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Concepts of Programming Languages, CourseSmart eTextbook, 10th Edition

By Robert W. Sebesta

Published by Addison-Wesley

Published Date: Jan 30, 2012

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Description

For undergraduate students in Computer Science and Computer Programming courses.

 

Now in its Tenth Edition, Concepts of Programming Languages introduces students to the main constructs of contemporary programming languages and provides the tools needed to critically evaluate existing and future programming languages. Readers gain a solid foundation for understanding the fundamental concepts of programming languages through the author's presentation of design issues for various language constructs, the examination of the design choices for these constructs in some of the most common languages, and critical comparison of the design alternatives. In addition, Sebesta strives to prepare the reader for the study of compiler design by providing an in-depth discussion of programming language structures, presenting a formal method of describing syntax, and introducing approaches to lexical and syntactic analysis.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Preliminaries 1
1.1 Reasons for Studying Concepts of Programming Languages................ 2
1.2 Programming Domains...................................................................... 5
1.3 Language Evaluation Criteria............................................................ 7
1.4 Influences on Language Design........................................................ 18
1.5 Language Categories....................................................................... 21
1.6 Language Design Trade-Offs............................................................ 23
1.7 Implementation Methods................................................................. 23
1.8 Programming Environments............................................................ 31
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set............................................... 31
Chapter 2 Evolution of the Major Programming Languages 35
2.1 Zuse’s Plankalkül........................................................................... 38
2.2 Pseudocodes................................................................................... 39
2.3 The IBM 704 and Fortran............................................................... 42
2.4 Functional Programming: LISP....................................................... 47
2.5 The First Step Toward Sophistication: ALGOL 60............................ 52
2.6 Computerizing Business Records: COBOL......................................... 58
2.7 The Beginnings of Timesharing: BASIC............................................ 63
interview: Alan Cooper–User Design and Language Design.................. 66
2.8 Everything for Everybody: PL/I....................................................... 68
2.9 Two Early Dynamic Languages: APL and SNOBOL.......................... 71
2.10 The Beginnings of Data Abstraction: SIMULA 67............................ 72
2.11 Orthogonal Design: ALGOL 68........................................................ 73
2.12 Some Early Descendants of the ALGOLs.......................................... 75
2.13 Programming Based on Logic: Prolog.............................................. 79
2.14 History’s Largest Design Effort: Ada............................................... 81
2.15 Object-Oriented Programming: Smalltalk......................................... 85
2.16 Combining Imperative and Object-Oriented Features: C++................ 88
2.17 An Imperative-Based Object-Oriented Language: Java...................... 91
2.18 Scripting Languages........................................................................ 95
2.19 The Flagship .NET Language: C#.................................................. 101
2.20 Markup/Programming Hybrid Languages....................................... 104
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises............................................................................ 106
Chapter 3 Describing Syntax and Semantics 113
3.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 114
3.2 The General Problem of Describing Syntax..................................... 115
3.3 Formal Methods of Describing Syntax............................................ 117
3.4 Attribute Grammars...................................................................... 132
History Note...................................................................................... 133
3.5 Describing the Meanings of Programs: Dynamic Semantics............. 139
History Note...................................................................................... 154
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set............ 161
Chapter 4 Lexical and Syntax Analysis 167
4.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 168
4.2 Lexical Analysis............................................................................ 169
4.3 The Parsing Problem..................................................................... 177
4.4 Recursive-Descent Parsing............................................................. 181
4.5 Bottom-Up Parsing....................................................................... 190
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises...... 197
Chapter 5 Names, Bindings, and Scopes 203
5.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 204
5.2 Names.......................................................................................... 205
History Note...................................................................................... 205
5.3 Variables...................................................................................... 207
5.4 The Concept of Binding................................................................. 209
5.5 Scope........................................................................................... 218
5.6 Scope and Lifetime....................................................................... 229
5.7 Referencing Environments............................................................. 230
5.8 Named Constants.......................................................................... 232
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises...... 234
Chapter 6 Data Types 243
6.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 244
6.2 Primitive Data Types..................................................................... 246
6.3 Character String Types.................................................................. 250
History Note...................................................................................... 251
6.4 User-Defined Ordinal Types............................................................ 255
6.5 Array Types................................................................................... 259
History Note...................................................................................... 260
History Note...................................................................................... 261
6.6 Associative Arrays......................................................................... 272
interview: Roberto Ierusalimschy–Lua............................ 274
6.7 Record Types................................................................................. 276
6.8 Tuple Types................................................................................... 280
6.9 List Types..................................................................................... 281
6.10 Union Types.................................................................................. 284
6.11 Pointer and Reference Types.......................................................... 289
History Note...................................................................................... 293
6.12 Type Checking............................................................................... 302
6.13 Strong Typing................................................................................ 303
6.14 Type Equivalence.......................................................................... 304
6.15 Theory and Data Types.................................................................. 308
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises............................................................................ 310
Chapter 7 Expressions and Assignment Statements 317
7.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 318
7.2 Arithmetic Expressions................................................................. 318
7.3 Overloaded Operators.................................................................... 328
7.4 Type Conversions........................................................................... 329
History Note...................................................................................... 332
7.5 Relational and Boolean Expressions............................................... 332
History Note...................................................................................... 333
7.6 Short-Circuit Evaluation............................................................... 335
7.7 Assignment Statements................................................................. 336
History Note...................................................................................... 340
7.8 Mixed-Mode Assignment............................................................... 341
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises...... 341
Chapter 8 Statement-Level Control Structures 347
