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Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society, 8th Edition

By Charles F. Levinthal

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jun 26, 2013


Provides students with a deeper understanding of what impacts drug use.


The eighth edition of Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society examines the impact of drug-taking behavior on our society and our daily lives. The use and abuse of a wide range of licit and illicit drugs are discussed from historical, biological, psychological, and sociological perspectives.

In today's world, drugs and their use present a social paradox, combining the potential for good and for bad. As a society and as individuals, we can be the beneficiaries of drugs or their victims. This text features a comprehensive review of psychoactive drugs, and is notable for the attention it gives to two aspects of drug-taking behavior that have been underreported in other texts: steroid abuse and inhalant abuse.


This text is available in a variety of formats — digital and print. Pearson offers its titles on the devices students love through  CourseSmart, Amazon, and more.


Learning Goals

Upon completing this book, readers will be able to:

  • Understand the impact of drug use on behavior and society.
  • Examine the pros and cons to drug use.



Table of Contents

In this Section:
1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


1. Brief Table of Contents


PART ONE:  Drugs in Society/Drugs in Our Lives  

CHAPTER 1:  Drugs and Behavior Today

CHAPTER 2:  Drug-Taking Behavior: The Personal and Social Concerns

CHAPTER 3:  How Drugs Work in the Body and on the Mind  


PART TWO: Legally Restricted Drugs in Our Society  

CHAPTER 4:   The Major Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines  

CHAPTER 5:   Narcotics: Opium, Heroin, and Synthetic Opiates  

CHAPTER 6:   LSD and Other Hallucinogens  

CHAPTER 7:  Marijuana  


PART THREE:  Legal Drugs in Our Society  

CHAPTER 8:  Alcohol: Social Beverage/Social Drug  

CHAPTER 10: Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism  

CHAPTER  11: Nicotine and Tobacco  Use


PART FOUR:  Enhancers and Depressants

CHAPTER 12:  Performance Enhancing Drugs and Drug Testing in Sports

CHAPTER  13: Depressents and Inhalants 


PART FIVE: Medicinal Drugs

CHAPTER 14: Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, and Dietary Supplements  

CHAPTER 15: Drugs for Treating Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders  


PART SIX: Prevention and Treatment

CHAPTER  16: Substance-Abuse Prevention

CHAPTER 17: Substance-Abuse Treatment: Strategies for Change 


2. Full Table of Contents


Part One:  Drugs in Society/Drugs in Our Lives

Chapter 1:                 Drugs and Behavior Today

Social Messages about Drug Use    

Two Ways of Looking at Drugs and Behavior

HEALTH LINE: Defining Drugs: Olive Oil, Curry Powder, and a Little Grapefruit?

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Drug Abuse and the College Student: An Assessment Tool      

Drugs in Early Times

Drugs in the Nineteenth Century

Drugs and Behavior in the Twentieth Century

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 1.1: Understanding the History of Drugs and Behavior

Present-Day Attitudes toward Drugs

Patterns of Drug Use in the United States

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 1.2: Understanding Present-Day Drug Use in the United States         19

Making the Decision to Use Drugs

Present-day Concerns

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Facts about Club Drugs


CHAPTER 2:               Drug-Taking Behavior: Personal and Social Issues

Drug Toxicity 

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Acute Toxicity in the News: Drug-Related Deaths        

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 2.1: Understanding Dose-Response Curves      

The DAWN Reports  

From Acute Toxicity to Chronic Toxicity     

Behavioral Tolerance and Drug Overdose  

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 2.2: Understanding Behavioral Tolerance through Conditioning

Physical and Psychological Dependence

Diagnosing Drug-related Problems: The Health Professional’s Perspective        

Special Circumstances in Drug Abuse        

HEALTH LINE: Effects of Psychoactive Drugs on Pregnant Women and Newborns       

Drugs, Violence, and Crime

Governmental Policy, Regulation, and Laws

PORTRAIT: Pablo Escobar – Formerly Known as the Colombian King of Cocaine

Drug Law Enforcement and Global Politics

HEALTH LINE: Harm Reduction as a National Drug-Abuse Policy


CHAPTER 3:               How Drugs Work in the Body and on the Mind

How Drugs Enter the Body  

How Drugs Exit the Body    

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Ways to Take Drugs: Routes of Administration  

Factors Determining the Behavioral Impact of Drugs      

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 3.1: Understanding Drug Interactions

