This is the Safari online edition of the printed book.
Master the basics of data centers to build server farms that enhance your Web site performance
- Learn design guidelines that show how to deploy server farms in highly available and scalable environments
- Plan site performance capacity with discussions of server farm architectures and their real-life applications to determine your system needs
Today's market demands that businesses have an Internet presence through which they can perform e-commerce and customer support, and establish a presence that can attract and increase their customer base. Underestimated hit ratios, compromised credit card records, perceived slow Web site access, or the infamous "Object Not Found" alerts make the difference between a successful online presence and one that is bound to fail.
These challenges can be solved in part with the use of data center technology. Data centers switch traffic based on information at the Network, Transport, or Application layers. Content switches perform the "best server" selection process to direct users' requests for a specific service to a server in a server farm. The best server selection process takes into account both server load and availability, and the existence and consistency of the requested content.
Data Center Fundamentals helps you understand the basic concepts behind the design and scaling of server farms using data center and content switching technologies. It addresses the principles and concepts needed to take on the most common challenges encountered during planning, implementing, and managing Internet and intranet IP-based server farms. An in-depth analysis of the data center technology with real-life scenarios make Data Center Fundamentals an ideal reference for understanding, planning, and designing Web hosting and e-commerce environments.
I. AN INTRODUCTION TO SERVER FARMS.
1. Overview of Data Centers.
Data Centers Defined. Application Architecture Models. Data Center Architecture. Data Center Services. Summary.
2. Server Architecture Overview.
Network Attachment. Client and Server Packet Processing. TCP and Server Applications. UDP and Server Applications. Server Availability. Configuring a Web Server. Network Architecture Design Options. Summary. For Further Reading.
3. Application Architectures Overview.
Taxonomy of Applications and Hosted Servers. Integration of Applications. Multitier Applications. Network Architecture Considerations. Multitier Design Case Study. Summary. For Further Reading.
4. Data Center Design Overview.
Types of Server Farms and Data Centers. Data Center Topologies. Fully Redundant Layer 2 and Layer 3 Designs. Fully Redundant Layer 2 and Layer 3 Designs with Services. Summary.
5. Data Center Security Overview.
The Need for a Secure Data Center. Vulnerabilities and Common Attacks. Network Security Infrastructure. Security Fundamentals. Data Center Security Framework. Summary.
6. Server Load-Balancing Overview.
Load Balancing Defined. Key Concepts of Load Balancing. High Availability Considerations. Generic Load Balancer Architecture. Summary.
II. SERVER FARM PROTOCOLS.
7. IP, TCP, and UDP.
Layers and Protocols. IP. TCP. TCP Flow Control. UDP. Summary. References.
8. HTTP and Related Concepts.
Resources and Messages. MIME. HTTP Overview. HTTP General Header. Request Header. Response Header. Entity Header. Summary.
9. SSL and TLS.
SSL Overview. SSL Operations. Performance Implications of SSL. Authentication and Digital Certificates. SSL Ciphersuites. Analyzing SSL Traces. Summary. For Further Reading.
10. DNS Essentials and Site‑Selection Considerations.
DNS Architecture. DNS Components. DNS Resolution Process. Redundant Name Servers. Transport Protocols. DNS Caching. Distribution of Multiple Records. DNS Server Placement. Site-Selection Considerations. Summary. For Further Reading.
11. Streaming Protocols Overview.
Download-and-Play, HTTP Streaming, and Real-Time Streaming. UDP Versus TCP. Analog and Digital Video. Codecs. Packetization. Transport Formats. Control Protocols. Unicast, Multicast, and Stream Splitting. Streaming Products. Summary.
III. INFRASTRUCTURE PROTOCOLS.
12. Layer 2 Protocol Essentials.
IEEE. Ethernet. Ethernet Switching. Layer 2 Protocols. VLANs and Trunks. EtherChannels. STP. Summary. For Further Reading.
13. Layer 3 Protocol Essentials.
ARP Protocol and Tables. HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP. OSPF. EIGRP. NAT. Summary. For Further Reading.
14. IBM Data Center Technology.
Mainframes. IBM Data Center Components. Mainframe Attachment Options. IBM Networking. SNA over TCP/IP. Sysplex and Parallel Sysplex. IBM Data Centers Today. Summary.
IV. SECURITY AND SERVER LOAD BALANCING.
15. Security Protocols and Technologies.
Cryptography. U.S. Government and Cryptography. NIST and FIPS. Export-Grade Ciphers. PKI. Authentication Protocols and Technologies. Network Management Security. Summary.
16. Load-Balancing Modes and Predictors.
Modes of Operation. Load-Balancing Algorithms. Summary.
17. Server Health Management.
Load-Balancing Terminology. Server Management. Server Management Interface. Server Failure Detection. Probe Types. Out-of-Band Probes. Case Study: Server Health for Virtual Hosting. Case Study: HTTP and HTTPS. Summary.
18. Session Tracking and Cookies.
What a Session Is and Why It Matters. Cookies. How Servers Track User Sessions. Session Persistence for Server Clusters. Summary. For Further Reading.
19. Persistence Mechanisms on Load Balancers.
The Concept of Session Persistence. Persistence Considerations for Clients Using Proxy Servers. Persistence Using Session Sharing Servers. Session Persistence Mechanisms. Source IP Sticky. Cookie Sticky. URL Sticky. HTTP Redirection Sticky. SSL Sticky. Case Study. E-Commerce Applications. Summary.
V. DATA CENTER DESIGN.
20. Designing the Data Center Infrastructure.
Topology Overview. Switching Paths. Using VLANs to Virtualize the Physical Data Center Infrastructure. Link Redundancy and Load Distribution. Spanning-Tree Considerations. Internal Redundancy Considerations. Layer 2 Data Center Design. Layer 3 Data Center Design. Summary.
21. Integrating Security into the Infrastructure.
Defining Security Zones. Internet Edge. Deploying Antispoofing Filtering. Using uRPF. Using ACLs. Implementing Traffic Rate Limiting. Securing Routing Protocols. Route Filters. Neighbor Router Authentication. Deploying Stateful Firewalls. Implementing Intrusion Detection. Internet Edge Design. Campus Core. Intranet Server Farms. Server-Farm Design Alternatives. Management Network. Summary.
22. Performance Metrics of Data Center Devices.
Traffic Patterns Overview. Performance Metrics Overview. Load Balancer and SSL Offloader Metrics. SSL Offloaders Performance Metrics. Testing Performance Metrics. Summary.
Appendix A: Character Sets.
Appendix B: HTTP Header Fields.
Appendix C: Video Encoding Mechanisms.
Appendix D: Loopback Interface Configuration Procedures.
Appendix E: Configuring Servers to Insert Cookies.
Appendix F: Client-Side and Server-Side Programming.