core EIGRP Configuration and Verification 253

    EIGRP Configuration 253

    Configuring EIGRP Using a Wildcard Mask 255

    Verifying EIGRP Core Features 255

        Finding the Interfaces on Which EIGRP Is Enabled 256

        Displaying EIGRP Neighbor Status 258

        Displaying the IPv4 Routing Table 259

EIGRP Metrics, Successors, and Feasible Successors 260

    Viewing the EIGRP Topology Table 261

        Finding Successor Routes 262

        Finding Feasible Successor Routes 263

        Convergence Using the Feasible Successor Route 265

    Examining the Metric Components 266

Other EIGRP Configuration Settings 267

    Load Balancing Across Multiple EIGRP Routes 267

    Tuning the EIGRP Metric Calculation 269

    Autosummarization and Discontiguous Classful Networks 270

        Automatic Summarization at the Boundary of a Classful Network 270

        Discontiguous Classful Networks 271

Review Activities 273

Chapter 11 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Protocols 278

Foundation Topics 279

Perspectives on Troubleshooting Routing Protocol Problems 279

Interfaces Enabled with a Routing Protocol 280

    EIGRP Interface Troubleshooting 281

        Examining Working EIGRP Interfaces 282

        Examining the Problems with EIGRP Interfaces 284

    OSPF Interface Troubleshooting 286

Neighbor Relationships 289

    EIGRP Neighbor Verification Checks 290

    EIGRP Neighbor Troubleshooting Example 291

    OSPF Neighbor Troubleshooting 293

        Finding Area Mismatches 294

        Finding Duplicate OSPF Router IDs 295

        Finding OSPF Hello and Dead Timer Mismatches 296

    Other OSPF Issues 297

        Mismatched OSPF Network Types 297

        Mismatched MTU Settings 299

Review Activities 300

Part III Review 304

Part IV: Wide-Area Networks 309

Chapter 12 Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 310

Foundation Topics 311

Leased Line WANs with HDLC 311

    Layer 1 Leased Lines 311

        The Physical Components of a Leased Line 312

        Leased Lines and the T-Carrier System 314

        The Role of the CSU/DSU 315

        Building a WAN Link in a Lab 315

    Layer 2 Leased Lines with HDLC 316

    Configuring HDLC 317

Leased-Line WANs with PPP 320

    PPP Concepts 320

        PPP Framing 321

        PPP Control Protocols 321

        PPP Authentication 322

    Configuring PPP 323

    CHAP Configuration and Verification 324

Troubleshooting Serial Links 325

    Troubleshooting Layer 1 Problems 325

    Troubleshooting Layer 2 Problems 326

        Keepalive Failure 327

        PAP and CHAP Authentication Failure 328

    Troubleshooting Layer 3 Problems 329

Review Activities 331

Chapter 13 Understanding Frame Relay Concepts 336

Foundation Topics 337

Frame Relay Overview 337

    Virtual Circuits 339

    LMI and Encapsulation Types 340

    Frame Relay Encapsulation and Framing 341

Frame Relay Addressing 342

    Frame Relay Local Addressing 342

    Frame Forwarding with One DLCI Field 343

Network Layer Addressing with Frame Relay 344

    Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Containing All Frame Relay DTEs 345

    Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Per VC 345

    Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: Hybrid Approach 347

Review Activities 349

Chapter 14 Implementing Frame Relay 352

Foundation Topics 353

Frame Relay Configuration and Verification 353

    Planning a Frame Relay Configuration 353

    Configuring Using Physical Interfaces and One IP Subnet 354

    Configuring the Encapsulation and LMI 356

    Frame Relay Address Mapping 357

        Inverse ARP 360

        Static Frame Relay Mapping 360

    Configuring Point-to-Point Subinterfaces 361

    Verifying Point-to-Point Frame Relay 364

    Configuring with Multipoint Subinterfaces 366

    OSPF Issues on Frame Relay Multipoint and Physical Interfaces 368

Frame Relay Troubleshooting 369

    A Suggested Frame Relay Troubleshooting Process 369

    Layer 1 Issues on the Access Link (Step 1) 370

    Layer 2 Issues on the Access Link (Step 2) 371

    PVC Problems and Status (Step 3) 372

        Find the Connected Subnet and Outgoing Interface (Steps 3a and 3b) 373

        Find the PVCs Assigned to That Interface (Step 3c) 374

        Determine Which PVC Is Used to Reach a Particular Neighbor (Step 3d) 375

        PVC Status 375

        Subinterface Status 377

    Frame Relay Mapping Issues (Step 4) 377

    End-to-End Encapsulation (Step 5) 378

    Mismatched Subnet Numbers (Step 6) 379

Review Activities 380

Chapter 15 Identifying Other Types of WANs 386

Foundation Topics 387

Private WANs to Connect Enterprises 387

    Leased Lines 387

    Frame Relay 388

    Ethernet WANs 389

    MPLS 390

    VSAT 391

Public WANs and Internet Access 392

    Internet Access (WAN) Links 392

    Dial Access with Modems and ISDN 393

    Digital Subscriber Line 395

    Cable Internet 396

    Mobile Phone Access with 3G/4G 397

    PPP over Ethernet 398

        PPP over Ethernet Concepts 398

        PPP over Ethernet Configuration 399

Review Activities 401

Part IV Review 404

Part V: IP Version 6 409

Chapter 16 Troubleshooting IPv6 Routing 410

Foundation Topics 411

Normal IPv6 Operation 411

    Unicast IPv6 Addresses and IPv6 Subnetting 411

    Assigning Addresses to Hosts 413

        Stateful DHCPv6 413

        Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 414

        Router Address and Static Route Configuration 415

        Configuring IPv6 Routing and Addresses on Routers 415

        IPv6 Static Routes on Routers 416

    Verifying IPv6 Connectivity 417

        Verifying Connectivity from IPv6 Hosts 417

        Verifying IPv6 from Routers 419

Troubleshooting IPv6 421

    Pings from the Host Work Only in Some Cases 421

    Pings Fail from a Host to Its Default Router 423

    Problems Using Any Function That Requires DNS 424

    Host Is Missing IPv6 Settings: Stateful DHCP Issues 424

    Host Is Missing IPv6 Settings: SLAAC Issues 425

    Traceroute Shows Some Hops, But Fails 427

    Routing Looks Good, But Traceroute Still Fails 428

Review Activities 430

Chapter 17 Implementing OSPF for IPv6 434

Foundation Topics 435

OSPFv3 Configuration 435

    OSPFv3 ICND1 Configuration Review 435

    Example Multi-Area OSPFv3 Configuration 435

        Single Area Configuration on the Three Internal Routers 436

        Adding Multi-Area Configuration on the Area Border Router 438

    Other OSPFv3 Configuration Settings 439

        Setting OSPFv3 Interface Cost to Influence Route Selection 439

        OSPF Load Balancing 440

        Injecting Default Routes 440

OSPF Concepts, Verification, and Troubleshooting 441

    OSPFv3 Interfaces 443

        Verifying OSPFv3 Interfaces 443

        Troubleshooting OSPFv3 Interfaces 443

    OSPFv3 Neighbors 445

        Verifying OSPFv3 Neighbors 445

        Troubleshooting OSPFv3 Neighbors 446

    OSPFv3 LSDB and LSAs 448

        Verifying OSPFv3 LSAs 448

        Troubleshooting OSPFv3 LSAs 450

    OSPFv3 Metrics and IPv6 Routes 451

        Verifying OSPFv3 Interface Cost and Metrics 451

        Troubleshooting IPv6 Routes Added by OSPFv3 453

Review Activities 455

Chapter 18 Implementing EIGRP for IPv6 460

Foundation Topics 461

EIGRPv6 Configuration 461

    EIGRPv6 Configuration Basics 461

    EIGRPv6 Configuration Example 462

    Other EIGRPv6 Configuration Settings 464

        Setting Bandwidth and Delay to Influence EIGRPv6 Route Selection 464

        EIGRP Load Balancing 465

        EIGRP Timers 466

EIGRPv6 Concepts, Verification, and Troubleshooting 466

    EIGRPv6 Interfaces 467

    EIGRPv6 Neighbors 469

    EIGRPv6 Topology Database 470

    EIGRPv6 IPv6 Routes 472

Review Activities 474

Part V Review 480

Part VI: Network Management 485

Chapter 19 M anaging Network Devices 486

Foundation Topics 487

Simple Network Management Protocol 487

    Describing SNMP 487

    The Management Information Base 488

    Configuring SNMP Version 2c 490

    SNMP Version 3 491

System Message Logging (Syslog) 492

    An Overview of System Message Logging 492

    System Message Format 493

    System Message Severity Levels 494

    Configuring and Verifying Syslog 494

    Using a Syslog Server 495

NetFlow 495

    An Overview of NetFlow 496

    Network Flows 497

    Configuring NetFlow 497

    Verifying and Using NetFlow 498

    The NetFlow Collector 500

Review Activities 501

Chapter 20 Managing IOS Files 504

Foundation Topics 505

Managing Cisco IOS Files 505

    Upgrading a Cisco IOS Software Image into Flash Memory 505

    The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 507

        The Three Router Operating Systems 508

        The Configuration Register 509

        How a Router Chooses Which OS to Load 509

        Recovering If the IOS Does Not Load 511

        Verifying the IOS Image Using the show version Command 512

Password Recovery 513

    The General Ideas Behind Cisco Password Recovery/Reset 514

    A Specific Password Reset Example 515

Managing Configuration Files 517

    Configuration File Basics 517

    Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 519

    Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 521

Review Activities 522

Chapter 21 M anaging IOS Licensing 526

Foundation Topics 527

IOS Packaging 527

    IOS Images per Model, Series, and per Software Version/Release 527

    Original Packaging: One IOS Image per Feature Set Combination 528

    New IOS Packaging: One Universal Image with All Feature Sets 528

IOS Software Activation with Universal Images 529

    Managing Software Activation with Cisco License Manager 530

    Manually Activating Software Using Licenses 531

    Example of Manually Activating a License 533

        Showing the Current License Status 533

        Adding a Permanent Technology Package License 535

    Right-to-Use Licenses 536

Review Activities 539

Part VI Review 542

Part VII: Final Review 545

Chapter 22 Final Review 546

Advice About the Exam Event 546

    Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial 546

    Think About Your Time Budget Versus Numbers of Questions 547

    A Suggested Time-Check Method 548

    Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions 548

    Exam-Day Advice 548

Exam Review 549

    Practice Subnetting and Other Math-Related Skills 549

    Take Practice Exams 551

        Practicing Taking the ICND2 Exam 551

        Practicing Taking the CCNA Exam 552

        Advice on How to Answer Exam Questions 553

    Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review 554

    Practice Hands-On CLI Skills 556

        Review Mind Maps from Part Review 557

        Do Labs 557

    Other Study Tasks 558

    Final Thoughts 558

Part VIII: Appendixes 561

Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables 563

Appendix B ICND2 Exam Updates 571

Glossary 572

 

DVD-Only Appendixes:

 

Appendix C Answers to the Review Questions

Appendix D Memory Tables

Appendix E Memory Tables Answer Key

Appendix F Mind Map Solutions

Appendix G Study Planner

 

 

9781587144882   TOC   5/29/2013

 

 

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