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Communication: The Handbook, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Kristin Froemling, George L. Grice, John F. Skinner

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jan 13, 2010

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Description

In an easy-to-navigate handbook format, along with plenty of opportunities to apply concepts and develop skills, this new entry in the introduction to communication market helps students become more effective, successful communicators.

 

This student-friendly, handbook format allows students to navigate quickly to the topics they need, learn the basic theory, and immediately apply the concepts to a skills application -- all resulting in gains in communication competence.  Instead of having separate chapters devoted to intercultural communication and ethics, this text incorporates cultural and ethical issues into each chapter, allowing students to learn about ethics and culture in every aspect of communication, rather than isolated in one chapter. Modules in every section highlight topics of special interest, including communication apprehension, computer-mediated communication, interviewing, group presentations, and speaking on special occasions.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

 

Part One:  FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION

 

CHAPTER 1:  ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

 

1a Getting Started in Communication Studies

    Why Do We Need Communication?

    Defining Communication

1b Examining the Transactional Model of Communication

    Elements of Communication

    Applying the Transactional Model

    Cultural Connections — Native American Indians

1c Identifying Communication Contexts

1d Understanding the Universals of Communication

    You cannot not communicate.

    All communication has a content and relational dimension.

    Communication is a series of punctuated events.

    Communication is irreversible and unrepeatable.

    Communication is culture-specific.

1e Communicating Ethically

    Eye on Ethics — Being Yourself

1f Communicating Competently

    Components of Communication Competence

    Enhancing Your Communicative Competence

    

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

 

Module A: UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION 

HIGH COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION

LOW COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION

MODERATE COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION

Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24)

 

CHAPTER 2:  PERCEPTION OF THE SELF AND OTHERS

 

2a Understanding Perception

2b Identifying the Stages of the Perception Process

    Stage One: Stimulation

    Stage Two:  Organization

    Cultural Connections — Perceptions of Time

     Stage Three:  Interpretation-Evaluation

2c Understanding Perceptual Biases

    Halo Effect and Reverse Halo Effect

    Eye on Ethics — Attractiveness Bias

    Perceptual Accentuation

    Primacy Effect and Recency Effect

2d Examining Influences on Perception

    Self-Perception

    Personal Experiences

    Third-Party Influences

    Physical Conditions

    Psychological Conditions

    Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

2e Engaging in Perception Checking

 

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 3:  LISTENING

 

3a The Importance of Listening

3b Why Don’t We Listen?

3c Examining Listening versus Hearing

    Listening Is Intermittent

    Listening Is a Learned Skill

    Listening Is Active

    Listening Implies Using the Message Received

3d Understanding the Listening Process

    Receive Stimuli

    Select Stimuli

    Understand the Message

    Evaluate

    Resolve

3e Identifying Barriers to Effective Listening

    Pseudo-listening

    Selective Listening

    Stage-hogging/Interrupting

    Sidetracking

    Physical Distractions

    Psychological Distractions

    Factual Distractions

3f Promoting Better Listening

    Desire to Listen

    Focus on the Message

    Understand the Speaker’s Point of View

    Reinforce the Message

    Provide Feedback

    Withhold Judgment

    Actively Listening

    Cultural Connections — High and Low Context Cultures

    Eye on Ethics — Right of Refusal

 

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 4:  THE POWER OF LANGUAGE

 

4a Identifying the Functions of Language

    Communicate Ideas

    Send Messages About Users

    Strengthen Social Bonds

    Serve as Instrument of Play

    Check Understanding

4b Exploring the Nature of Language

    Language Is Symbolic

    Language Is Subjective

    Language Is Rule-governed

    Cultural Connections — Connotative Meanings

4c Communicating Effectively

    Use Language Correctly

    Use Language Clearly

    Use Language Ethically

    Eye on Ethics - Doublespeak

4d Understanding the Power of Language

    Powerless Language

    Confirmation and Disconfirmation

4e Creating a Supportive Communication Climate

    

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 5:  NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

 

5a Understanding the Principles of Nonverbal Communication

    Nonverbal communication is deliberate or unintentional.

    Nonverbal signals are cultural. 

    Nonverbal messages are trusted more that verbal messages when the two conflict.

    Nonverbal messages can be ambiguous.

5b Identifying Types of Nonverbal Communication

    Paralanguage

    Proxemics

    Artifacts

    Personal appearance

    Eye on Ethics — Weight and the Hiring Process

    Kinesics

    Eye communication

    Silence

    Chronemics

    Haptics

    Olfactics

    Cultural Connections — Presidential Nonverbal Faux Pas

5c Examining the Functions of Nonverbal Cues

    Substitute

    Reinforce

    Regulate

    Contradict

    Indicate a Relationship

    Deceive

    Manage Identity

5d Putting Nonverbal Communication into Action

    Expectancy

    Valance

    Ambiguous Behaviors

    Competence Summary

 

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

 

Module B:  THE ART OF SMALL TALK

THE IMPORTANCE OF SMALL TALK

INTRODUCTIONS

BEGINNING THE CONVERSATION

SUSTAINING THE CONVERSATION

CONCLUDING THE CONVERSATION

 

Part Two:  Interpersonal Communication

CHAPTER 6:  INTRODUCTION TO INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

 

6a Defining Interpersonal Communication

6b Forming Interpersonal Relationships

    Why Do We Need Relationships?

