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CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-101 Official Cert Guide, Academic Edition, CourseSmart eText

By Wendell Odom

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Jun 12, 2013

Description

CCNA ICND2 200-101 Official Cert Guide, Academic Edition is a comprehensive textbook and study package for an intermediate-level networking course. This book has been completely revised to align to Cisco's new CCNA 200-101 ICND2 exam. Material is presented in a concise manner, focusing on increasing student's retention and recall of exam topics. The book is printed in four color, allowing students to benefit from carefully crafted figures that utilize color to convey concepts. Students will organize their study through the use of the consistent features in these chapters

Table of Contents

Introduction xxvi

Getting Started 3

Part I: LAN Switching 9

Chapter 1 Spanning Tree Protocol Concepts 10

Foundation Topics 11

LAN Switching Review 11

    LAN Switch Forwarding Logic 11

    Switch Verification 12

        Viewing the MAC Address Table 12

        Determining the VLAN of a Frame 13

        Verifying Trunks 15

Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D) 15

    The Need for Spanning Tree 16

    What IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Does 18

    How Spanning Tree Works 19

        The STP Bridge ID and Hello BPDU 20

        Electing the Root Switch 21

        Choosing Each Switch’s Root Port 23

        Choosing the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment 24

    Influencing and Changing the STP Topology 25

        Making Configuration Changes to Influence the STP Topology 25

        Reacting to State Changes That Affect the STP Topology 26

        How Switches React to Changes with STP 26

        Changing Interface States with STP 28

Optional STP Features 29

    EtherChannel 29

    PortFast 30

    BPDU Guard 30

    Rapid STP (IEEE 802.1w) 31

Review Activities 32

Chapter 2 Spanning Tree Protocol Implementation 36

Foundation Topics 37

STP Configuration and Verification 37

    Setting the STP Mode 37

    Connecting STP Concepts to STP Configuration Options 38

        Per-VLAN Configuration Settings 38

        The Bridge ID and System ID Extension 39

        Per-VLAN Port Costs 40

        STP Configuration Option Summary 40

    Verifying STP Operation 40

    Configuring STP Port Costs 43

    Configuring Priority to Influence the Root Election 45

    Configuring PortFast and BPDU Guard 46

    Configuring EtherChannel 47

        Configuring a Manual EtherChannel 48

        Configuring Dynamic EtherChannels 50

STP Troubleshooting 50

    Determining the Root Switch 51

    Determining the Root Port on Nonroot Switches 52

        STP Tiebreakers When Choosing the Root Port 53

        Suggestions for Attacking Root Port Problems on the Exam 54

    Determining the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment 54

        Suggestions for Attacking Designated Port Problems on the Exam 55

    STP Convergence 56

    Troubleshooting EtherChannel 56

        Incorrect Options on the channel-group Command 57

        Configuration Checks Before Adding Interfaces to EtherChannels 58

Review Activities 60

Chapter 3 Troubleshooting LAN Switching 64

Foundation Topics 65

Generalized Troubleshooting Methodologies 65

    Analyzing and Predicting Normal Network Operation 65

        Data Plane Analysis 66

        Control Plane Analysis 67

        Predicting Normal Operations: Summary of the Process 68

    Problem Isolation 68

    Root Cause Analysis 69

    Real World Versus the Exams 70

Troubleshooting the LAN Switching Data Plane 70

    An Overview of the Normal LAN Switch Forwarding Process 71

    Step 1: Confirm the Network Diagrams Using CDP 72

    Step 2: Isolate Interface Problems 73

        Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States 74

        The notconnect State and Cabling Pinouts 75

        Determining Switch Interface Speed and Duplex 76

        Issues Related to Speed and Duplex 77

    Step 3: Isolate Filtering and Port Security Problems 79

    Step 4: Isolate VLAN and Trunking Problems 82

        Ensuring That the Right Access Interfaces Are in the Right VLANs 83

        Access VLANs Not Being Defined or Not Being Active 83

        Identify Trunks and VLANs Forwarded on Those Trunks 84

Troubleshooting Examples and Exercises 86

    Troubleshooting Example 1: Find Existing LAN Data Plane Problems 86

        Step 1: Verify the Accuracy of the Diagram Using CDP 87

        Step 2: Check for Interface Problems 88

