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CISSP Cert Guide, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Troy McMillan, Robin Abernathy

Published by Pearson IT Certification

Published Date: Nov 5, 2013

Description

The CISSP Cert Guide has a single goal: to help experienced security professionals pass the brand-new version of the field’s most challenging security exam, ISC(2)’s Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP). The most comprehensive and time-efficient CISSP study guide available, it’s an extraordinarily cost-effective alternative to expensive live training: a perfect resource for both new CISSP candidates and those who must recertify to maintain their credentials. It presents focused, straight-to-the-point coverage of all ten domains in the CISSP Body of Knowledge.

Table of Contents

Introduction

 

Chapter 1 The CISSP Certification 3

The Goals of the CISSP Certification 3

    Sponsoring Bodies 3

    Stated Goals 4

The Value of the CISSP Certification 4

    To the Security Professional 5

    To the Enterprise 5

The Common Body of Knowledge 5

    Access Control 5

    Telecommunications and Network Security 6

    Information Security Governance and Risk Management 6

    Software Development Security 7

    Cryptography 7

    Security Architecture and Design 8

    Operations Security 8

    Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning 8

    Legal, Regulations, Investigations, and Compliance 9

    Physical and Environmental Security 9

Steps to Becoming a CISSP 10

    Qualifying for the Exam 10

    Signing Up for the Exam 10

    About the CISSP Exam 10

 

Chapter 2 Access Control 13

Foundation Topics 13

Access Control Concepts 13

    CIA 13

    Default Stance 14

    Defense In Depth 14

    Access Control Process 15

        Identify Resources 15

        Identify Users 15

        Identify Relationships Between Resources and Users 16

Identification and Authentication Concepts 16

    Three Factors for Authentication 17

    Knowledge Factors 17

        Identity and Account Management 18

        Password Types and Management 19

    Ownership Factors 22

        Synchronous and Asynchronous Token 22

        Memory Cards 22

        Smart Cards 23

    Characteristic Factors 23

        Physiological Characteristics 24

        Behavioral Characteristics 25

        Biometric Considerations 26

Authorization Concepts 28

    Access Control Policies 28

    Separation of Duties 29

    Least Privilege/Need-to-Know 29

    Default to No Access 30

    Directory Services 30

    Single Sign-on 31

        Kerberos 32

        SESAME 34

        Federated Identity Management 35

    Security Domains 35

Accountability 35

    Auditing and Reporting 36

    Vulnerability Assessment 37

    Penetration Testing 38

Access Control Categories 39

    Compensative 40

    Corrective 40

    Detective 40

    Deterrent 40

    Directive 40

    Preventive 41

    Recovery 41

Access Control Types 41

    Administrative (Management) Controls 41

    Logical (Technical) Controls 43

    Physical Controls 43

Access Control Models 46

    Discretionary Access Control 46

    Mandatory Access Control 47

    Role-based Access Control 47

    Rule-based Access Control 48

    Content-dependent Versus Context-dependent 48

    Access Control Matrix 48

        Capabilities Table 48

        Access Control List (ACL) 49

Access Control Administration 49

    Centralized 49

    Decentralized 49

    Provisioning Life Cycle 50

Access Control Monitoring 50

    IDS 50

    IPS 52

Access Control Threats 52

    Password Threats 53

        Dictionary Attack 53

        Brute-Force Attack 53

    Social Engineering Threats 53

        Phishing/Pharming 54

        Shoulder Surfing 54

        Identity Theft 54

        Dumpster Diving 55

    DoS/DDoS 55

    Buffer Overflow 55

    Mobile Code 56

    Malicious Software 56

    Spoofing 56

    Sniffing and Eavesdropping 57

    Emanating 57

    Backdoor/Trapdoor 57

Exam Preparation Tasks 57

Review All Key Topics 57

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 58

    Define Key Terms 59

    Review Questions 59

    Answers and Explanations 61

 