HEALTH ALERT: Adverse Effects of Drug–Drug and Food–Drug Combinations

Introducing the Nervous System    

Understanding the Brain

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 3.2: Understanding Drugs and Brain Functioning

Understanding the  Neurochemistry of Psychoactive Drugs

Physiological Aspects of Drug-Taking Behavior

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Endorphins, Endocannainoids, and the “Runner’s High”

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 3.3: Understanding Cross-Tolerance and Cross-Dependence

HEALTH LINE: Drug Craving and the Insula of the Brain

Psychological Factors in Drug-Taking Behavior     

PORTRAIT: Nora D. Volkow—A Scientist-General in the War on Drugs


Part Two: Legally Restricted Drugs in Our Society

Chapter 4:              The Major Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines

The History of Cocaine

HEALTH ALERT: Cocaine after Alcohol: The Risk of Cocaethylene Toxicity

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: What Happened to the Coca in Coca-Cola?

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 4.1: Understanding the History of Cocaine

Acute Effects of Cocaine

Chronic Effects of Cocaine

HEALTH ALERT: The Physical Signs of Possible Cocaine Abuse

Medical Uses of Cocaine

How Cocaine Works in the Brain

Present-Day Cocaine Abuse

Patterns of Cocaine Abuse  

Treatment Programs for Cocaine Abuse

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Paco: A Cheap New Form of Cocaine Floods Argentine Slums and Beyond

PORTRAIT: Robert Downey Jr. and Others—Cleaning Up after  Cocaine


DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Crack Babies Revisited: What Are the Effects?

Acute Effects of Amphetamines

Chronic Effects of Amphetamines

Present-Day Patterns of Methamphetamine Abuse

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Methamphetamine and the Heartland of  America

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 4.2: Understanding Patterns of Cocaine and Methamphetamine Abuse

Medical Uses for Amphetamines and Similar Stimulant Drugs

HEALTH LINE: Stimulant Medications as “Smart Pills”

Chapter 5:                 Opioids: Opium, Heroin, and Opioid Pain Medications 

Opium in History

Morphine and the Advent of Heroin

Opioids  in American Society

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 5.1: Understanding the History of Opium and Opioids

Effects on the Mind and the Body

How Opioids Work in the Brain

Patterns of Heroin Abuse    

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 5.2: Understanding the Effects of Administering and Withdrawing Heroin

Heroin Abuse and Society

Treatment for Heroin Abuse

HEALTH ALERT: Sustained-Release Buprenorphine: A New Era in Heroin-Abuse Treatment

Medical Uses of Opioid Drugs

PORTRAIT: David Laffer --- Pharmacy Robber and Killer of Four


Chapter 6:                 LSD and Other Hallucinogens

A Matter of Definition

Classifying Hallucinogens

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Strange Days in Salem: Witchcraft or Hallucinogens?

PORTRAIT: Timothy Leary—Nutty Professor, Visionary, or Simply a Charlatan?

Facts and Fiction about LSD

HEALTH ALERT: Emergency Guidelines for a Bad Trip on LSD

Psilocybin and Other Hallucinogens Related to Serotonin

HEALTH LINE: Bufotenine and the Bufo Toad

Hallucinogens Related to Norepinephrine

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Present-Day Peyotism and the Native American Church

HEALTH ALERT: MDMA Toxicity: The Other Side of Ecstasy

Hallucinogens Related to Acetylcholine

Miscellaneous Hallucinogens

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 6.1: Understanding the Diversity of Hallucinogens

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 6.2: Understanding PCP


CHAPTER 7:               Marijuana

A Matter of Terminology

The History of Marijuana and Hashish

Acute Effects of Marijuana

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 7.1: Understanding the Effects of Marijuana

Effects of Marijuana on the Brain

DRUGS…IN FOCUS: The neurochemical “Yin and Yang” of Cannabis

Chronic Effects of Marijuana

The Gateway Hypothesis

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 7.2: Understanding the Adverse Effects of Chronic Marijuana Abuse

Patterns of Marijuana Smoking

Causes for Concern

HEALTH ALERT: A Synthetic Marijuana called Spice

Medical Marijuana

PORTRAIT: Marcy Dolin --- Marijuana Self-Medicator

The Issues of Decriminalization and Legalization


Part Three:  Legal Drugs in Our Society

Chapter 8:                 Alcohol: Social Beverage/Social Drug

What Makes an Alcoholic Beverage?

