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Cultural Landscape, The: An Introduction to Human Geography, 8th Edition

By James M. Rubenstein

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Feb 23, 2004

Table of Contents

(NOTE: All chapters end with Summary, Case Study Revisited, Key Terms, Thinking Geographically, On the Internet, Further Readings, Contemporary Geographic Tools, and Global Forces and Local Impacts.)

Chapter 1: Thinking Geographically.

Case Study/Big Mac Attack.

Key Issue 1/How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are? Maps. Contemporary Tools.

Key Issue 2/Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique? Place: Unique Location of a Feature. Region: Areas of Unique Characteristics.

Key Issue 3/Why Are Different Places Similar? Scale: From Local to Global. Space: Distribution of Features. Connections between Places.



Chapter 2: Population

Case Study/Population Growth in India.

Key Issue 1/Where Is the World's Population Distributed? Population Concentrations. Sparsely Populated Regions. Population Density.

Key Issue 2/Where Has the World's Population Increased? Natural Increase. Fertility. Mortality.

Key Issue 3/Why Is Population Increasing at Different Rates in Different Countries? The Demographic Transition. Population Pyramids. Countries in Different Stages of Demographic Transition. Demographic Transition and World Population Growth.

Key Issue 4/Why Might the World Face an Overpopulation Problem? Malthus on Overpopulation. Declining Birth Rates. World Health Threats.



Chapter 3: Migration

Case Study/Migrating to Spain

Key Issue 1/Why Do People Migrate? Reasons for Migrating. Distance of Migration. Characteristics of Migrants.

Key Issue 2/Where Are Migrants Distributed?. Global Migration Patterns. U.S. Immigration Patterns. Impact of Immigration on the United States.

Key Issue 3/Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? Immigration Policies of Host Countries. Cultural Problems Living in Other Countries.

Key Issue 4/Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? Migration Between Regions of a Country. Migration Within One Region.



Chapter 4: Folk and Popular Culture

Case Study/The Aboriginal Artists of Australia at Lincoln Center

Key Issue 1/Where Do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse? Origin of Folk and Popular Cultures. Diffusion of Folk and Popular Cultures.

Key Issue 2/Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? Isolation Promotes Cultural Diversity. Influence of Physical Environment.

Key Issue 3/Why Is Popular Culture Widely Distributed? Diffusion of Popular Housing, Clothing, and Food. Role of Television in Diffusing Popular Culture.

Key Issue 4/Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems? Threat to Folk Culture. Environmental Impact of Popular Culture.



Chapter 5: Language Case Study/French and Spanish in the United States and Canada

Key Issue 1/Where Are English-Language Speakers Distributed? Origin and Diffusion of English. Dialects of English.

Key Issue 2/Why Is English Related to Other Languages? Indo-European Branches. Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European.

Key Issue 3/Where Are Other Languages Distributed? Classification of Languages. Distribution of Language Families.

Key Issue 4/Why Do People Preserve Local Languages? Preserving Language Diversity. Global Dominance of English.



Chapter 6: Religion

Case Study/The Dalai Lama vs. the People's Republic of China

Key Issue 1/Where Are Religions Distributed? Universalizing Religions. Ethnic Religions.

Key Issue 2/Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Origin of Religions. Diffusion of Religions. Holy Places. The Calendar.

Key Issue 3/Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Origin of Religions. Places of Worship. Sacred Space. Administration of Space.

Key Issue 4/Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Religion vs. Government Policies. Religion vs. Religion.



Chapter 7: Ethnicity

Case Study/Ethnic Conflict in Rwanda

Key Issue 1/Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? Distribution of Ethnicities in the United States. Differentiating Ethnicity and Race.

Key Issue 2/Why Have Ethnicities Been Transformed into Nationalities? Rise of Nationalities. Multinational States. Revival of Ethnic Identity.

Key Issue 3/Why Do Ethnicities Clash? Ethnic Competition to Dominate Nationality. Dividing Ethnicities Among More Than One State.

Key Issue 4/What Is Ethnic Cleansing? Ethnic Cleansing in Yugoslavia. Ethnic Cleansing in Central Africa.



