## Description

*For undergraduate introductory or survey courses in electrical engineering *

*A clear introduction to electrical engineering fundamentals*

* *

** Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 6e** helps students learn electrical-engineering fundamentals with minimal frustration. Its goals are to present basic concepts in a general setting, to show students how the principles of electrical engineering apply to specific problems in their own fields, and to enhance the overall learning process. Circuit analysis, digital systems, electronics, and electromechanics are covered. A wide variety of pedagogical features stimulate student interest and engender awareness of the material’s relevance to their chosen profession.

**NEW:** This edition is now available with MasteringEngineering, an innovative online program created to emulate the instructor’s office–hour environment, guiding students through engineering concepts from *Electrical* *Engineering *with self-paced individualized coaching.

**Note:** If you are purchasing the standalone text or electronic version, MasteringEngineering __does not__ come automatically packaged with the text. To purchase MasteringEngineering, please visit: masteringengineering.com or you can purchase a package of the physical text + MasteringEngineering by searching the Pearson Higher Education website. Mastering is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor.

**Teaching and Learning Experience**

To provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will:

*Individualized Coaching:*Now available with MasteringEngineering, an online program that emulates the instructor’s office–hour environment using self-paced individualized coaching.*Engage Students:*Basic concepts are presented in a general setting to show students how the principles of electrical engineering apply to specific problems in their own fields, and to enhance the overall learning process.*Support Instructors and Students:*A variety of pedagogical features stimulate student interest and engender awareness of the material’s relevance to their chosen profession.

