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Education: The Practice and Profession of Teaching, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Robert F. McNergney, Joanne M. McNergney

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Oct 7, 2008

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Description

With cases in every chapter that bring readers into the real world of teaching, this widely admired text  integrates the core foundations of education with case-based analysis, practical examples of technology in the classroom, and personal encounters with diversity.

 

Now more than ever teachers are being held accountable for results achieved by their students; now more than ever new teachers must be true education professionals, with a wide grasp of teaching knowledge and the ability to use it to solve real problems.  This exciting edition of Education: The Practice and Profession of Teaching melds comprehensive coverage of foundations topics with practical guidance on learning and instruction, and a wealth of insights into how authentic schools, classrooms, and educational systems function.

Table of Contents

Preface.

 

I. TEACHING FROM THE INSIDE OUT

 

1. A Teacher’s Role

 

Case Study: Investigating Professionalism

 

Is Teaching a Profession?

            Teaching Is a Profession

            Teaching Is a Semiprofession

 

How Are Views of Teaching Changing?

            A View of Teaching as Basic Professional Competence: INTASC

Technology in Practice: Thinking and Behaving Like a Professional

 

What Career Issues Do Beginning Teachers Face?

            Teacher Licensure

            Availability of Jobs

            Teacher Salaries

 

How Are Teachers Evaluated?

            Competency Testing

            Performance Evaluations of Teachers

            Portfolios

            National Teacher Examinations: The Praxis Series™

 

How Are Teachers Supported and Rewarded?

Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned

            Mentoring Programs

            Career Ladders and Merit Pay

            National Certification

 

How Do Teachers Demonstrate Professional Leadership?

            Advanced College Degrees

            Working with Professional Organizations

Teachers and the Law: Must Teachers Pay Dues to Teachers’ Unions?

Meeting the Challenges of Professional Practice

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: Choosing a Teaching Path

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

2. Challenges Teachers and Schools Face

 

Case Study: School Violence

 

What Are Society’s Expectations for Schools?

 

How Does Poverty Place Students at Risk of School Failure?

 

How Can Schools Intervene to Help Students at Risk?

            Providing Early Intervention Programs

            Keeping Students in School

            Providing Compensatory Education

            Providing Before- and After-School Programs

            Providing Mentors and Tutors

            Using the Arts to Engage Children

 

How Can Schools Get Parents Involved in Their Children’s Education?

            Implementing Parental Involvement Programs

Teachers and the Law: What rights and responsibilities do teachers have in protecting students’ online privacy?

            Providing Family Services through Full-Service Schools

 

How Can Schools Reduce Risks That Threaten Children’s Health and Safety?

            Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

            Preventing and Curing Childhood Obesity

Technology in Practice: Stopping Online Predators

Issues in School Reform: No Name-Calling

Preventing the Spread of AIDS and Other Communicable Diseases

Preventing Suicide and Accidental Injury or Death

Preventing School Violence

Preventing Substance Abuse

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: The Achievement Gap

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

3. The Richness of Classroom Cultures

 

Case Study:  Is Some Curriculum Discriminatory?

 

What Is Diversity?

            Culture

            Race and Ethnicity

 

What Other Concepts Define Diversity?

            From the Perspective of Immigrants

            From the Perspective of Being a Language Minority or Bilingual Person

            Voices Pro and Con:  Bias in the African American Community

            From the Perspective of Gender

            Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned

            From the Perspective of Exceptionality

            From the Perspective of Sexual Orientation

 

What Is Multicultural Education?

            Teaching the Culturally Different

            Human Relations Approaches

            Single-Group Studies

            Multicultural Approaches

            Education That Is Multicultural and Social Reconstructionist

 

What Types of Multicultural Education Curricula Exist and How Are They Evaluated?

            Accountability Issues

            Technology in Practice: Countering Prejudice

 

How Are Educational Services Adapted for Students with Exceptionalities?

            Delivering Services to Students with Disabilities

            Issues in School Reform: Serving Children with Special Needs Through Inclusion

            Delivering Services to Gifted and Talented Students

 

How Can Teachers Create Culturally Relevant Classrooms?