        Step 3: Check for Port Security Problems 90

        Step 4: Check for VLAN and VLAN Trunk Problems 91

    Troubleshooting Example 2: Predicting LAN Data Plane Behavior 94

        PC1 ARP Request (Broadcast) 95

        R1 ARP Reply (Unicast) 98

Review Activities 102

Part I Review 104

Part II: IP Version 4 Routing 109

Chapter 4 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part I 110

Foundation Topics 111

Predicting Normal IPv4 Routing Behavior 111

    Host IPv4 Routing Logic 111

    Routing Logic Used by IPv4 Routers 112

        IP Routing Logic on a Single Router 112

        IP Routing from Host to Host 113

        Building New Data Link Headers Using ARP Information 114

Problem Isolation Using the ping Command 115

    Ping Command Basics 115

    Strategies and Results When Testing with the ping Command 116

        Testing Longer Routes from Near the Source of the Problem 117

        Using Extended Ping to Test the Reverse Route 119

        Testing LAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 121

        Testing LAN Neighbors with Extended Ping 122

        Testing WAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 122

    Using Ping with Names and with IP Addresses 123

Problem Isolation Using the traceroute Command 124

    traceroute Basics 124

        How the traceroute Command Works 125

        Standard and Extended traceroute 126

    Using traceroute to Isolate the Problem to Two Routers 127

Review Activities 130

Chapter 5 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part II 132

Foundation Topics 133

Problems Between the Host and the Default Router 133

    Root Causes Based on a Host’s IPv4 Settings 133

        Ensure IPv4 Settings Correctly Match 133

        Mismatched Masks Impact Route to Reach Subnet 134

        Typical Root Causes of DNS Problems 136

        Wrong Default Router IP Address Setting 137

    Root Causes Based on the Default Router’s Configuration 137

        Mismatched VLAN Trunking Configuration with Router on a Stick 138

        DHCP Relay Issues 140

        Router LAN Interface and LAN Issues 141

Problems with Routing Packets Between Routers 143

    IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route 143

        Using show ip route and Subnet Math to Find the Best Route 144

        Using show ip route address to Find the Best Route 145

        show ip route Reference 145

    Routing Problems Caused by Incorrect Addressing Plans 146

        Recognizing When VLSM Is Used or Not 147

        Overlaps When Not Using VLSM 147

        Overlaps When Using VLSM 148

        Configuring Overlapping VLSM Subnets 149

    Router WAN Interface Status 150

    Filtering Packets with Access Lists 151

Review Activities 153

Chapter 6 Creating Redundant First-Hop Routers 156

Foundation Topics 157

FHRP Concepts 157

    The Need for Redundancy in Networks 157

    The Need for a First Hop Redundancy Protocol 159

    The Three Solutions for First-Hop Redundancy 160

    HSRP Concepts 160

        HSRP Failover 161

        HSRP Load Balancing 162

    GLBP Concepts 163

FHRP Configuration and Verification 164

    Configuring and Verifying HSRP 164

    Configuring and Verifying GLBP 167

Review Activities 170

Chapter 7 Virtual Private Networks 176

Foundation Topics 177

VPN Fundamentals 177

    IPsec VPNs 179

    SSL VPNs 181

GRE Tunnels 181

    GRE Tunnel Concepts 182

        Routing over GRE Tunnels 182

        GRE Tunnels over the Unsecured Network 183

    Configuring GRE Tunnels 185

    Verifying a GRE Tunnel 187

Review Activities 190

Part II Review 194

Part III: IP Version 4 Routing Protocols 199

Chapter 8 Implementing OSPF for IPv4 200

Foundation Topics 201

OSPF Protocols and Operation 201

    OSPF Overview 201

    Becoming Neighbors and Exchanging the LSDB 202

        Agreeing to Become Neighbors 202

        Fully Exchanging LSAs with Neighbors 203

        Maintaining Neighbors and the LSDB 204

        Using Designated Routers on Ethernet Links 205

    Scaling OSPF Using Areas 206

        OSPF Areas 207

        How Areas Reduce SPF Calculation Time 208

        OSPF Area Design Advantages 209

    Link-State Advertisements 209

        Router LSAs Build Most of the Intra-Area Topology 210

        Network LSAs Complete the Intra-Area Topology 211

        LSAs in a Multi-Area Design 212

    Calculating the Best Routes with SPF 214

    Administrative Distance 215

OSPF Configuration and Verification 216

    OSPFv2 Configuration Overview 216

    Multi-Area OSPFv2 Configuration Example 217

        Single-Area Configurations 218

        Multi-Area Configuration 219

    Verifying the Multi-Area Configuration 220

