Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications, 4th Edition

By Eric B. Shiraev, David A. Levy

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Mar 3, 2009


Shiraev and Levy provide a comprehensive review of theories and research in cross-cultural psychology within a critical thinking framework for examining, analyzing, and evaluating psychological data.


This book introduces the field of cross-cultural psychology, discusses basic methodology for cross-cultural research, and explores the fields of sensation and perception, consciousness, intelligence, human development, emotion, motivation, social perception and interaction, psychological disorders from a cross-cultural perspective.

Table of Contents

All chapters conclude with "Chapter Exercise," “Chapter Summary,” “Glossary of Key Terms.”



1. Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology.


What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology?

Basic Definitions.

Cultural Traditionalism.

Empirical Examination of Culture.

Collectivism and Individualism: Further Research.

Cultural Syndromes.

Evolutionary Approach.

Sociological Approach.

Ecocultural Approach.

The Cultural Mixtures Approach: A New Cross-Cultural Psychology in the 21st Century?

The Integrative Approach: A Summary.

Indigenous Psychology.



A Brief History of the Field.


2. Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research.


Goals of Cross-Cultural Research.

Quantitative Research in Cross-Cultural Psychology.

Quantitative Approach: Measurement Scales.

Quantitative Approach: Looking for Links and Differences.

Qualitative Approach in Cross-Cultural Psychology.

Major Steps for Preparation of a Cross-Cultural Study.

Sample Selection.

Observation in Cross-Cultural Psychology.

Survey Methods.

Experimental Studies.

Content Analysis.

Focus-Group Methodology.

Meta-Analysis: Research of Research.

A Hidden Obstacle of Cross-Cultural Studies: Test Translation.

Comparing Two Phenomena: Some Important Principles.

On Similarities and Differences: Some Critical Thinking Applications.

Cultural Dichotomies.

Avoiding Bias of Generalizations.

Know More About Cultures You Examine!


3. Critical Thinking in Cross-Cultural Psychology.


The Evaluative Bias of Language.

To Describe Is to Prescribe.

Differentiating Dichotomous Variables and Continuous Variables: Black and White, or Shades of Grey?

The Similarity-Uniqueness Paradox: All Phenomena Are Both Similar and Different.

The Barnum Effect: "One Size-Fits-All" Descriptions.

The Assimilation Bias: Viewing the World through Schema-Colored Glasses.

The Representativeness Bias: Fits and Misfits of Categorization.

The Availability Bias: The Persuasive Power of Vivid Events.

The Fundamental Attribution Error: Underestimating the Impact of External Influences.

The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: When Expectations Create Reality.

Correlation Does Not Prove Causation: Confusing "What" with "Why".

Bi-Directional Causation and Multiple Causation: Causal Loops and Compound Pathways.

The Naturalistic Fallacy: Blurring the Line Between "Is" and "Should".

The Belief Perseverance Effect: "Don't Confuse Me with the Facts! "

Conclusions: "To Metathink or Not to Metathink?"


4. Cognition: Sensation and Perception, and States of Consciousness.


Sensation and Perception: Basic Principles.

How Culture Influences What We Perceive.

How People Perceive Pictures.

Perception of Depth.

Are People Equally Misled by Visual Illusions?

Some Cultural Patterns of Drawing Pictures.

Perception of Color.

Other Senses.

Perception of Time.

Perception of the Beautiful.

Perception of Music.

Consciousness and Culture.

Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams.

Beyond Altered States of Consciousness.


5. Intelligence.


Defining Intelligence.

Ethnic Differences in IQ Scores.

Explaining Group Differences in Test Scores: Intelligence and Intelligent Behavior.

Do Biological Factors Contribute to Intelligence?

Incompatibility of Tests: Cultural Biases.

A Word about “Cultural Literacy”.

Environment and Intelligence.

Socioeconomic Factors.

The Family Factor.

“Natural Selection” and IQ Scores?

Cultural Values of Cognition.

General Cognition: What Is “Underneath” Intelligence?

Cognitive Skills, School Grades, and Educational Systems.

Culture, Tests, and Motivation.

IQ, Culture, and Social Justice.

And in the End, Moral Values


6. Emotion.


When We Laugh We Are Happy: Similarities of Emotional Experience.

You Cannot Explain Pain if You Have Never Been Hurt: Differences in Emotional Experience.

Emotions: Different or Universal?

Physiological Arousal.

The Meaning of Preceding Events.

Emotion as an Evaluation.

We Are Expected to Feel in a Particular Way.

How people Assess Emotional Experience.

When Emotions Signal a Challenge: Cross-Cultural Research on Stress and Anxiety.

Expression of Emotion.

When Emotion Hurts: Cross-Cultural Studies of Anger.

Emotion and Inclination to Act.

Emotion and Judgment.


7. Motivation and Behavior.


Sociobiology: A Glance into Evolution.

Social Science: See the Society First.

Drive and Arousal: Two Universal Mechanisms of Motivation.

The Power of the Unconscious: Psychoanalysis.

Humanistic Theories.

Learning and Motivation.

A Carrot and a Beef Tongue: Hunger and Food Preference.

When Hunger Causes Distress: Eating Disorders.

Victory and Harmony: Achievement Motivation.

Aggressive Motivation and Violence.

Culture and Sexuality.

Sex and Sexuality: Some Cross-Cultural Similarities.


8. Human Development and Socialization.


Development and Socialization.

Quality of Life and the Child's Development.

Norms, Customs, and Child-Care.

Parental Values and Expectations.

Erik H. Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development.

Jean Piaget: Stages of Cognitive Development.

Stages of Moral Development According to Kohlberg.

Developmental Stages.

Life Before Birth: Prenatal Period.

First Steps: Infancy.

Discovering the World: Childhood.

Major Rehearsals: Adolescence.


Late Adulthood.


9. Psychological Disorders.


American Background: DSM-IV.

Two Views on Culture and Psychopathology.

Culture Bound Syndromes.

Anxiety Disorders.

Depressive Disorders.


Depressive Disorders.

Culture and Suicide.

Personality Disorders.

Is Substance Abuse Culturally Bound?

Psychodiagnostic Biases.


Culture Match?


10. Social Perception and Social Cognition.



Western and Non-Western Values.

Striving for Consistency: The Cognitive Balance Theory.

Avoiding Inconsistency: Cognitive Dissonance.

Psychological Dogmatism.

Social Attribution.

Attribution as Locus of Control.

Attribution of Success and Failure.


Do Social Norms Affect the Way We See Our Own Body.

Duty and Fairness in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures.

Stereotypes and the Power of Generalizations.


11. Social Interaction.


Universal Interaction: Roles, Norms, and Territorial Behavior.

Direct Contacts.


Is Conformity Universal across Cultures?

Following Orders.

Social Influence.

Feeling Good about Some Views.

Is Social Loafing Universal?

Cooperation and Competition.



12. Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlights.



Spirituality, Science, and Health.

Business Decisions.

Working with Immigrants.


Culture, Behavior, and the Law.

Human Rights.

Working and Serving Abroad.

Religion: A Campus Context.




Author Index

Subject Index