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Content Area Reading and Writing: Fostering Literacies in Middle and High School Cultures, 2nd Edition

By Norman Unrau

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jun 27, 2007


Through this strategy-driven, theory-based text, content-area teachers gain a thorough understanding of the fundamental role that reading and writing play in content-area learning. Unique to this text is the attention paid to helping teachers understand how the high school cultures students belong to affect their view of literacy and learning. The author effectively guides readers to ways they can identify and address school cultures and make literacy in content learning, relevant to students. The author offers step-by-step approaches to gauge student literacy, build vocabulary, and implement instruction that improves comprehension, encourages critical reading, supports writing for learning, and facilitates collaboration for literacy development.

Table of Contents

Part 1  Knowing Your Students and Their Literacies


Chapter 1       Engaging Cultures and Literacies for Learning


Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

Beginning Teachers Remember Their High School Cultures and Literacies

How Do Cultures Shape Minds?

            What Is Culture?

            How Cultures Shape Minds

School Cultures Shaping Students’ Minds

            School Cultures

            Beginning Teachers Discovering School Cultures

Links Between Cultures and Literature

            What Is Literacy?

Is There an Adolescent Literacy Crisis

            Groups Struggling with School Literacy

Is There a Crisis of Engagement with Learning at the Core of Middle and High School Cultures?

            Disconnects Between Students, Their Teachers, and the Curriculum

            Can We Generalize

            Cultures and Literacies as Resources for Engagement

            Addressing Teachers’ Nightmares

            Content Literacy: A Reationale and a Story

            New Literacies

            Lessons from “Beating the Odds” Classrooms

            Meeting the Challenges of Literacy and Learning

Double-Entry Journal: After Reading

Chapter 2       Motivation to Read Content-Area Texts

Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

Motivation to Read

            Ms. Hawthorne’s Challenge

            Changes in Motivation to Read Through the School Years

            Toward a Unifying Vision of Motivation to Read: Self-Determination Theory

            The Focus of Motivation

Student Factors Contributing to a Student’s Motivation to Read

            Student Identity

            Self-Expectations and Self-Efficacy

            Goals and Task Values

            Textual Connections

Teacher Factors Contributing to Students’ Motivation to Read

            Teacher Engagement

            Achievement-Related Instruction

Autonomy Support


Double-Entry Journal: After Reading

Chapter 3       Inside the Meaning Construction Zone: Readers Reading

Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

How Students Construct and Negotiate Meaning

Myths of the Good Reader

            First Good Reader Myth: They Can Read at 1,000 Words a Minute or More with Improved Comprehension

            Second Good Reader Myth: They Don’t Subvocalize

            Third Good Reader Myth: They Read Only the Key Words

            Fourth Good Reader Myth: They Recognize Words as Wholes

            Fifth Good Reader Myth: They Read Groups of Words as a Unit of Thought

            Sixth Good Reader Myth: They Never Look Back

Characteristics of Good Readers

The Benefits of a Reading Process Model

            How Personal Theories of Reading Affect Reading Processes and Outcomes

A Peek into the Reader’s Construction Zone

            An Overview of the Reading Model

            The Sensory System

            Cognitive Processes and Outcomes

            Metacognitive Processes

            Text and Classroom Content

Implications of the Model for Teaching

Double-Entry Journal: After Reading

Chapter 4       Assessing Readers and Their Texts

Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

Diagnostic Teaching

Content Teachers Diagnostic Decision Making About Reading

            Step 1. Student’s Identity, History, Goals, Values, and Interests

            Step 2. Expected Level of Reading

            Step 3. Assessment of Students’ Reading Ability

            Step. 4. Class Literacy Profile

            Step 5. Teaching Strategies and Resources

            Step 6. Diagnostic Teaching

            Step 7. Instructional Monitoring, Modification, and Recommendations

Assessment Rules for Diagnostic Teaching

Formal Assessment

            Norm-Referenced Tests

            Criterion-Referenced Tests

            Assessing the Assessment Instruments

            Reading Processes That Cannot Be Adequately Assessed

Informal Assessment

            Group Reading Inventory (GRI)

            Step-by-Step: Group Reading Inventory

            Miscue Analysis

            Running Records

            Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)

Informal Assessments for a Closer Look at Comprehension Processes


            Step-by-Step: Retelling

            Comprehension Think-Alouds

            Step-by-Step: Doing a Comprehension Think-Aloud

            Interviews and Interactions

            Portfolio Assessment in Content Area Classrooms

            Inventories of Reading Strategies

Categories of Adolescent Readers

            Who Can Be Helped and How?