Alcohol Use through History

Patterns of Alcohol Consumption Today

HEALTH LINE: Multiple Ways of Getting a Standard Drink

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Visualizing the Pattern of Alcohol Consumption in the United States

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 8.1: Understanding Alcoholic Beverages

The Pharmacology of Alcohol

HEALTH LINE: Gender, Race, and Medication: Factors in Alcohol Metabolism

Effects of Alcohol on the Brain

Acute Physiological Effects

HEALTH ALERT: Emergency Signs and Procedures in Acute Alcohol Intoxication

Acute Behavioral Effects

PORTRAIT: Candace Lightner—Founder of MADD

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Alcohol, Security, and Spectator Sports

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Caffeine, Alcohol, and the Dangers of Caffeinated Alcoholic Drinks

Alcohol and Health Benefits

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 8.2: Understanding the Data from Balanced Placebo Designs

Strategies for Responsible Drinking

HEALTH ALERT: Guidelines for Responsible Drinking


Chapter 9:                 Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Alcoholism: Stereotypes, Definitions, and Life Problems

HEALTH LINE: A Self-Administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST)

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 9.1: Understanding the Psychology of Alcoholism

Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence: The Health Professional’s Perspective

Physiological Effects of Chronic Alcohol Use

HEALTH LINE: Alcoholism Screening Instruments in Professional Use

Patterns of Chronic Alcohol Abuse

The Genetics of Alcoholism

The Concept of Alcoholism as a Disease

Approaches to Treatment for Alcoholism

PORTRAIT: Bill W. and Dr. Bob—Founders of Alcoholics Anonymous

HEALTH LINE: Is Controlled Drinking Possible for Alcoholics?

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: The Non-Disease Model of Alcoholism and Other Patterns of Substance Abuse

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 9.2: Understanding Alcoholics Anonymous       

Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Workplace


Chapter 10:               Nicotine and Tobacco Use

Tobacco Use through History

Health Concerns and Smoking Behavior

HEALTH LINE: African Americans, Smoking, and Mentholated Cigarettes

The Tobacco Industry Today

What’s in Tobacco?

The Dependence Potential of Nicotine

Health Consequences of Tobacco Use

HEALTH LINE: Visualizing 400,000 to 440,000 Annual Tobacco-Related Deaths

HEALTH ALERT: Signs of Trouble from Smokeless Tobacco

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 10.1: Understanding the Effects of Tobacco Smoking

Patterns of Smoking Behavior and Use of Smokeless Tobacco

PORTRAIT: Sigmund Freud—Nicotine Dependence, Cigars, and Cancer

Quitting Smoking: The Good News and the Bad

HEALTH LINE:  How to Suceed in Quitting Smoking --- By Really Trying


Chapter 11:               Caffeine


DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Why There Are No (Live) Flies in Your Coffee



HEALTH LINE: Chocolate, Flavanols and Cardiovascular Health

PORTRAIT: Milton S. Hershey and the Town Built on Chocolate

Soft Drinks

Caffeine from OTC Drugs and Other Products

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 11.1: Understanding Caffeine Levels in Foods and Beverages

Caffeine as a Drug   

Potential Health Benefits

Potential Health Risks

HEALTH LINE: Coffee, Genes, and Heart Attacks

Dependence, Acute Toxicity, and Medical Applications

Caffeine and Young People A Special Concern

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Energy Shots


Part Four:  Enhancers and Depressants

Chapter 12:               Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Drug Testing in Sports

Drug-Taking Behavior in Sports

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Gene Doping: Disqualified by Your DNA

PORTRAIT: Lance Armstrong: From Honor to Dishonor  

Performance-Enhancing Drug Abuse and Baseball

The Hazards of Anabolic Steroids    296

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Suspension Penalties for Performance-Enhancing Drug Use in Sports

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 12.1: Understanding the Effects of Anabolic Steroids

Patterns of Anabolic Steroid Abuse

HEALTH ALERT: The Symptoms of Steroid Abuse  

Nonsteroid Hormones and Performance-Enhancing Supplements

Nonmedical Use of Stimulant Medication in Baseball

Current Drug-Testing Procedures and Policies

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: THG and the War on Performance-Enhancing Drugs

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 12.2: Understanding Drug Testing

The Social Context of Performance-Enhancing Drugs


Chapter 13:               Depressants and Inhalants


DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Is There Any Truth in “Truth Serum”?