            Cultural Mismatches

            Responsive Instruction

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: One Immigrant’s Success Story

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

TIMELINE: Historical and Philosophical Touchstones in Education

 

DEVELOPING A PROFESSIONAL PORTFOLIO: Digital Portfolios

 

ONLINE ACTIVITY:  The Learning Network

 

II. OUR EDUCATIONAL HERITAGE

 

4. Education in America: The Early Years

 

Case Study:  The Long Shadow of History

 

Which Europeans Influenced Early Education?

            Comenius: Value of Structure

            Locke and Rousseau: Enlightened Views

            Pestalozzi: Encouraging Development

            Froebel: Start Early

 

How Did Informal Education Develop Before the Civil War?

            Education in the Southern Colonies

            Voices Pro and Con: Competition or Cooperation?

            Education in the Middle Atlantic Colonies

            Education in the New England Colonies

            A National View of Education

 

What Were the Aims of Education?

            The Role of Religion

            Teachers and the Law: How Free Are Teachers to Practice Their Religion?

            Industry Affects Education

            Education for Slaves

            Education for Native Americans

            Education in Spain’s American Colonies

            Education for Women

            Education for People with Disabilities

 

How Did Formal Education Develop in America Before the Civil War?

            Life in Colonial Schools

            Curricula

            Issues in School Reform: Children’s Books Have Staying Power

            Recognizing Educational Success and Failure

            The Monitorial Method and the American Lyceum

            The Latin School and the English Academy: No Girls Allowed

            Early Ideas of Public Education

            Leaders in the Movement for Universal Education

            Technology in Practice:  Turn on, Tune In–Leap for Joy!

            The Development of Parochial Schools

            The Growth of Institutions of Higher Education

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: Eliza Pinckney

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

5. Education in America: Then and Now

 

Case Study: Where Do I Fit?

 

How Did Educational Life Change After the Civil War?

            Ending Slavery and Reconstructing the South

            We Need Educational and Social Reform

            Science and Philanthropy Combine to Education

            Learning from Mass Media

            Federal Influence on Education

            Teachers and the Law: Has NCLB Changed the Rules on Prayer in Public School?

 

Who Are “We the People?”’

            Native Americans

            European Americans

            African Americans

            Technology in Practice: Accessing History

            Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned

            Hispanic Americans

            Asian Americans

            Voices Pro and Con: Illegal Immigrants

            Exceptional Learners in America

            American Women

 

How Did Teaching Change After the Civil War?

            Status of Women in Teaching Changes

            The Progressive Movement Begins

            We Attempt to Educate the Nation

 

How Have Schools Changed During the Modern Era?

            Consolidation and Bureaucratization

            New Links Between Schools and Communities

            Rise of Preschools

            The Middle School Movement

            Comprehensive High Schools

            Homeschooling

            Adult Education

            Opportunities for Higher Education

 

Why Was Curriculum So Important?

            Standardized Curriculum

            Diversified Curriculum

            Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned

            Censorship and Core Curricula

            Innovative Curriculum

 

How Do We Typically Judge Educational Success and Failure?

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: Cycles of Education

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

6. Why Teachers Behave As They Do

 

Case Study:  Developing Civic Attitudes

 

What Does Philosophy Have To Do With You as a Teacher?

            Philosophy Influences Education

            Voices Pro and Con: The Core Philosophies of Public Schools

 

What Are the Roots of American Educational Philosophies?

            Idealism

            Realism

            Humanism

 

What Modern Philosophies Influence Western Education?

            Existentialism

            Marxism

            Behaviorism and Cognitivism

            Pragmatism

            Technology in Practice: Pragmatism at Work

            Perennialism and Essentialism

            Social Reconstuctionism

 

What Non-Western Philosophies Influence American Education?

            Hinduism

            Buddhism

            Islam

            African and Native American Philosophies

            Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned

 

What Shapes Teachers’ Personal Philosophies of Education?