Chapter 8: Political Geography

Case Study/Changing Borders in Europe

Key Issue 1/Where Are States Located? Problems of Defining States Development of the State Concept.

Key Issue 2/Why Do Boundaries Cause Problems? Shapes of States. Types of Boundaries. Internal Organization of States.

Key Issue 3/Why Do States Cooperate with Each Other? Political and Military Cooperation. Economic Cooperation.

Key Issue 4/Why Has Terrorism Increased? Terrorism by Individuals and Organizations. State Support for Terrorism.



Chapter 9: Development

Case Study/Bangladesh's Development Problems

Key Issue 1/Why Does Development Vary Among Countries? Economic Indicators of Development. Social Indicators of Development. Demographic Indicators of Development.

Key Issue 2/Where Are More and Less Developed Countries Distributed? More Developed Regions. Less Developed Regions. Key Issue 3/Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender? Gender-related Development Index. Gender Empowerment. Key Issue 4/Why Do Less Developed Countries Face Obstacles to Development? Development Through Self-Sufficiency. Development Through International Trade. Financing Development.



Chapter 10: Agriculture

Case Study/Wheat Farmers in Kansas and Pakistan

Key Issue 1/Where Did Agriculture Originate? Origins of Agriculture. Location of Agricultural Hearths. Classifying Agricultural Regions.

Key Issue 2/Where Are Agricultural Regions in Less Developed Countries? Shifting Cultivation. Pastoral Nomadism. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture.

Key Issue 3/Where Are Agricultural Regions in More Developed Countries? Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming. Dairy Farming. Grain Farming. Livestock Ranching. Mediterranean Agriculture. Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming. Plantation Farming.

Key Issue 4/Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties? Issues for Subsistence Farmers. Issues for Commercial Farmers. Strategies To Increase Food Supply.



Chapter 11: Industry

Case Study/Maquiladoras in Mexico

Key Issue 1/Where Did Industry Originate? The Industrial Revolution. Diffusion of the Industrial Revolution.

Key Issue 2/Where Is Industry Distributed? North America. Europe. East Asia.

Key Issue 3/Why Do Industries Have Different Distributions? Situation Factors. Site Factors. Obstacles to Optimum Location.

Key Issue 4/Why Do Industries Face Problems? Industrial Problems from a Global Perspective. Industrial Problems in More Developed Countries. Industrial Problems in Less Developed Countries.



Chapter 12: Services

Case Study/Obtaining Goods in Romania

Key Issue 1/Where Did Services Originate? Types of Services. Origin of Services. Services in Rural Settlements.

Key Issue 2/Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern? Central Place Theory. Market Area Analysis. Hierarchy of Services and Settlements.

Key Issue 3/Why Do Business Services Locate in Large Settlements? World Cities. Hierarchy of Business Services. Economic Base of Settlements.

Key Issue 4/Why Do Services Cluster Downtown? Central Business District. Suburbanization of Businesses.



Chapter 13: Urban Patterns

Case Study/Two Families in New Jersey

Key Issue 1/Where Have Urban Areas Grown? Urbanization. Defining Urban Settlements.

Key Issue 2/Where Are People Distributed Within Urban Areas? Three Models of Urban Structure. Use of the Models Outside North America.

Key Issue 3/Why Do Inner Cities Have Distinctive Problems? Inner-City Physical Problems. Inner-City Social Problems. Inner-City Economic Problems.

Key Issue 4/Why Do Suburbs Have Distinctive Problems? The Peripheral Model. Contribution of Transportation to Suburbanization. Local Government Fragmentation.



Chapter 14: Resource Problems

Case Study/Pollution in Mexico City

Key Issue 1/Why Are Resources Being Depleted? Energy Resources. Mineral Resources.

Key Issue 2/Why Are Resources Being Polluted? Air Pollution. Water Pollution. Land Pollution.

Key Issue 3/Why Are Resources Reusable? Renewing Resources. Recycling Resources.

Key Issue 4/Why Can Resources Be Conserved? Sustainable Development. Biodiversity.

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Study Guide, 8th Edition

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Geography Coloring Book, 3rd Edition

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