Nonbarbiturate Sedative-Hypnotics

The Development of Antianxiety Drugs


HEALTH ALERT: The Dangers of Rohypnol as a Date-Rape Drug

Nonbenzodiazepine Depressants

A Special Alert: The Risks of GHB

PORTRAIT: Patricia White, GHB, and the “Perfect” Crime

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 13.1: Understanding the Abuse Potential in Drugs

Inhalants through History

Glue, Solvent, and Aerosol Inhalation

HEALTH ALERT: The Signs of Possible Inhalant Abuse

Patterns of Inhalant Abuse

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Resistol and Resistoleros in Latin America

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 13.2: Understanding the History of Inhalants


Part Five:  Medicinal Drugs

Chapter 14:               Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, and Dietary Supplements

The History of Prescription Drug Regulations

Procedures for Approving Prescription Drugs       

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 14.1: Understanding the FDA Approval Process

Are FDA-Approved Drugs Safe?      346

HEALTH LINE: The Potential for Death by Prescription Error

HEALTH LINE: Doctor-Shopping and Prescription Pain Medications

Major OTC Analgesic Drugs  349

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 14.2: Understanding OTC Analgesic Drugs

Other Major Classes of OTC Drugs

The Pharmaceutical Industry Today

Dietary Supplements

PORTRAIT: Ryan Haight and the Ryan Haight Act of 2008

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: What We Know about Nine Herbal Supplements


Chapter 15:               Drugs for Treating Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders

The Biomedical Model

Antipsychotic Drugs and Schizophrenia

The Symptoms of Schizophrenia

HEALTH LINE: Mercury Poisoning: On Being Mad as a Hatter

Drugs Used to Treat Depression

PORTRAIT: The Melancholy President—Abraham Lincoln, Depression, and Those “Little Blue Pills

HEALTH ALERT: SSRI Antidepressants and Elevated Risk of Suicide among Children and Adolescents

Drugs for Other Types of Mental Disorders

CONCEPT CHECK 15.1: Understanding the Biochemistry of Mental Illness


Psychiatric Drugs, Social Policy, and Deinstitutionalization

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Psychiatric Drugs and the Civil Liberties Debate


Part Six:  Prevention and Treatment

Chapter 16:               Substance-Abuse Prevention

Levels of Intervention in Substance-Abuse Prevention

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 16.1: Understanding Levels of Intervention in Substance-Abuse Prevention Programs

Strategies for Substance-Abuse Prevention

HEALTH LINE: The Public Health Model and the Analogy of Infectious Disease Control

PORTRAIT: Dr. A. Thomas McLellan Goes to Washington (briefly)

Lessons from the Past: Prevention Approaches That Have Failed

Hope and Promise: Components of Effective School-Based Prevention Programs

HEALTH LINE: Peer-Refusal Skills: Ten Ways to Make It Easier to Say No

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 16.2: Understanding Primary Prevention and Education

Community-Based Prevention Programs

Family Systems in Primary and Secondary Prevention

DRUGS…IN FOCUS: Substance Use and Abuse among Young Mothers     

Multicultural Issues in Primary and Secondary Prevention

Substance-Abuse Prevention in the Workplace

Yes, You: Substance-Abuse Prevention and the College Student

HEALTH LINE: Alcohol 101 on College Campuses

Substance-Abuse Prevention Information

Summary 400 / Key Terms 401 / Endnotes

POINT/COUNTERPOINT V: Should We Continue to D.A.R.E. or Shouldn’t We?


Chapter 17:               Substance-Abuse Treatment: Strategies for Change

Designing Effective Substance-Abuse Treatment Programs

The Biopsychosocial Model for Substance-Abuse Treatment

Intervention through Incarceration and Other Punitive Measures

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Penalties for Crack versus Penalties for Powder Cocaine: Correcting an Injustice

PORTRAIT: Monsignor William O’Brien—Founder of Daytop Village

Substance-Abuse Treatment in the Workplace

The Personal Journey to Treatment and Recovery

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 17.1: Understanding the Stages of Change in Substance-Abuse Treatment

The Impact of Family Systems on Treatment and Recovery

HEALTH ALERT: Coping with a Child’s Abuse of Alcohol or Other Drugs: What Parents Should and Should Not Do

Finding the Right Substance-Abuse Treatment Program

Needing versus Receiving Substance-Abuse Treatment

A Final Note: For Those Who Need Help . . .                  



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