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Ethics for the Information Age, CourseSmart eTextbook, 5th Edition

By Michael J. Quinn

Published by Addison-Wesley

Published Date: Mar 13, 2012

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Description

This book is appropriate for any standalone “computers and society” or “computer ethics” course offered by a computer science, business, or philosophy department, as well as special "modules" in any advanced CS course.

In an era where information technology changes constantly, a thoughtful response to these rapid changes requires a basic understanding of IT history, an awareness of current issues, and a familiarity with ethics. Ethics for the Information Age is unique in its balanced coverage of ethical theories used to analyze problems encountered by computer professionals in today’s environment. By presenting provocative issues such as social networking, government surveillance, and intellectual property from all points of view, this market-leading text challenges students to think critically and draw their own conclusions, which ultimately prepares them to become responsible, ethical users of future technologies.

Table of Contents



Preface xix
1 Catalysts for Change 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Milestones in Computing 6
1.2.1 Aids to Manual Calculating 6
1.2.2 Mechanical Calculators 8
1.2.3 Cash Register 11
1.2.4 Punched Card Tabulation 12
1.2.5 Precursors of Commercial Computers 14
1.2.6 First Commercial Computers 16
1.2.7 Programming Languages and Time-Sharing 18
1.2.8 Transistor and Integrated Circuit 20
1.2.9 IBM System/360 21
1.2.10 Microprocessor 22
1.2.11 Personal Computer 24
1.3 Milestones in Networking 28
1.3.1 Electricity and Electromagnetism 29
1.3.2 Telegraph 30
1.3.3 Telephone 31
1.3.4 Typewriter and Teletype 33
1.3.5 Radio 34
1.3.6 Television 36
1.3.7 Remote Computing 37
1.3.8 ARPANET 38
1.3.9 Email 40
1.3.10 Internet 40
1.3.11 NSFNET 40
1.3.12 Broadband 41
1.4 Milestones in Information Storage and Retrieval 42
1.4.1 Codex 42
1.4.2 Gutenberg's Printing Press 43
1.4.3 Newspapers 43
1.4.4 Hypertext 44
1.4.5 Graphical User Interface 45
1.4.6 Single-Computer Hypertext Systems 47
1.4.7 Networked Hypertext: World Wide Web 48
1.4.8 Search Engines 49
1.5 Information Technology Issues 50
Summary 53
Review Questions 56
Discussion Questions 57
In-Class Exercises 58
Further Reading 58
References 59
An Interview with Dalton Conley 63
2 Introduction to Ethics 65
2.1 Introduction 65
2.1.1 Dening Terms 67
2.1.2 Four Scenarios 69
2.1.3 Overview of Ethical Theories 73
2.2 Subjective Relativism 74
2.2.1 The Case for Subjective Relativism 75
2.2.2 The Case against Subjective Relativism 75
2.3 Cultural Relativism 77
2.3.1 The Case for Cultural Relativism 78
2.3.2 The Case against Cultural Relativism 79
2.4 Divine Command Theory 82
2.4.1 The Case for the Divine Command Theory 84
2.4.2 The Case against the Divine Command Theory 84
2.5 Ethical Egoism 86
2.5.1 The Case for Ethical Egoism 87
2.5.2 The Case against Ethical Egoism 88
2.6 Kantianism 90
2.6.1 Good Will and the Categorical Imperative 90
2.6.2 Evaluating a Scenario Using Kantianism 93
2.6.3 The Case for Kantianism 95
2.6.4 The Case against Kantianism 95
2.7 Act Utilitarianism 97
2.7.1 Principle of Utility 97
2.7.2 Evaluating a Scenario Using Act Utilitarianism 99
2.7.3 The Case for Act Utilitarianism 101
2.7.4 The Case against Act Utilitarianism 101
2.8 Rule Utilitarianism 104