    With Whom Do We Form Relationships?

6c Examining Relationship Development and Dissolution

    Knapp’s Model of Relationship Development

    Cultural Connections — Cultural Influences on Self-Disclosure

    Conville’s Model of Relationship Development and       Dissolution

6d Relational Dialectics

    Autonomy-Connectedness 

    Predictability-Change 

    Openness-Closedness 

6e Understanding the Dynamics of Self-Disclosure

    Self-Disclosure in Interpersonal Relationships

    Social Penetration Theory

    Competent Self-Disclosure Through Self-Monitoring

    Eye on Ethics — The Disappearing Act

 

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

 

MODULE C:  MANAGING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION

UNCERTAINTY REDUCTION THEORY

ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION

 

CHAPTER 7:  RELATIONAL CONFLICT

 

7a Defining Conflict

    Components of Conflict

    Phases of Conflict

7b Exploring Positive and Negative Consequences of Conflict

    Positive Consequences of Conflict

    Negative Consequences of Conflict

7c Identifying Types of Conflict and Conflict Issues

    Conflict Types

    Conflict Issues

7d Examining Approaches to Conflict Management

    Potential Conflict Outcomes

    Five Traditional Approaches to Conflict Management

7e Managing Conflict

    Conflict Management Styles

    Aggressiveness Versus Argumentativeness

    Unproductive Strategies for Managing Conflict

    Cultural Connections — Fist Fighting as a Conflict Management Style

7f Examining Interpersonal Conflict: John Gottman versus John Gray

    Gottman’s Four Horseman of the Apocalypse

    John Gray’s Interpersonal Conflict Perspective

    Eye on Ethics — Moral Conflict

 

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

 

MODULE D:  COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION

CMC AND THE TRANSACTIONAL MODEL OF COMMUNICATION

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION AND CMC

 

MODULE E:  GENDER AND COMMUNICATION

DISTINCTION BETWEEN SEX AND GENDER

GENDERLECT STYLES

DO MEN AND WOMEN REALLY COMMUNICATE DIFFERENTLY?

 

Part Three:  Group Communication

CHAPTER 8:  Introduction to Groups and Decision Making

 

8a Introduction to Group Communication

    Defining Group Communication

    Why Do We Need to Learn About Groups?

8b Identifying Types of Groups

    Primary Groups

    Secondary Groups

8c Understanding Group Culture

    Establishing a Group

    Setting Group Goals

    Establishing Group Norms

    Building Cohesiveness

    Cultural Connections — Karaoke Builds Cohesiveness

    Positive and Negative Effects of Group Conflict

8d Distinguishing Between Problem Solving and Decision Making

8e Effective Group Problem Solving

    Understanding The Process of Problem Solving

    Dewey’s Problem Solving Model

8f Effective Group Decision Making

    Identifying Stages of Group Decision Making

    Exploring Decision Making Methods

    Eye on Ethics — Trust in the Workplace

 

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

 

MODULE F:  MANAGING GROUP COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION

EFFECTS OF GROUP MEMBER COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION ON GROUPS

INFLUENCE OF LEADERSHIP ON GROUP MEMBER COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION

MANAGING GROUP COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION

 

CHAPTER 9:  Working Effectively in Groups

 

9a Being an Effective Group Member

    Task Functions

    Maintenance Functions

    Self-centered Functions

    The Responsibilities of Group Members

9b Being an Effective Group Leader

    Approaches to Leadership

    The Responsibilities of Group Leaders

    Eye on Ethics — Leader and Member Responses When Groups Fail

9c Effectively Using Group Meeting Times

    Reasons for Unproductive Meetings

    Creating an Environment for a Productive Meeting

    Concluding the Meeting

9d Power and Group Communication

    Cultural Connections — Power Distance and Organizational Participation

   

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

 

Part Four:  Public Speaking

CHAPTER 10:  Understanding THE SPEECH PROCESS, ANALYZING YOUR AUDIENCE, AND GENERATING YOUR TOPIC

 

10a Overview of the Speaking Process

10b Analyzing Your Audience

    Analyze the Specific Speaking Situation

    Understand the Diversity of Your Audience

    Conduct and Audience Analysis

    Apply the Results to Your Speech

10c Choosing and Narrowing Your Speech Topic

    Generate a List of Ideas for Possible Topics

    Select Your Topic

    Focus Your Topic

    Determine Your General Purpose

    Formulate Your Specific Purpose

    Word Your Thesis Statement

    Eye on Ethics — Sensitive Speech Topics

    Cultural Connections — Adapting Your Message To Different Learning Styles

 

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

 

Module G: MANAGING SPEAKER APPREHENSION 

CONTROL YOUR NERVOUSNESS

FOCUS ON YOUR SPEECH, NOT YOURSELF

KNOW YOUR SPEECH

VIEW SPEECH MAKING POSITIVELY

PRACTICE YOUR DELIVERY

REVIEW YOUR PERFORMANCE

 