        Verifying the Correct Areas on Each Interface on an ABR 221

        Verifying Which Router Is DR and BDR 221

        Verifying the Number and Type of LSAs 222

        Verifying OSPF Routes 223

    OSPF Metrics (Cost) 223

        Setting the Cost Based on Interface Bandwidth 224

        The Need for a Higher Reference Bandwidth 225

    OSPF Load Balancing 225

Review Activities 226

Chapter 9 Understanding EIGRP Concepts 230

Foundation Topics 231

EIGRP and Distance Vector Routing Protocols 231

    Introduction to EIGRP 231

    Basic Distance Vector Routing Protocol Features 233

        The Concept of a Distance and a Vector 233

        Full Update Messages and Split Horizon 234

        Route Poisoning 236

    EIGRP as an Advanced DV Protocol 237

        EIGRP Sends Partial Update Messages, As Needed 237

        EIGRP Maintains Neighbor Status Using Hello 237

        Summary of Interior Routing Protocol Features 238

EIGRP Concepts and Operation 239

    EIGRP Neighbors 239

    Exchanging EIGRP Topology Information 240

    Calculating the Best Routes for the Routing Table 241

        The EIGRP Metric Calculation 241

        An Example of Calculated EIGRP Metrics 242

        Caveats with Bandwidth on Serial Links 243

    EIGRP Convergence 244

        Feasible Distance and Reported Distance 244

        EIGRP Successors and Feasible Successors 245

        The Query and Reply Process 246

Review Activities 248

Chapter 10 Implementing EIGRP for IPv4 252

Foundation Topics 253

Core EIGRP Configuration and Verification 253

    EIGRP Configuration 253

    Configuring EIGRP Using a Wildcard Mask 255

    Verifying EIGRP Core Features 255

        Finding the Interfaces on Which EIGRP Is Enabled 256

        Displaying EIGRP Neighbor Status 258

        Displaying the IPv4 Routing Table 259

EIGRP Metrics, Successors, and Feasible Successors 260

    Viewing the EIGRP Topology Table 261

        Finding Successor Routes 262

        Finding Feasible Successor Routes 263

        Convergence Using the Feasible Successor Route 265

    Examining the Metric Components 266

Other EIGRP Configuration Settings 267

    Load Balancing Across Multiple EIGRP Routes 267

    Tuning the EIGRP Metric Calculation 269

    Autosummarization and Discontiguous Classful Networks 270

        Automatic Summarization at the Boundary of a Classful Network 270

        Discontiguous Classful Networks 271

Review Activities 273

Chapter 11 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Protocols 278

Foundation Topics 279

Perspectives on Troubleshooting Routing Protocol Problems 279

Interfaces Enabled with a Routing Protocol 280

    EIGRP Interface Troubleshooting 281

        Examining Working EIGRP Interfaces 282

        Examining the Problems with EIGRP Interfaces 284

    OSPF Interface Troubleshooting 286

Neighbor Relationships 289

    EIGRP Neighbor Verification Checks 290

    EIGRP Neighbor Troubleshooting Example 291

    OSPF Neighbor Troubleshooting 293

        Finding Area Mismatches 294

        Finding Duplicate OSPF Router IDs 295

        Finding OSPF Hello and Dead Timer Mismatches 296

    Other OSPF Issues 297

        Mismatched OSPF Network Types 297

        Mismatched MTU Settings 299

Review Activities 300

Part III Review 304

Part IV: Wide-Area Networks 309

Chapter 12 Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 310

Foundation Topics 311

Leased Line WANs with HDLC 311

    Layer 1 Leased Lines 311

        The Physical Components of a Leased Line 312

        Leased Lines and the T-Carrier System 314

        The Role of the CSU/DSU 315

        Building a WAN Link in a Lab 315

    Layer 2 Leased Lines with HDLC 316

    Configuring HDLC 317

Leased-Line WANs with PPP 320

    PPP Concepts 320

        PPP Framing 321

        PPP Control Protocols 321

        PPP Authentication 322

    Configuring PPP 323

    CHAP Configuration and Verification 324

Troubleshooting Serial Links 325

    Troubleshooting Layer 1 Problems 325

    Troubleshooting Layer 2 Problems 326

        Keepalive Failure 327

        PAP and CHAP Authentication Failure 328

    Troubleshooting Layer 3 Problems 329

Review Activities 331

Chapter 13 Understanding Frame Relay Concepts 336

Foundation Topics 337

Frame Relay Overview 337

    Virtual Circuits 339

    LMI and Encapsulation Types 340

    Frame Relay Encapsulation and Framing 341

Frame Relay Addressing 342

    Frame Relay Local Addressing 342

    Frame Forwarding with One DLCI Field 343

Network Layer Addressing with Frame Relay 344

    Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Containing All Frame Relay DTEs 345

    Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Per VC 345

    Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: Hybrid Approach 347

Review Activities 349

Chapter 14 Implementing Frame Relay 352

Foundation Topics 353

Frame Relay Configuration and Verification 353

    Planning a Frame Relay Configuration 353

    Configuring Using Physical Interfaces and One IP Subnet 354

    Configuring the Encapsulation and LMI 356

    Frame Relay Address Mapping 357

        Inverse ARP 360

        Static Frame Relay Mapping 360

    Configuring Point-to-Point Subinterfaces 361

    Verifying Point-to-Point Frame Relay 364

    Configuring with Multipoint Subinterfaces 366

    OSPF Issues on Frame Relay Multipoint and Physical Interfaces 368

Frame Relay Troubleshooting 369

    A Suggested Frame Relay Troubleshooting Process 369

    Layer 1 Issues on the Access Link (Step 1) 370

    Layer 2 Issues on the Access Link (Step 2) 371

    PVC Problems and Status (Step 3) 372

        Find the Connected Subnet and Outgoing Interface (Steps 3a and 3b) 373

        Find the PVCs Assigned to That Interface (Step 3c) 374

        Determine Which PVC Is Used to Reach a Particular Neighbor (Step 3d) 375

        PVC Status 375

        Subinterface Status 377

    Frame Relay Mapping Issues (Step 4) 377

    End-to-End Encapsulation (Step 5) 378

    Mismatched Subnet Numbers (Step 6) 379

Review Activities 380

Chapter 15 Identifying Other Types of WANs 386

Foundation Topics 387

Private WANs to Connect Enterprises 387

    Leased Lines 387

    Frame Relay 388

    Ethernet WANs 389

    MPLS 390

    VSAT 391

Public WANs and Internet Access 392

    Internet Access (WAN) Links 392

    Dial Access with Modems and ISDN 393

    Digital Subscriber Line 395

    Cable Internet 396

    Mobile Phone Access with 3G/4G 397

    PPP over Ethernet 398

        PPP over Ethernet Concepts 398

        PPP over Ethernet Configuration 399

Review Activities 401

Part IV Review 404

Part V: IP Version 6 409

Chapter 16 Troubleshooting IPv6 Routing 410

Foundation Topics 411

Normal IPv6 Operation 411

    Unicast IPv6 Addresses and IPv6 Subnetting 411

    Assigning Addresses to Hosts 413

        Stateful DHCPv6 413

        Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 414

        Router Address and Static Route Configuration 415

        Configuring IPv6 Routing and Addresses on Routers 415

        IPv6 Static Routes on Routers 416

    Verifying IPv6 Connectivity 417

        Verifying Connectivity from IPv6 Hosts 417

        Verifying IPv6 from Routers 419

Troubleshooting IPv6 421

    Pings from the Host Work Only in Some Cases 421

    Pings Fail from a Host to Its Default Router 423

    Problems Using Any Function That Requires DNS 424

    Host Is Missing IPv6 Settings: Stateful DHCP Issues 424

    Host Is Missing IPv6 Settings: SLAAC Issues 425

    Traceroute Shows Some Hops, But Fails 427

    Routing Looks Good, But Traceroute Still Fails 428

Review Activities 430

Chapter 17 Implementing OSPF for IPv6 434

Foundation Topics 435

OSPFv3 Configuration 435

    OSPFv3 ICND1 Configuration Review 435

    Example Multi-Area OSPFv3 Configuration 435

        Single Area Configuration on the Three Internal Routers 436

        Adding Multi-Area Configuration on the Area Border Router 438

    Other OSPFv3 Configuration Settings 439

        Setting OSPFv3 Interface Cost to Influence Route Selection 439

        OSPF Load Balancing 440

        Injecting Default Routes 440

OSPF Concepts, Verification, and Troubleshooting 441

    OSPFv3 Interfaces 443

        Verifying OSPFv3 Interfaces 443

        Troubleshooting OSPFv3 Interfaces 443

    OSPFv3 Neighbors 445

        Verifying OSPFv3 Neighbors 445

        Troubleshooting OSPFv3 Neighbors 446

    OSPFv3 LSDB and LSAs 448

        Verifying OSPFv3 LSAs 448

        Troubleshooting OSPFv3 LSAs 450

    OSPFv3 Metrics and IPv6 Routes 451

        Verifying OSPFv3 Interface Cost and Metrics 451

        Troubleshooting IPv6 Routes Added by OSPFv3 453

