This text uses practical applications and an accessible writing style to present a summary of psychological research on students' learning of academic subject areas. The text is organized into three main sections. 1. General principles of learning, memory, intelligence, problem-solving, and motivation that apply to any school-related skill. Unlike typical books on cognitive development, these general principles are explicitly translated to classroom practice. 2. Specific developmental trends in the acquisition of skills in the areas of reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies. The reader will learn what children can understand and do at various ages in these domains. 3. Understanding gender and ethnic differences in achievement.
Table of Contents
Why This Book Was Written.
Two Central Constructs.
Why Study Developmental and Individual Differences?
Common Themes across Chapters.
2. Theories of Cognitive Development and Learning.
Information Processing Theory.
The Nature of Human Memory.
Factors Related to Enhance Memory.
The Development of Memory.
4. Higher-Order Thinking.
The Transfer of Skills.
The Nature of Motivation.
The Development of Motivation.
Individual Differences in Motivation.
II. AGE CHANGES IN SPECIFIC SUBJECT AREAS.
6. Beginning Reading.
The Nature of Skilled Reading.
The Development of Skilled Reading.
Individual Differences in Skilled Reading.
7. Reading Comprehension.
The Nature of Reading Comprehension.
Developmental Trends in Reading Comprehension.
Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension.
The Nature of Writing.
The Development of Writing Skills.
Individual Differences in Writing Ability.
9. Mathematics Learning.
The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge and Skills.
The Development of Mathematical Skills.
Individual Differences in Math Skills.
10. Scientific Thinking.
The Importance and Nature of High-Order Scientific Thinking.
The Development of Scientific Knowledge and Skills.
Individual Differences in Scientific Thinking.
Implications for Teaching.
11. Social Studies Learning.
Expertise in the Social Studies.
The Development of Social Studies Knowledge and Skills.
Individual Differences in Social Studies Knowledge.
12. Explaining Individual Differences.
Explaining Gender Differences.
Explaining Ethnic Differences.