## Description

## Table of Contents

**IN THIS SECTION**

1.) BRIEF

2.) COMPREHENSIVE

1.) BRIEF

2.) COMPREHENSIVE

**BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS**

Chapter 1 Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics

**Chapter 2 Organizing the Data Chapter 3 Measures of Central Tendency**

Part I Description

Part I Description

Chapter 4 Measures of Variability

**Part II From Description to Decision Making**

**Part III Decision Making**

**Part IV From Decision Making to Association**

Chapter 11 Regression Analysis

Chapter 12 Nonparametric Measures of Correlation

**Part V Applying Statistics**

Chapter 13 Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems

**COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS**

**Chapter 1 Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics**

The Nature of Social Research

The Stages of Social Research

Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research

The Functions of Statistics

Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey

__Part I Description__

**Chapter 2 Organizing the Data**

Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data

Comparing Distributions

Proportions and Percentages

Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data

Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data

Cumulative Distributions

Dealing with Decimal Data

Flexible Class Intervals

Cross-Tabulations

Graphic Presentations

**Chapter 3 Measures of Central Tendency**

The Mode

The Median

The Mean

Taking One Step at a Time

Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean

**Chapter 4 Measures of Variability**

The Range

The Variance and Standard Deviation

Step-by-Step Illustration: Standard deviation

The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation

Step-by-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores

The Meaning of the Standard Deviation

Comparing Measures of Variability

Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data

**Part II From Description to Decision Making**

**Chapter 5 Probability and the Normal Curve**

Probability

Probability Distributions

The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution

Characteristics of the Normal Curve

The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve

The Area Under the Normal Curve

Finding Probability Under the Normal Curve

Step-by-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve

**Chapter 6 Samples and Populations**

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

Sampling Distribution of Means

Standard Error of the Mean

Confidence Intervals

The *t *Distribution

Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using *t*

Estimating Proportions

Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Intervals for Proportions

Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing From Samples to Populations

**Part III Decision Making**

**Chapter 7 ****Testing Differences Between Means**

The Null Hypothesis: No Difference Between Means

The Research Hypothesis: A Difference Between Means

Sampling Distribution of Differences Between Means

Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences Between Means

Levels of Significance

Standard Error of the Difference Between Means

Testing the Difference Between Means

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference Between Means

Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice

Two Sample Tests of Proportions

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference Between Proportions

Requirements for Testing the Difference Between Means

**Chapter 8 Analysis of Variance.**

The Logic of Analysis of Variance

The Sum of Squares

Mean Square

The *F* Ratio

Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance

Requirements for Using the *F *Ratio

**Chapter 9 Nonparametric Tests of Significance**

The Chi-Square Test

Step-by-Step Illustration: Chi-Square Test of Significanc

Step-by-Step Illustration: Comparin Several groups

The Median Test

Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Test

Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing Differences

**Part IV From Decision Making to Association**

**Chapter 10 ****Correlation**

Strength of Correlation

Direction of Correlation

Curvilinear Correlation

The Correlation Coefficient

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

**Chapter 11 Regression Analysis**

The Regression Model

Interpreting the Regression Line

Regression and Pearson's Correlation

Step-by-Step Illustration: Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis

**Chapter 12 Nonparametric Measures of Correlation**

Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient

Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient

Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma

Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma

Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table

Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger Than 2 x 2 Tables

Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association

**Part V Applying Statistics**

**Chapter 13 ****Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems**

Research Situations

Research Solutions

**Appendix A. A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics**

**Appendix B. Tables**

**Appendix C. List of Formulas**

**Glossary**

**Answers to Selected Problems**

**Index**

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