## Table of Contents

Practical Applications of Electrical Engineering Principles vi

Preface xi

** **

**1 Introduction 1**

1.1 Overview of Electrical Engineering 2

1.2 Circuits, Currents, and Voltages 6

1.3 Power and Energy 13

1.4 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 16

1.5 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 19

1.6 Introduction to Circuit Elements 22

1.7 Introduction to Circuits 30

Summary 34

Problems 35

** **

**2 Resistive Circuits 46**

2.1 Resistances in Series and Parallel 47

2.2 Network Analysis by Using Series and Parallel Equivalents 51

2.3 Voltage-Divider and Current-Divider Circuits 55

2.4 Node-Voltage Analysis 60

2.5 Mesh-Current Analysis 79

2.6 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 88

2.7 Superposition Principle 101

2.8 Wheatstone Bridge 104

Summary 107

Problems 109

** **

**3 Inductance and Capacitance 124**

3.1 Capacitance 125

3.2 Capacitances in Series and Parallel 132

3.3 Physical Characteristics of Capacitors 134

3.4 Inductance 138

3.5 Inductances in Series and Parallel 143

3.6 Practical Inductors 144

3.7 Mutual Inductance 147

3.8 Symbolic Integration and Differentiation Using MATLAB 148

Summary 152

Problems 153

** **

**4 Transients 162**

4.1 First-Order *RC *Circuits 163

4.2 DC Steady State 167

4.3 *RL *Circuits 169

4.4 *RC *and *RL *Circuits with General Sources 173

4.5 Second-Order Circuits 179

4.6 Transient Analysis Using the MATLAB Symbolic Toolbox 192

Summary 197

Problems 198

** **

**5 Steady-State Sinusoidal Analysis 209**

5.1 Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages 210

5.2 Phasors 216

5.3 Complex Impedances 222

5.4 Circuit Analysis with Phasors and Complex Impedances 225

5.5 Power inAC Circuits 231

5.6 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 244

5.7 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 249

5.8 AC Analysis Using MATLAB 261

Summary 265

Problems 266

**6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance 278**

6.1 Fourier Analysis, Filters, and Transfer Functions 279

6.2 First-Order Lowpass Filters 287

6.3 Decibels, the Cascade Connection, and Logarithmic Frequency Scales 292

6.4 Bode Plots 296

6.5 First-Order Highpass Filters 299

6.6 Series Resonance 303

6.7 Parallel Resonance 308

6.8 Ideal and Second-Order Filters 311

6.9 Transfer Functions and Bode Plots with MATLAB 317

6.10 Digital Signal Processing 322

Summary 331

Problems 333

7 **Logic Circuits 347**

7.1 Basic Logic Circuit Concepts 348

7.2 Representation of Numerical Data in Binary Form 351

7.3 Combinatorial Logic Circuits 359

7.4 Synthesis of Logic Circuits 366

7.5 Minimization of Logic Circuits 373

7.6 Sequential Logic Circuits 377

Summary 388

Problems 389

**8 Computers and Microcontrollers 400**

8.1 Computer Organization 401

8.2 Memory Types 404

8.3 Digital Process Control 406

8.4 ProgrammingModelfor the HCS12/9S12 Family 409

8.5 The Instruction Set and Addressing Modes for the CPU12 413

8.6 Assembly-Language Programming 422

Summary 427

Problems 428

** **

**9 Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems 433**

9.1 Measurement Concepts and Sensors 434

9.2 Signal Conditioning 439

9.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 446

9.4 LabVIEW 449

Summary 462

Problems 463

**10 Diodes 467**

10.1 Basic Diode Concepts 468

10.2 Load-Line Analysis of Diode Circuits 471

10.3 Zener-Diode Voltage-Regulator Circuits 474

10.4 Ideal-Diode Model 478

10.5 Piecewise-Linear Diode Models 480

10.6 Rectifier Circuits 483

10.7 Wave-Shaping Circuits 488

10.8 Linear Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 493

Summary 499

Problems 499

** **

**11 Amplifiers: Specifications and External Characteristics 511**

11.1 Basic Amplifier Concepts 512

11.2 Cascaded Amplifiers 517

11.3 Power Supplies and Efficiency 520

11.4 Additional Amplifier Models 523

11.5 Importance of Amplifier Impedances in Various Applications 526

11.6 Ideal Amplifiers 529

11.7 Frequency Response 530

11.8 LinearWaveform Distortion 535

11.9 Pulse Response 539

11.10 Transfer Characteristic and Nonlinear Distortion 542

11.11 Differential Amplifiers 544

11.12 Offset Voltage, Bias Current, and Offset Current 548

Summary 553

Problems 554

** **

**12 Field-Effect Transistors 566**

12.1 NMOS and PMOS Transistors 567

12.2 Load-Line Analysis of a Simple NMOS Amplifier 574

12.3 Bias Circuits 577

12.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 580

12.5 Common-Source Amplifiers 585

12.6 Source Followers 588

12.7 CMOS Logic Gates 593

Summary 598

Problems 599

** **

**13 Bipolar Junction Transistors 607**

13.1 Current and Voltage Relationships 608

13.2 Common-Emitter Characteristics 611

13.3 Load-Line Analysis of a Common-Emitter Amplifier 612

13.4 *pnp *Bipolar Junction Transistors 618

13.5 Large-Signal DC Circuit Models 620

13.6 Large-Signal DC Analysis of BJT Circuits 623

13.7 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 630

13.8 Common-Emitter Amplifiers 633

13.9 Emitter Followers 638

Summary 644

Problems 645

**14 Operational Amplifiers 655**

14.1 Ideal Operational Amplifiers 656

14.2 Inverting Amplifiers 657

14.3 Noninverting Amplifiers 664

14.4 Design of Simple Amplifiers 667

14.5 Op-Amp Imperfections in the Linear Range of Operation 672

14.6 Nonlinear Limitations 676

14.7 DC Imperfections 681

14.8 Differential and Instrumentation Amplifiers 685

14.9 Integrators and Differentiators 687

14.10 Active Filters 690

Summary 694

Problems 695

**15 Magnetic Circuits and Transformers 708**

15.1 Magnetic Fields 709

15.2 Magnetic Circuits 718

15.3 Inductance and Mutual Inductance 723

15.4 Magnetic Materials 727

15.5 Ideal Transformers 731

15.6 Real Transformers 738

Summary 743

Problems 743

** **

**16 DC Machines 754**

16.1 Overview of Motors 755

16.2 Principles of DC Machines 764

16.3 Rotating DC Machines 769

16.4 Shunt-Connected and Separately Excited DC Motors 775

16.5 Series-Connected DC Motors 780

16.6 Speed Control of DC Motors 784

16.7 DC Generators 788

Summary 793

Problems 794

** **

**17 AC Machines 803**

17.1 Three-Phase Induction Motors 804

17.2 Equivalent-Circuit and Performance Calculations for Induction Motors 812

17.3 Synchronous Machines 821

17.4 Single-Phase Motors 833

17.5 Stepper Motors and Brushless

DC Motors 836

Summary 838

Problems 839

** **

**APPENDICES**

**A**

Complex Numbers 845

Summary 852

Problems 852

** **

**B**

Nominal Values and the Color Code for Resistors 854

** **

**C**

The Fundamentals of Engineering Examination 856

** **

**D**

Answers for the Practice Tests 860

** **

**E**

On-Line Student Resources 868

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