Review Activities 455

Chapter 18 Implementing EIGRP for IPv6 460

Foundation Topics 461

EIGRPv6 Configuration 461

    EIGRPv6 Configuration Basics 461

    EIGRPv6 Configuration Example 462

    Other EIGRPv6 Configuration Settings 464

        Setting Bandwidth and Delay to Influence EIGRPv6 Route Selection 464

        EIGRP Load Balancing 465

        EIGRP Timers 466

EIGRPv6 Concepts, Verification, and Troubleshooting 466

    EIGRPv6 Interfaces 467

    EIGRPv6 Neighbors 469

    EIGRPv6 Topology Database 470

    EIGRPv6 IPv6 Routes 472

Review Activities 474

Part V Review 480

Part VI: Network Management 485

Chapter 19 M anaging Network Devices 486

Foundation Topics 487

Simple Network Management Protocol 487

    Describing SNMP 487

    The Management Information Base 488

    Configuring SNMP Version 2c 490

    SNMP Version 3 491

System Message Logging (Syslog) 492

    An Overview of System Message Logging 492

    System Message Format 493

    System Message Severity Levels 494

    Configuring and Verifying Syslog 494

    Using a Syslog Server 495

NetFlow 495

    An Overview of NetFlow 496

    Network Flows 497

    Configuring NetFlow 497

    Verifying and Using NetFlow 498

    The NetFlow Collector 500

Review Activities 501

Chapter 20 Managing IOS Files 504

Foundation Topics 505

Managing Cisco IOS Files 505

    Upgrading a Cisco IOS Software Image into Flash Memory 505

    The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 507

        The Three Router Operating Systems 508

        The Configuration Register 509

        How a Router Chooses Which OS to Load 509

        Recovering If the IOS Does Not Load 511

        Verifying the IOS Image Using the show version Command 512

Password Recovery 513

    The General Ideas Behind Cisco Password Recovery/Reset 514

    A Specific Password Reset Example 515

Managing Configuration Files 517

    Configuration File Basics 517

    Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 519

    Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 521

Review Activities 522

Chapter 21 M anaging IOS Licensing 526

Foundation Topics 527

IOS Packaging 527

    IOS Images per Model, Series, and per Software Version/Release 527

    Original Packaging: One IOS Image per Feature Set Combination 528

    New IOS Packaging: One Universal Image with All Feature Sets 528

IOS Software Activation with Universal Images 529

    Managing Software Activation with Cisco License Manager 530

    Manually Activating Software Using Licenses 531

    Example of Manually Activating a License 533

        Showing the Current License Status 533

        Adding a Permanent Technology Package License 535

    Right-to-Use Licenses 536

Review Activities 539

Part VI Review 542

Part VII: Final Review 545

Chapter 22 Final Review 546

Advice About the Exam Event 546

    Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial 546

    Think About Your Time Budget Versus Numbers of Questions 547

    A Suggested Time-Check Method 548

    Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions 548

    Exam-Day Advice 548

Exam Review 549

    Practice Subnetting and Other Math-Related Skills 549

    Take Practice Exams 551

        Practicing Taking the ICND2 Exam 551

        Practicing Taking the CCNA Exam 552

        Advice on How to Answer Exam Questions 553

    Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review 554

    Practice Hands-On CLI Skills 556

        Review Mind Maps from Part Review 557

        Do Labs 557

    Other Study Tasks 558

    Final Thoughts 558

Part VIII: Appendixes 561

Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables 563

Appendix B ICND2 Exam Updates 571

Glossary 572

 

DVD-Only Appendixes:

 

Appendix C Answers to the Review Questions

Appendix D Memory Tables

Appendix E Memory Tables Answer Key

Appendix F Mind Map Solutions

Appendix G Study Planner

 

 

9781587144882   TOC   5/29/2013

 

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