Chapter 3 Telecommunications and Network Security 65

Foundation Topics 66

OSI Model 66

    Application Layer 67

    Presentation Layer 67

    Session Layer 67

    Transport Layer 68

    Network Layer 68

    Data Link Layer 68

    Physical Layer 69

Multi-Layer Protocols 70

TCP/IP Model 71

    Application Layer 72

    Transport Layer 72

    Internet Layer 74

    Link Layer 76

    Encapsulation 76

Common TCP/UDP Ports 77

Logical and Physical Addressing 78

    IPv4 78

    IP Classes 80

    Public Versus Private IP Addresses 81

    NAT 81

    IPv4 Versus IPv6 82

    MAC Addressing 82

Network Transmission 83

    Analog Versus Digital 83

    Asynchronous Versus Synchronous 84

    Broadband Versus Baseband 84

    Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast 85

    Wired Versus Wireless 86

Cabling 87

    Coaxial 87

    Twisted Pair 88

    Fiberoptic 90

Network Topologies 91

    Ring 91

    Bus 92

    Star 92

    Mesh 93

    Hybrid 94

Network Technologies 94

    Ethernet 802.3 94

    Token Ring 802.5 96

    FDDI 97

    Contention Methods 97

        CSMA/CD Versus CSMA/CA 98

        Collision Domains 98

        CSMA/CD 99

        CSMA/CA 100

        Token Passing 101

        Polling 101

Network Protocols/Services 101

    ARP 101

    DHCP 102

    DNS 103

    FTP, FTPS, SFTP 103

    HTTP, HTTPS, SHTTP 104

    ICMP 104

    IMAP 105

    NAT 105

    PAT 105

    POP 105

    SMTP 105

    SNMP 105

Network Routing 106

    Distance Vector, Link State, or Hybrid Routing 106

    RIP 107

    OSPF 107

    IGRP 108

    EIGRP 108

    VRRP 108

    IS-IS 108

    BGP 108

Network Devices 109

    Patch Panel 109

    Multiplexer 109

    Hub 109

    Switch 110

        VLANs 111

        Layer 3 Versus Layer 4 111

    Router 111

    Gateway 112

    Firewall 112

        Types 113

        Architecture 114

        Virtualization 116

    Proxy Server 116

    PBX 116

    Honeypot 117

    Cloud Computing 117

    Endpoint Security 119

Network Types 119

    LAN 119

    Intranet 119

    Extranet 120

    MAN 120

    WAN 120

WAN Technologies 121

    T Lines 121

    E Lines 121

    OC Lines (SONET) 122

    CSU/DSU 122

    Circuit-Switching Versus Packet-Switching 123

    Frame Relay 123

    ATM 123

    X.25 124

    Switched Multimegabit Data Service 124

    Point-to-Point Protocol 124

    High-Speed Serial Interface 124

    PSTN (POTS, PBX) 125

    VoIP 125

Remote Connection Technologies 126

    Dial-up 126

    ISDN 127

    DSL 127

    Cable 128

    VPN 129

    RADIUS and TACACS 132

    Remote Authentication Protocols 133

    Telnet 134

    TLS/SSL 134

    Multimedia Collaboration 134

Wireless Networks 135

    FHSS, DSSS, OFDM, FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA, and GSM 135

        802.11 Techniques 136

        Cellular or Mobile Wireless Techniques 136

    WLAN Structure 137

        Access Point 137

        SSID 137

        Infrastructure Mode Versus Ad Hoc Mode 137

    WLAN Standards 137

        802.11a 138

        802.11b 138

        802.11f 138

        802.11g 138

        802.11n 138

        Bluetooth 139

        Infrared 139

    WLAN Security 139

        WEP 139

        WPA 140

        WPA2 140

        Personal Versus Enterprise 140

        SSID Broadcast 141

        MAC Filter 141

    Satellites 141

Network Threats 142

    Cabling 142

        Noise 142

        Attenuation 142

        Crosstalk 143

        Eavesdropping 143

    ICMP Attacks 143

        Ping of Death 143

        Smurf 144

        Fraggle 144

        ICMP Redirect 144

        Ping Scanning 145

    DNS Attacks 145

        DNS Cache Poisoning 145

        DoS 146

        DDoS 146

        DNSSEC 146

        URL Hiding 146

        Domain Grabbing 147

        Cybersquatting 147

    Email Attacks 147

        Email Spoofing 147

        Spear Phishing 148

        Whaling 148

        Spam 148

    Wireless Attacks 148

        Wardriving 149

        Warchalking 149

    Remote Attacks 149

    Other Attacks 149

        SYN ACK Attacks 149

        Session Hijacking 150

        Port Scanning 150

        Teardrop 150

        IP Address Spoofing 150

Exam Preparation Tasks 151

Review All Key Topics 151

    Define Key Terms 151

    Review Questions 153

    Answers and Explanations 155

 