CHAPTER 11:  RESEARCHING YOUR SPEECH TOPIC AND SUPPORTING YOUR SPEECH

 

11a Researching Your Topic and Supporting Your Speech

    Assess Your Personal Knowledge

    Develop Your Research Plan

    Collect Your Information

    Record Your Information

    Conclude Your Search

    Cultural Connections — Restricted Access to Information on the Internet

11b Supporting Your Speech

    Consider the Purposes of Your Supporting Materials

    Consider the Types of Material Available for Your Topic

    Evaluate the Validity and Strength of Your Support

    Eye on Ethics — The Privacy of Public Information

 

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

    References

 

Module H: INTERVIEWING

ADVANTAGES OF INTERVIEWS

PREPARING FOR THE INTERVIEW

CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW

FOLLOWING UP ON THE INTERVIEW

 

CHAPTER 12:  ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING YOUR SPEECH

   

12a Organizing the Body of Your Speech

    Topical Division

    Chronological Division

    Spatial Division

    Causal Division

    Pro-Con Division

    Problem-Solution Division

12b Developing Your Key Ideas

    Signposting the Idea

    Stating the Idea

    Supporting the Idea

    Summarizing the Idea

    Cultural Connections — Supporting Materials

12c Connecting Your Key Ideas with Transitions

    Complementary Transition

    Causal Transition

    Contrasting Transition

    Chronological Transition

12d  Organizing the Introduction of Your Speech

    Get the Attention of Your Audience

    State Your Topic

    Establish the Importance of Your Topic

    Establish Your Credibility to Speak on Your Topic   

    Preview Your Key Ideas

    Put It All Together

12e  Organizing the Conclusion of Your Speech

    Summarize Your Key Ideas

    Activate Audience Response

    Provide Closure

    Put It All Together

12f  Outlining Your Speech

    Principles of Outlining

    Stages of Outlining

    Eye on Ethics Chronemics and Public Speaking

    

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    Key Terms

    References

 

CHAPTER 13:  DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH AND USING PRESENTATIONAL AIDS

 

13a Exploring the Basics of Delivery

    Methods of Delivery

    Qualities of Effective Delivery

13b Examining Elements of Vocal Delivery

    Rate and Pause

    Volume

    Pitch and Inflection

    Voice Quality

    Articulation and Pronunciation

13c Understanding the Elements of Physical Delivery

    Appearance

    Posture

    Eye Contact and Facial Expression

    Movement

    Gestures

    Cultural Connections — Delivery Styles

13d Using Presentational Aids Effectively

    Plan Your Aids for Your Purpose and Audience

    Create Effective Presentational Aids

    Speak Effectively Using Your Presentational Aids

    Eye on Ethics — Using Graphic Photographs and/or Visual Images

    

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    References

 

CHAPTER 14:  INFORMATIVE SPEECHES

14a Speaking to Inform

14b Classifying Informative Speech Topics

    Speeches about People

    Speeches about Objects

    Speeches about Places

    Speeches about Activities and Events

    Speeches about Processes

    Speeches about Concepts

    Speeches about Conditions

    Speeches about Issues

14c Guidelines for Speaking to Inform

    Stress Your Informative Purpose

    Be Objective

    Be Specific

    Be Clear

    Be Accurate

    Limit Your Ideas and Supporting Materials

    Be Relevant

    Use Appropriate Organization

    Use Appropriate Forms of Support

    Use Effective Delivery

    Eye on Ethics — Managing Bias in an Informative Speech

14d Citing Your Sources

    Cultural Connections — Credibility

14e Outlining Your Informative Speech

    

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    References

 

CHAPTER 15:  PERSUASIVE SPEECHES

15a Understanding the Importance of Persuasion

    As a Speaker

    As a Listener

15b Identifying Types of Persuasive Speeches

    Speeches to Convince

    Speeches to Actuate

    Speeches to Inspire

15c Examining Persuasive Speaking Strategies

    Establish Your Credibility

    Eye on Ethics — Biased Sources: To Use or Not To Use

    Focus Your Goals

    Connect With Your Listeners

    Organize Your Arguments

    Support Your Ideas

    Enhance Your Emotional Appeals

15d Using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

    Attention

    Need

    Satisfaction

    Visualization

    Action

15e Constructing a Persuasive Argument

    Argument by Example

    Argument by Analogy

    Argument by Cause

    Argument by Deduction

    Argument by Authority

15f Evaluating a Persuasive Speech

    Cultural Connections

    

    Competence Summary

    Review Questions

    Discussion Questions

    References

 

Module I:  SPEAKING AS A GROUP

PREPARING A GROUP PRESENTATION

DELIVERING A GROUP PRESENTATION

 

Module J:  SPEAKING ON SPECIAL OCCASIONS

 SPEECH OF INTRODUCTION

SPEECH OF PRESENTATION

ACCEPTANCE SPEECH

SPEECH OF TRIBUTE

SPEECH TO ENTERTAIN

IMPROMPTU SPEECH

 

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