Assessing Texts: Readability and Accessibility

            Readability Formulas

            Step-by-Step: Calculating Readability with Fry’s Formula

            Step-by-Step: How to Administer a Cloze Readability Test

            Friendly Text-Evaluation Scale

Double-Entry Journal: After Reading

Part II Enhancing Your Students’ Literacies Through Strategic Instruction

Chapter 5       Developing Vocabulary, Concepts, and Fluency for Content Area Literacy

Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

Transforming Words into Meanings


            The Lexicon in Long-Term Memory

            From Word Recognition to Fluency

            Metacognition and Making Meaning from Words

The Complexities of Simply Knowing a Word

            Word Counts

            High- and Low-Frequency Words

            Student-Led Vocabulary Growth: A Strategy-Integrated Model

            Step-by-Step: Student-Led Vocabulary Development

            Flashbacks: The Return of the Vocabulary Card

What We Know About Teaching Development

            Principles to Guide Vocabulary Learning

            Creating Word-Rich Environments

            Fostering Word Consciousness

Gaining Word Knowledge Through Strategy Instruction

            Addressing Vocabulary

            Word-Knowledge Check

            Keyword Method

            Word Maps

            Word Parts

            Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)

            Step-by-Step: Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)

            Activities for Mastering VSS and Other Important Words

            Step-by-Step: Semantic Maps

            Step-by-Step: Synonym Webs

            Step-by-Step: Semantic Feature Analysis

Growing Word Knowledge: Just Reading

            Word Play: Language Games in Context

            Looking Closely at Students Constructing Word Meanings

            Using Content to Learn Words with PASSION

Using Technology to Foster Vocabulary Growth

A Summary of Research Guiding Instruction in Vocabulary Development

Double-Entry Journal: After Reading

Chapter 6       Strategies to Enhance Comprehension

Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

Comprehension-Enhancing Strategies to Activate and Integrate Knowledge

            Double-Entry Journal

            Step-by-Step: How to Design and Implement DEJs

            Anticipation Guide

            Step-by-Step: How to Prepare and Present Anticipation Guides

            Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)

            Step-by-Step: How to Do a DR-TA

            Know-Want to Know-Learned (K-W-L) Strategy

            Step-by-Step: How to Do a K-W-L

            The Prereading Plan (PreP)

            Step-by-Step: How to Do a PreP

            Directed Inquiry Activity (DIA)         

            Step-by-Step: How to Do a DIA



            Making Reading Meaningful

            Step-by-Step: How to Help Students Make Reading More Meaningful

Text Structure

            Types of Text Structure

            Effects of Text-Structure Knowledge

            Five Basic Text Structures

            Levels of Text Structure

            What’s the Structure?

            Step-by-step: What’s the Structure

            Text Structures and Genres in Different Disciplines

Strategies for Organizing Knowledge (Knowledge Organizers)


            Note Taking (from Lectures and Readings)

            Graphic Organizers

            Concept Mapping

            Step-by-Step: How to Design a Concept Map


Double-Journal Entry: After Reading

 Chapter 7      Writing to Assess, Promote, and Observe Learning

Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

A Peek into the Writer’s Construction Zone

How Process Upstaged Product

            How Writing Furthers Constructivism

            Effects of Social Contexts on the Writing Process

The Promise of Writing to Learn

            Types of Writing

            Effects of Writing on Learning

            The National Writing Project (WNP)

Categories of Writing

            Writing to Assess Learning

            Writing to Promote Learning

            Implementing Strategies     

            Writing to Observe Student Work

            Step-by-Step: A Protocol for Looking at Student Work

The Teacher’s Dilemma: What Kind of Writing Should I Assign?

