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Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues, 5th Edition

By Allan C. Ornstein, Francis P. Hunkins

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Aug 4, 2008


A thorough exploration of the historical, philosophical, psychological, and social context for the field of curriculum, Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues addresses the curriculum process  and issues that influence it and encourages readers to consider how new thinking impacts curriculum deliberation, development, and implementation.  A more concise Fifth Edition provides both the student and the professor of curriculum with a comprehensive treatment of the field: curriculum foundations as well as the principles and procedures for conceptualizing, developing, implementing, and evaluating curriculum. As in previous editions, it provides solid coverage of the philosophical, historical, psychological, and social foundations of curriculum including recent research and thinking in these areas. 

Table of Contents

Curriculum Tips


1. The Field of Curriculum


Curriculum Approaches

- Behavioral Approach

- Managerial Approach

- The Systems Approach

- Academic Approach

- Humanistic Approach

- Reconceptualists


Definition of Curriculum

- The Challenges of Definition

- Background Issues for Defining the Field

- Fundamental Questions


Foundations of Curriculum

- Major Foundations: Philosophy, History, Psychology, and Sociology


Domains of Curriculum

- Curriculum Development

- Curriculum Design

- Other Domains of Curriculum

- The Planned and Unplanned Curriculum


Theory and Practice

- From Theory to Practice

- Curriculum Certification


The Roles of the Curriculum Worker

- Responsibilities of the Curriculum Worker

- The Role of the Student

- The Teacher and the Curriculum

- The Principal and the Curriculum




2. Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum


Philosophy and Curriculum

- Philosophy and the Curriculum Worker

- Philosophy as a Curriculum Source


Major Philosophies

- Idealism

- Realism

- Pragmatism

- Existentialism


Educational Philosophies

- Perennialism

- Essentialism

- Progressivism

- Reconstructionism




3. Historical Foundations of Curriculum


The Colonial Period: 1642-1776

- Three Colonial Regions

- Colonial Schools

- Old Textbooks, Old Readers


The National Period: 1776-1850

- Rush: Science, Progress, and Free Education

- Jefferson: Education for Citizenship

- Webster: Schoolmaster and Cultural Nationalism

- McGuffey: The Readers and American Virtues


Nineteenth-Century European Educators

- Pestalozzi: General and Special Methods

- Froebel: The Kindergarten Movement

- Herbart: Moral and Intellectual Development

- Spencer: Utilitarian and Scientific Education


The Rise of Universal Education: 1820-1920

- Monitorial Schools

- Common Schools

- Secondary Schools

- The Academy

- The High School


The Transitional Period: 1893-1918

- Reaffirming the Traditional Curriculum

- Three Committees

- Marris and Eliot: Two Conservative Reformers


Curriculum as a Field Is Born: 1918-1949

- Bobbitt and Charters: Behaviorism and Scientific Principles

- Kilpatrick: The Progressive Influence

- The Twenty-Sixth Yearbook

- Rugg and Caswell: The Development Period

- Tyler: Basic Principles

- Goodlad: School Reform

- Current Focus




4. Psychological Foundations of Curriculum



- Connectionism

- Thornedike’s Influence: Tyler, Taba, and Bruner

- Classical Conditioning

- Operant Conditioning

- Acquiring New Operants


Cognitive Psychology

- Cognitive Perspective

- The Montessouri Method

- The Theories of Jean Piaget

- Piaget’s Influence: Tyler, Taba, Bruner, and Kohlberg

- The Theories of Lev Vygotsky

- Focus on Thinking and Learning


Emotional Intelligence

- Constructivism

- Brain Research and Learning

- Problem Solving and Creative Learning

- Cognition and Curriculum


Phenomenology and Humanistic Psychology

- Gestalt Theory

- Maslow: Self-Actualizing Persons

- Rogers: Nondirective and Therapeutic Learning

- Phenomenology and Curriculum




5. Social Foundations of Curriculum


Society, Education, and Schooling

- Society and American Modal Personality

- Social and Developmental Theories


Post Modern Family

- New Family Types

- New Mores, New Customs


Sex Roles and Sex Differences

- The Feminization of Schools

- From Dick and Jane to Harry Potter


Moral Education

- Moral Conduct and Controversy

- Moral Knowledge

- Moral Character


Do Schools Make a Difference?