8.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 348
8.2 Selection Statements..................................................................... 350
8.3 Iterative Statements...................................................................... 362
8.4 Unconditional Branching............................................................... 375
History Note...................................................................................... 376
8.5 Guarded Commands...................................................................... 376
8.6 Conclusions................................................................................... 379
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises...... 380
Chapter 9 Subprograms 387
9.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 388
9.2 Fundamentals of Subprograms...................................................... 388
9.3 Design Issues for Subprograms...................................................... 396
9.4 Local Referencing Environments.................................................... 397
9.5 Parameter-Passing Methods.......................................................... 399
History Note...................................................................................... 407
History Note...................................................................................... 407
9.6 Parameters That Are Subprograms................................................ 417
9.7 Calling Subprograms Indirectly...................................................... 419
History Note...................................................................................... 419
9.8 Overloaded Subprograms............................................................... 421
9.9 Generic Subprograms.................................................................... 422
9.10 Design Issues for Functions........................................................... 428
9.11 User-Defined Overloaded Operators................................................ 430
9.12 Closures....................................................................................... 430
9.13 Coroutines.................................................................................... 432
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises...... 435
Chapter 10 Implementing Subprograms 441
10.1 The General Semantics of Calls and Returns.................................. 442
10.2 Implementing “Simple” Subprograms............................................ 443
10.3 Implementing Subprograms with Stack-Dynamic Local Variables.... 445
10.4 Nested Subprograms..................................................................... 454
10.5 Blocks.......................................................................................... 460
10.6 Implementing Dynamic Scoping..................................................... 462
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises...... 466
Chapter 11 Abstract Data Types and Encapsulation Constructs 473
11.1 The Concept of Abstraction........................................................... 474
11.2 Introduction to Data Abstraction................................................... 475
11.3 Design Issues for Abstract Data Types............................................ 478
11.4 Language Examples...................................................................... 479
interview: Bjarne Stroustrup–C++: Its Birth, Its Ubiquitousness, and Common Criticisms.............................................. 480
11.5 Parameterized Abstract Data Types................................................ 503
11.6 Encapsulation Constructs.............................................................. 509
11.7 Naming Encapsulations................................................................. 513
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises...... 517
Chapter 12 Support for Object-Oriented Programming 523
12.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 524
12.2 Object-Oriented Programming....................................................... 525
12.3 Design Issues for Object-Oriented Languages.................................. 529
12.4 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in Smalltalk.................. 534
interview: Bjarne Stroustrup–On Paradigms and Better Programming.......................................................................................... 536
12.5 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in C++.......................... 538
12.6 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in Objective-C............... 549
12.7 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in Java.......................... 552
12.8 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in C#............................ 556
12.9 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in Ada 95..................... 558
12.10 Support for Object-Oriented Programming in Ruby......................... 563
12.11 Implementation of Object-Oriented Constructs................................ 566
Summary • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises ..... 569
Chapter 13 Concurrency 575
13.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 576
13.2 Introduction to Subprogram-Level Concurrency.............................. 581
13.3 Semaphores.................................................................................. 586
13.4 Monitors....................................................................................... 591
13.5 Message Passing........................................................................... 593
13.6 Ada Support for Concurrency........................................................ 594
13.7 Java Threads................................................................................. 603
13.8 C# Threads................................................................................... 613
13.9 Concurrency in Functional Languages............................................ 618
13.10 Statement-Level Concurrency........................................................ 621
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises............................................................................ 623
Chapter 14 Exception Handling and Event Handling 629
14.1 Introduction to Exception Handling............................................... 630
History Note...................................................................................... 634
14.2 Exception Handling in Ada............................................................ 636
14.3 Exception Handling in C++............................................................ 643
14.4 Exception Handling in Java........................................................... 647
14.5 Introduction to Event Handling...................................................... 655
14.6 Event Handling with Java.............................................................. 656
14.7 Event Handling in C#.................................................................... 661
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises............................................................................ 664
Chapter 15 Functional Programming Languages 671
15.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 672
15.2 Mathematical Functions................................................................ 673
15.3 Fundamentals of Functional Programming Languages.................... 676
15.4 The First Functional Programming Language: LISP...................... 677
15.5 An Introduction to Scheme............................................................ 681
15.6 Common LISP.............................................................................. 699
15.7 ML............................................................................................... 701
15.8 Haskell......................................................................................... 707
15.9 F#................................................................................................ 712
15.10 Support for Functional Programming in Primarily Imperative Languages................................................................... 715
15.11 A Comparison of Functional and Imperative Languages.................. 717
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set • Programming Exercises............................................................................ 720
Chapter 16 Logic Programming Languages 727
16.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 728
16.2 A Brief Introduction to Predicate Calculus..................................... 728
16.3 Predicate Calculus and Proving Theorems...................................... 732
16.4 An Overview of Logic Programming............................................... 734
16.5 The Origins of Prolog.................................................................... 736
16.6 The Basic Elements of Prolog........................................................ 736
16.7 Deficiencies of Prolog................................................................... 751
16.8 Applications of Logic Programming............................................... 757
Summary • Bibliographic Notes • Review Questions • Problem Set •
Programming Exercises............................................................................ 758
Bibliography................................................................................. 763
Index............................................................................................ 773

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Concepts of Programming Languages, CourseSmart eTextbook, 10th Edition
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