Responding to Writing

Double-Entry Journal: After Reading

Chapter 8       Critical Reading of Print and Nonprint Texts

Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

The Need for More-Critical Reading

            What Is Critical Reading?

Activities to Foster Critical Thinking

            Inquiry Questions (IQs)

            Step-by-Step: Inquiry Questions (IQs)

            Questioning the Author (QtA)

            Step[by-Step: Questioning the Author (QtA)

            Editor Interviews

            Step-by-Step: Editor Interviews


            Step-by-Step: ReQuest

            Socratic Seminars

            Step-by-Step: Socratic Seminars

            Challenging Texts: Close Readings

            Step-by-Step: The Believing and Doubting Game

            TASKing in Pairs

            Step-by-Step: Tasking in Pairs

Understanding Critical Literacy

            Step-by-Step: Critical Literacy in the Classroom

            Media Literacy

Double-Entry Journal: After Reading

Chapter 9       Collaborating for Literacy and Learning: Group Strategies

Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

Whole Groups

            Whole-Class Reading Methods

            Alternatives to Round Robin Reading

            Step-by-Step: Think-Alouds in Class

            Step-by-Step: How to Induce Imagery

            Step-by-Step: How to Conduct a “Road to Discover” Session

            Whole-Class Discussions

Cooperative Learning

            Principles of Cooperative Learning

            Informal Group Methods to Support Learning and Literacy

            Cooperative Learning Activities with Integrated Literacy Goals

            Step-by-Step: How to Do a Group Investigation

            Step-by-Step: How to Do a Group Reading Activity (GRA)

            Step-by-Step: How to Do a Jigsaw II Activity

Reciprocal Teaching

            A Brief History of Reciprocal Teaching

            Original Reciprocal Teaching Model

            Step-by-Step: How to Do Basic One-on-One Reciprocal Teaching

            Variations of Reciprocal Teaching

            Features Contributing to Reciprocal Teaching’s Success

Tutoring: Working in Pairs

            Peer Tutoring

            Step-by-Step: How to Do Paired Reading

            Cross-Age Tutoring

            Adult-Student Tutoring

Double-Entry Journal: After Reading

Chapter 10     Struggling Readers and English Learners: Assessing Their Cognitive and Cultural Needs

Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

Addressing the Frustrations of Struggling Readers

            How Serious Are Reading Problems in Our Middle and High Schools?

            Research-Based Model for Reading Intervention: A Constellation of Features Providing Guidance in Program Design and Implementation

            Fourteen Features of a Research-Based Literacy Intervention Model

            Systematic, Embedded, and Differentiated Instruction

            Resources to Support Intervention Programs

            Corrective Reading


            READ 180


            Reading Apprenticeship (RA)


            The “Just Read More” Program

English Learners

            Federal Law and English Learners

            A Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Toward a Theory of How a Second Language Is Learned

            How Long Does It Take for an English Learner to Become Proficient?

            Programs for English Language Learners

            California’s English Learner’s’ Programs: An Example of the Teacher’s Challenge

            Principles Guiding English Learners’ Instruction

            Sheltered English Instruction and Structured English Immersion

            Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)

            How Can We Know Which Programs Serve English Learners Best?

Double-Entry Journal: After Reading

Chapter 11     Designing Literacy into Academically Diverse Content Area Classes to Promote Understanding

Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading

Standards-Based Instructional Planning

            What is Standards-Based Instruction?

            Accountability Provisions of No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

            How Can Teachers Teach to the Standards?

Addressing Content Literacy in All Content Areas

            Science Literacy

            Math Literacy

            Step-by-Step Think-Alouds in Math Class

            History/English Collaborative

            Literacy and Physical Education

Planning Pyramid for Inquiry and Understanding

            How Sally Peterson Built a Pyramid for Inquiry and Understanding

            Step-by-Step: Creating Criteria with Students


Double-Entry Journal: After Reading