Each chapter ends with a summary, list of key terms, study questions, and recommended readings. 1. Defining Developmental Disabilities.
Overview of the Text.
Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps.
Etiology: Causal Factors and Pathology.
Defining Developmental Disabilities.
Conditions Included in Developmental Disabilities.
Developmental Delay, Developmental "Psychopathology, and Dual Diagnoses.
Developmental Disabilities in a Life-Span Context.
Social Attitudes about Persons with Disabilities.
Prevalence and Incidence of Developmental Disabilities.
The Person and the Professions.
Chapter Summary. 2. Normal Prenatal Development.
Human Development Is a Continuous Process.
Determinants of the Neonate's Health.
The Birth Process.
The Mother, the Neonate, Postnatal Monitoring, and Care.
Genotype and Phenotype.
Chapter Summary. 3. Normal Postnatal Development.
Physical and Sensory Development.
Cognitive, Perceptual, and Language Development.
Normal Developmental Tasks: Social Norms, Expectancies, and Roles.
Growth beyond the "Developmental" Years.
Chapter Summary. 4. Endogenous Etiological Factors in Disabilities: Genetic Defects.
Polygenic and Multifactorial Transmission.
Genetic and Chromosomal Mutations.
Chapter Summary. 5. Endogenous Etiological Factors in Disabilities: "Chromosomal Anomalies."
Chromosomal Anomalies in the Autosomes.
X-Linked Genetic Defects and Chromosomal Anomalies.
Neural Tube Defects (NTDs).
Chapter Summary. 6. Exogenous Etiologic Factors in Disabilities: Prenatal Origins.
Prenatal Environmental Factors in Birth Defects.
Teratogens. 7. Exogenous Etiological Factors in Disabilities Prenatal Origins (Continued).
Environmental Hazards of a Passive Nature.
Other Prenatal Factors.
A "MultiHit" Model of Neurological Handicap.
Chapter Summary. 8. Exogenous Etiological Factors in Developmental Disabilities: Perinatal and Postnatal Environmental Origins.
Etiologies and Disabilities.
Chapter Summary. 9. Mental Retardation (Intellectual Disabilities).
The Nature of Intelligence.
Intelligence and MR.
Heterogeneity among Persons with Mental Retardation.
Multidimensional Diagnosis and Service "Planning for Mental Retardation.
Step 1. Diagnosis of Mental Retardation.
Step 2. Identifying Strengths, Weaknesses, and Service Needs.
Step 3. Determining Needed Supports and Support Intensities.
Some Important Generalizations.
Social Factors in Mental Retardation.
Chapter Summary. 10. Social Determinants in Mental Retardation: "The Active Socialization Hypothesis.
Positions and Roles: Social Structure and Personal Function.
Dimensions of Social Positions.
Dimensions of Social Roles.
Social Role Development and Personal Identity.
Can Social Role Theory Inform Us about Mental Retardation?.
MR Social Role Enactments.
Tacit Knowledge, Practical Intelligence, "and the Zone of Proximal Development.
Implications for Research and Service.
Chapter Summary. 11. Autistic Spectrum Disorders.
Pervasive Developmental Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders.
Other Autistic Spectrum Disorders.
Diagnosis of Autism.
Population Estimates of Autism.
The Final Common Pathway Model.
Autism and Theory of Mind.
Education, Training, and Treatment.
Prognosis and the Older Person with Autism.
Some Comments on History.
Chapter Summary. 12. Seizure Disorders.
Seizures and Epilepsy.
Etiologies of Seizures and the Epilepsies.
Incidence and Prevalence of Epilepsy.
Major Effects of Epilepsy on the Person.
Epilepsy in Adolescence.
Treatment and Prevention of Epilepsy.
Prognosis in Epilepsy.
Chapter Summary. 13. Cerebral Palsy.
Diagnosing Cerebral Palsy.
Types of Movement Disorders.
Etiologies of Cerebral Palsy.
Management of Cerebral Palsy.
Cerebral Palsy and Aging.
Chapter Summary. 14. Learning Disabilities.
Prevalence of Learning Disabilities.
Learning Disabilities Criteria.
Specific Learning Disabilities.
Phonological Awareness and Central Processing Deficits.
Primary and Secondary Characteristics.
Assistive Technology for Learning Disabilities.
The Personal Toll of LD.
Learning Disabilities in Adulthood.
Chapter Summary. 15. Services for Persons with Developmental Disabilities.
The Twentieth-Century Revolution.
Dimensions of Service.
Chapter Summary. 16. Deviance, Responsible Social Agents, and Prevention "In Developmental Difficulties.
A Traditional Social Position: The Responsible Social Agent.
The Responsible Social Agent and Deviance.
Levels of Prevention.
Obstacles to Prevention.
Partial Solutions in Our Less Than Ideal World.
Prevention of Developmental Disabilities in a Time-Line Perspective.
A Final Note. References. Bibliography. Name Index. Subject Index.