- The Coleman Report

- The Jencks Study

- Unaccounted Factors: Luck

- International Educational Achievement (IEA) Studies


Learning and earning: 1980s and 1990s

- Attitude, Achievement, and Family Capital

- NAEP/State Standards

- Another Option




6. Curriculum Design


Connecting Conceptions


Components of Design

- Sources of Curriculum Design

- Conceptual Framework: Horizontal and Vertical organization


Design Dimension Considerations

- Scope

- Sequence

- Continuity



- Articulation

- Balance


Representative Curriculum Deigns

- Subject-Centered Designs

- Learner-Centered Designs

- Problem-Centered Designs




7. Curriculum Development


Technical-Scientific Approach

- History of Technical-Scientific Approach


Nontechnical-Nonscientific Approach

- The Deliberation Model


Enacting Curriculum Development

- Establishing Curriculum Teams

- Enacting the Process

-- Generating Aims

-- Creating Goals

-- Creating Objectives

-- Means of Generating Aims, Goals, and Objectives

-- Guidelines for Formulating Educatinal Objectives


Taxonomic Levels

- A Totalizing Taxonomy

- Selecting Curriculum Content

- Selecting Curriculum Experiences

- Selecting Educational Environments

- The Final Synthesis


Participants in Developing Curriculum

- Political Arena Participants

- School Arena Participants

- Participants Outside the School District

- Other Participants




8. Curriculum Implementation


The Nature of Implementation

-Relationship of Implementation to Planning

- Incrementalism

- Communication

- Support


Implementation as a Change Process

- A Theory of Change

- Change Typologies

- Resistance to Change

- Improving Receptivity to Change


Curriculum Implementation Models

- Overcoming Resistance to Change Model

- Organizational Development Model

- Concerns-Based Adoption Model

- Organizational Parts, Units, and Loops

- Educational Change Model


Roles of the Key Players

- Students

- Teachers and Initiators

- Supervisors

- Principals as Initiators

- Curriculum Directors

- Curriculum Consultants

- Parents and Community Members




9. Curriculum Evaluation


The Nature and Purpose of Evaluation

- Curriculum

- Cognition

- Observation

- Interpretation

- Evaluation Questions

- Definitions of Evaluation

- Measurement versus Evaluation


Approaches to Evaluation

- Scientific and Humanistic Approaches to Evaluation

- Intrinsic and Pay-Off Evaluation

- Formative and Summative Evaluation


Scientific-Positivistic Evaluation Models

- Stake’s Congruence-Contingency Model

- Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process, Product Model


Humanistic and Naturalistic Evaluation Models

- Action Research

- Eisner’s Connoisseurship Evaluation Model

- Illuminative Evaluation Model


Practices and Issues of Evaluation

- Phases of Evaluation

- Alternative Assessment

- High-Stakes Assessment

- Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Measurement

- Human Issues of Evaluation


Roles Played in Evaluation

- Students

- Teachers

- Evaluators

- Consultants

- Parents and Community Members




III. Issues of Curriculum


10. Curriculum Issues and Trends


Reinventing Education

- Thinking Outside the Box

- Reinventing School Culture

- Charter Schools, Contract Schools

- The Push for an Enlightened World Cultures Curriculum


The Politics of Sociology of Education

- The Push for the Narrow, Bland Curriculum

- Multicultural Education

- Pedagogy as Political Process


Moral and Spiritual Education


Standards and Testing

- The Politicization of Standards and Assessment


Technology, Media, and Curriculum

- Media Control of Information


Looking Forward

- Determining. Anticipating, Generating Evolving Futures

- Swimming Against the Current

- Swimming With the Current

- Nurturing, Managing, Evolving Futures

- Citizen, Educator Participation in Dynamic Evolving Futures

- Generating Breakthroughs






Purchase Info

ISBN-10: 0-205-59257-0

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-59257-9

Format: Book

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