Chapter 4 Information Security Governance and Risk Management 159

Foundation Topics 159

Security Principles and Terms 159

    CIA 160

    Vulnerability 160

    Threat 161

    Threat Agent 161

    Risk 161

    Exposure 161

    Countermeasure 161

    Due Care and Due Diligence 162

    Job Rotation 163

    Separation of Duties 163

Security Frameworks and Methodologies 163

    ISO/IEC 27000 Series 164

    Zachman Framework 166

    The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) 168

    Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) 168

    British Ministry of Defence Architecture Framework (MODAF) 168

    Sherwood Applied Business Security Architecture (SABSA) 168

    Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (CobiT) 170

    National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 170

    Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO) of the Treadway

    Commission Framework 171

    Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) 172

    Six Sigma 173

    Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) 174

    Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Approach 174

    Security Program Life Cycle 174

Risk Assessment 175

    Information and Asset (Tangible/Intangible) Value and Costs 177

    Vulnerabilities and Threats Identification 177

    Quantitative Risk Analysis 178

    Qualitative Risk Analysis 179

    Safeguard Selection 179

    Total Risk Versus Residual Risk 180

    Handling Risk 180

Risk Management Principles 181

    Risk Management Policy 181

    Risk Management Team 181

    Risk Analysis Team 182

Information Security Governance Components 182

    Policies 183

        Organizational Security Policy 184

        System-Specific Security Policy 185

        Issue-Specific Security Policy 185

        Policy Categories 185

    Standards 185

    Baselines 185

    Guidelines 186

    Procedures 186

    Information Classification and Life Cycle 186

        Commercial Business Classifications 186

        Military and Government Classifications 187

        Information Life Cycle 188

Security Governance Responsibilities and Roles 188

    Board of Directors 188

    Management 189

    Audit Committee 189

    Data Owner 190

    Data Custodian 190

    System Owner 190

    System Administrator 190

    Security Administrator 190

    Security Analyst 191

    Application Owner 191

    Supervisor 191

    User 191

    Auditor 191

    Third-Party Governance 191

        Onsite Assessment 192

        Document Exchange/Review 192

        Process/Policy Review 192

    Personnel Security (Screening, Hiring, and Termination) 192

Security Awareness Training 193

Security Budget, Metrics, and Effectiveness 194

Exam Preparation Tasks 195

Review All Key Topics 195

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 195

    Define Key Terms 196

    Review Questions 196

    Answers and Explanations 198

 

Chapter 5 Software Development Security 203

Foundation Topics 203

System Development Life Cycle 203

    Initiate 204

    Acquire/Develop 204

    Implement 205

    Operate/Maintain 205

    Dispose 205

Software Development Life Cycle 206

    Gather Requirements 206

    Design 207

    Develop 207

    Test/Validate 208

    Release/Maintain 209

    Change Management and Configuration Management 209

Software Development Security Best Practices 209

    WASC 210

    OWASP 210

    BSI 210

    ISO/IEC 27000 210

Software Development Methods 211

    Build and Fix 211

    Waterfall 212

    V-Shaped 213

    Prototyping 214

    Incremental 214

    Spiral 215

    Rapid Application Development (RAD) 216

    Agile 216

    JAD 218

    Cleanroom 218

    CMMI 218

Programming Concepts 219

    Machine Languages 219

    Assembly Languages and Assemblers 219

    High-level Languages, Compilers, and Interpreters 219

    Object-Oriented Programming 220

        Polymorphism 221

        Cohesion 221

        Coupling 221

        Data Structures 221

    Distributed Object-Oriented Systems 222

        CORBA 222

        COM and DCOM 222

        OLE 223

        Java 223

        SOA 223

    Mobile Code 223

        Java Applets 223

        ActiveX 224

Database Concepts and Security 224

    DBMS Architecture and Models 224

    Database Interface Languages 226

        ODBC 226

        JDBC 227

        XML 227

        OLE DB 227

    Data Warehouses and Data Mining 227

    Database Threats 228

        Database Views 228

        Database Locks 228

        Polyinstantiation 228

        OLTP ACID Test 229

Knowledge-Based Systems 229

Software Threats 230

    Malware 230

        Virus 230

        Worm 231

        Trojan Horse 231

        Logic Bomb 232

        Spyware/Adware 232

        Botnet 232

        Rootkit 233

    Source Code Issues 233

        Buffer Overflow 233

        Escalation of Privileges 235

        Backdoor 235

    Malware Protection 235

        Antivirus Software 235

        Antimalware Software 236

        Security Policies 236

Software Security Effectiveness 236

    Certification and Accreditation 236

    Auditing 237

Exam Preparation Tasks 237

Review All Key Topics 237

    Define Key Terms 238

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 238

    Review Questions 238

    Answers and Explanations 240

 