            Learning from Teaching: Reflection

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: Philosophical Differences

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

TIMELINE:  Professional Teaching in a Diverse Society

 

DEVELOPING A PROFESSIONAL PORTFOLIO: Your Own Philosophy of Teaching

 

ONLINE ACTIVITY:  Exploring the Library of Congress

 

III. EDUCATION FROM THE OUTSIDE IN

 

7. Where Teachers Work: Schools

 

Case Study: A Rose by Any Other Name

 

How Is Public Schooling Organized in the United States?

            School Districts

            Types of Schools

            Early Childhood Education

            Kindergarten

            Elementary Schools

            Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned

            Junior High Schools and Middle Schools

            High Schools

            Higher Education

Issues in School Reform: School Consolidation

 

What Are Some Schooling Alternatives?

            Magnet Schools

            Vocational-Technical Schools

            Montessori and Waldorf Schools

            Private and Independent Schools

            For-Profit Schools

            Charter Schools

            Parochial Schools

            Home Schools

 

How Are Schools Administered?

            The School Superintendent

            Principals and Assistant Principals

 

What Organizational and Policy Issues Do Schools Face?

            Retention

            Class Schedule and Class Size

            Technology in Practice: Recognizing and Promoting School Quality

            Tracking

 

What Makes Some Schools More Effective Than Others?

            Positive School Environments

            Relations

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: A New Paradigm for School Goals

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

 

8. Leading, Governing, and Funding Schools

 

Case Study: Scopes Revisited

 

What Are School Governance and Education Finance?

            How Schools Are Run

            How Schools Are Funded

            Connections Between Education and the Economy

            Issues in School Reform: Leadership In an Age of Reform

            Political Influences on Public Education

 

How Does the Federal Government Influence Education?

            Federal Funding for Education

 

How Is Education Financed and Controlled by the States?

            State Funding

            State Education Oversight

            Cooperation among School Districts

 

How Are Schools Financed and Managed at the Local Level?

            Property Taxes

            Local School Boards

            Technology in Practice: How Do Schools’ Expenditures and Revenues Compare?

            School District Budgets

 

How Are Governance and Funding Related to Educational Success?

            The Issues of Funding Equity

The Issue of School Choice

            Voices Pro and Con: Public Support for Private Schools?

            The Issue of Site-Based Management

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: School Board Membership

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

9. The Influence of the Law

 

Case Study: To Catch a Thief

 

How Does Government Influence Education?

 

What Legal Principles Affect Public Education?

 

What Are Parents’ Rights and Responsibilities?

            A Question of Religious Principle

            You Can’t Spank My Child!

            Do Some Parents Have Special Rights?

 

What Are Students’ Rights and Responsbilities

            In God Somebody Trusts

            Playing Fairly

Voices Pro and Con: Zero Tolerance

Show Me What’s In There!

Are There Limits on Student Expression?

Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned

Treating Different Students Differently–Illegal Discrimination?

Would You Check These Papers for Me?

 

What Are Teachers’ Rights and Responsibilities?

            There’s Got To Be a Way to Keep This Job!

            A Line Between Personhood and Professionalism

            What Do You Mean I’m Violating Copyright Law?

            Maybe She Is Just a Sickly Child

            You Should Have Known Better

            Technology in Practice: Online Training for Recognizing Child Neglect and Abuse

 

What Are School Districts’ Rights and Responsibilities?

            Balancing Academic Freedom

            Equal Treatment

            How Could You Let This Happen to a Student?

            Somebody Will Pay!

            What Kind of Choice Is This?

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: Sexual Harrassment

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

TIMELINE:  Milestones in Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment

 

DEVELOPING A PROFESSIONAL PORTFOLIO: Assessing Students through Observation

 

ONLINE ACTIVITY:  Teaching with Census Information

 

 

IV. HELPING STUDENTS SUCCEED

 

10. Curriculum and Instruction

 

Case Study: Reaching Every Student

 

What Is Curriculum?

            Explicit and Implicit Curricula

            Null Curriculum

            Extracurriculum

            Integrated Curriculum

 

What Forces for Change Affect Curriculum Content?