Chapter 6 Cryptography 243

Foundation Topics 244

Cryptography Concepts 244

    Cryptographic Life Cycle 246

Cryptography History 246

    Julius Caesar and the Caesar Cipher 247

    Vigenere Cipher 248

    Kerckhoff’s Principle 249

    World War II Enigma 249

    Lucifer by IBM 250

Cryptosystem Features 250

    Authentication 250

    Confidentiality 250

    Integrity 251

    Authorization 251

    Non-repudiation 251

Encryption Systems 251

    Running Key and Concealment Ciphers 251

    Substitution Ciphers 252

    Transposition Ciphers 253

    Symmetric Algorithms 253

        Stream-based Ciphers 254

        Block Ciphers 255

        Initialization Vectors (IVs) 255

    Asymmetric Algorithms 255

    Hybrid Ciphers 256

Substitution Ciphers 257

    One-Time Pads 257

    Steganography 258

Symmetric Algorithms 258

    Digital Encryption Standard (DES) and Triple DES (3DES) 259

        DES Modes 259

        Triple DES (3DES) and Modes 262

    Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 263

    IDEA 263

    Skipjack 264

    Blowfish 264

    Twofish 264

    RC4/RC5/RC6 264

    CAST 265

Asymmetric Algorithms 265

    Diffie-Hellman 266

    RSA 267

    El Gamal 267

    ECC 267

    Knapsack 268

    Zero Knowledge Proof 268

Message Integrity 268

    Hash Functions 269

        One-Way Hash 269

        MD2/MD4/MD5/MD6 271

        SHA/SHA-2/SHA-3 271

        HAVAL 272

        RIPEMD-160 272

        Tiger 272

    Message Authentication Code 273

        HMAC 273

        CBC-MAC 274

        CMAC 274

Digital Signatures 274

Public Key Infrastructure 275

    Certification Authority (CA) and Registration Authority (RA) 275

    OCSP 276

    Certificates 276

    Certificate Revocation List (CRL) 277

    PKI Steps 277

    Cross-Certification 278

Key Management 278

Trusted Platform Module (TPM) 279

Encryption Communication Levels 280

    Link Encryption 280

    End-to-End Encryption 281

E-mail Security 281

    PGP 281

    MIME and S/MIME 282

    Quantum Cryptography 282

Internet Security 282

    Remote Access 283

    SSL/TLS 283

    HTTP, HTTPS, and SHTTP 284

    SET 284

    Cookies 284

    SSH 285

    IPsec 285

Cryptography Attacks 286

    Ciphertext-Only Attack 287

    Known Plaintext Attack 287

    Chosen Plaintext Attack 287

    Chosen Ciphertext Attack 287

    Social Engineering 287

    Brute Force 288

    Differential Cryptanalysis 288

    Linear Cryptanalysis 288

    Algebraic Attack 288

    Frequency Analysis 288

    Birthday Attack 289

    Dictionary Attack 289

    Replay Attack 289

    Analytic Attack 289

    Statistical Attack 289

    Factoring Attack 289

    Reverse Engineering 289

    Meet-in-the-Middle Attack 290

Exam Preparation Tasks 290

Review All Key Topics 290

    Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 290

    Define Key Terms 291

    Review Questions 291

    Answers and Explanations 293

 

Chapter 7 Security Architecture and Design 297

Foundation Topics 297

Security Model Concepts 297

    Confidentiality 297

    Integrity 297

    Availability 298

    Defense in Depth 298

System Architecture 298

    System Architecture Steps 299

    ISO/IEC 42010:2011 299

    Computing Platforms 300

        Mainframe/Thin Clients 300

        Distributed Systems 300

        Middleware 301

        Embedded Systems 301

        Mobile Computing 301

        Virtual Computing 301

    Security Services 302

        Boundary Control Services 302

        Access Control Services 302

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