            Voices Pro and Con: To Standardize or Not to Standardize the Curriculum?

            The National Interest

            State and Local Priorities

            Legal Issues for Teachers: Can students be required to recite the Pledge of Allegiance?

            Social Issues and Public Opinion

            Professional Groups and Individuals

            Educational Publishing and Mass Media

 

How Are Curriculum and Instruction Planned and Organized?

            Aims of Education

            Teacher Planning for Instruction

 

What Are Four General Models of Instruction

            Behavioral Systems Strategies

            Social Strategies

            Information-Processing Strategies

            Personal Sources Strategies

            Technology in Practice: Technology Old and New Make for Creative Curriculum

 

What Is Effective Instruction?

            Understanding Students

            Communicating

            Creative Learning Environments

            Adapting Instruction for Students with Special Needs

            Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned

            Evaluating Student Learning

 

How Do Teachers Manage Students Effectively?

            Research Informs Teacher Management Behavior

            Relationships between Teachers and Students

            Classroom Management: An Environment of Self-Control

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: Sexual Harassment

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

11. Recognizing Educational Success: Standards and Assessment

 

Case Study:  Dodging Academic Disaster

 

How Do We Know What Works in Education?

            Personal Standards

            National Goals and Standards

            The Nation’s Report Card

            State Standards

            Issues in School Reform: Measuring Progress Under NCLB

            Opportunity Standards

 

What Types of Classroom Assessments Do Teachers Use?

            Classroom Assessment Triad

            Cognition and Learning

            Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned

            Minimum Competency Testing

            Asking Questions

            Voices Pro and Con: Grading

            Authentic Assessment

            Grading and Recommendations

            Student’s Role  

Technology in Practice: Rubrics

 

How Can Teachers Know If They Are Assessing Students Fairly?

            Bias in Assessment

            Teaching to the Test

            Multiple Measures

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: Arithmetic Test

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

TIMELINE: From the Past Comes the Future

 

DEVELOPING A PROFESSIONAL PORTFOLIO:  Preparing Your Resume

 

ONLINE ACTIVITY:  Teaching Overseas

 

 

V. A CONNECTED FUTURE

 

12. A Global Educational Context

 

Case Study

 

Why Learn about Educational Life outside the United States?

            Preparing for the Future

            Voices Pro and Con: Are There Global Limits to Our Tolerance?

            Becoming Globally Aware

 

Why Study Educational Policy in Other Countries?

            Education in Canada

            Technology in Practice: Let the Machine Do the Translation

            Education in Mexico

            Education in Japan

            Education in India

            Education in the United Kingdom

            Education in Singapore

            Education in South Africa

 

How Might We Enhance Understanding of Global Interdependence?

            Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

            Issues in School Reform: Will Jordan Lead the Way?

            International Comparisons: Smoke and Mirrors?

            Comparisons that Foster a Global View

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: Project Cuba

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

 

13. What Lies Ahead

 

Case Study:  Looking to the Future

 

How Are Teachers’ Professional Roles Changing?

            Trends toward Common Educational Expectations

            Cultural Awareness: Lessons from Other Cultures

Trends toward Comprehensive Curriculum and Assessment

            Trends toward Education for Diversity

            Trends toward Defining Diversity in Economic Terms

            Trends toward Character Education

 

How Are Links to Technology Changing the Foundations of Education?

            The Internet and the World Wide Web

            Distance Learning

            Technology in Practice: Blogging, Vloging, and Podcasting

            Telecommunication Capabilities in the Schools

 

How Are Small Schools Transforming Teaching and Learning?

 

Targeting Students at Risk Through Collaborative Networks

            Success for All

            Increasing Parental Involvement

            Enhancing Relationships among Educators

 

How Can Professional Educators Prepare for the Future?

            Using Professional Knowledge

            Reflecting on Professional Practice

 

Case Perspectives

Summary

Reflective Practice: Turning Classrooms over to Interns

Terms and Concepts

Additional Readings

Web Resources

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