2.8.1 Basis of Rule Utilitarianism 104
2.8.2 Evaluating a Scenario Using Rule Utilitarianism 105
2.8.3 The Case for Rule Utilitarianism 106
2.8.4 The Case against Utilitarianism in General 108
2.9 Social Contract Theory 109
2.9.1 The Social Contract 109
2.9.2 Rawls's Theory of Justice 112
2.9.3 Evaluating a Scenario Using Social Contract Theory 114
2.9.4 The Case for Social Contract Theory 116
2.9.5 The Case against Social Contract Theory 118
2.10 Comparing Workable Ethical Theories 120
2.11 Morality of Breaking the Law 121
2.11.1 Social Contract Theory Perspective 122
2.11.2 Kantian Perspective 123
2.11.3 Rule Utilitarian Perspective 124
2.11.4 Act Utilitarian Perspective 124
2.11.5 Conclusion 125
Summary 125
Review Questions 129
Discussion Questions 130
In-Class Exercises 131
Further Reading 131
References 132
An Interview with James Moor 135
3 Networked Communications 139
3.1 Introduction 139
3.2 Email and Spam 142
3.2.1 How Email Works 142
3.2.2 The Spam Epidemic 142
3.2.3 Need for Social-Technical Solutions 146
3.2.4 Case Study: Ann the Acme Accountant 146
3.3 The World Wide Web 149
3.3.1 Attributes of the Web 149
3.3.2 How We Use the Web 150
3.3.3 Twitter 154
3.3.4 Too Much Governmental Control or Too Little? 155
3.4 Censorship 158
3.4.1 Direct Censorship 159
3.4.2 Self-Censorship 159
3.4.3 Challenges Posed by the Internet 160
3.4.4 Ethical Perspectives on Censorship 161
3.5 Freedom of Expression 163
3.5.1 History 163
3.5.2 Freedom of Expression Not an Absolute Right 165
3.5.3 FCC v. Pacica Foundation et al. 165
3.5.4 Case Study: Kate's Blog 167
3.6 Children and Inappropriate Content 170
3.6.1 Web Filters 170
3.6.2 Child Internet Protection Act 171
3.6.3 Ethical Evaluations of CIPA 172
3.6.4 Sexting 175
3.7 Breaking Trust on the Internet 177
3.7.1 Identity Theft 177
3.7.2 Chat-Room Predators 179
3.7.3 Ethical Evaluations of Police \Sting" Operations 181
3.7.4 False Information 183
3.7.5 Cyberbullying 184
3.8 Internet Addiction 187
3.8.1 Is Internet Addiction Real? 187
3.8.2 Contributing Factors 190
3.8.3 Ethical Evaluation of Internet Addiction 190
Summary 192
Review Questions 194
Discussion Questions 195
In-Class Exercises 197
Further Reading 199
References 199
An Interview with Michael Liebhold 205
4 Intellectual Property 207
4.1 Introduction 207
4.2 Intellectual Property Rights 209
4.2.1 What Is Intellectual Property? 209
4.2.2 Property Rights 210
4.2.3 Extending the Argument to Intellectual Property 211
4.2.4 Benefits of Intellectual Property Protection 214
4.2.5 Limits to Intellectual Property Protection 215
4.3 Protecting Intellectual Property 217
4.3.1 Trade Secrets 217
4.3.2 Trademarks and Service Marks 219
4.3.3 Patents 220
4.3.4 Copyrights 221
4.4 Fair Use 227
4.4.1 Sony v. Universal City Studios 229
4.4.2 Digital Recording Technology 230
4.4.3 Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 232
4.4.4 RIAA v. Diamond Multimedia Systems Inc. 232
4.4.5 Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corporation 233
4.4.6 Google Books 234
4.5 New Restrictions on Use 236
4.5.1 Digital Millennium Copyright Act 237
4.5.2 Digital Rights Management 238
4.5.3 Secure Digital Music Initiative 238
4.5.4 Sony BMG Music Entertainment Rootkit 239
4.5.5 Encrypting DVDs 240
4.5.6 Foiling HD-DVD Encryption 241
4.5.7 Criticisms of Digital Rights Management 242
4.5.8 Online Music Stores Drop Digital Rights Management 243
4.6 Peer-to-Peer Networks 244
4.6.1 Napster 244
4.6.2 FastTrack 245
4.6.3 BitTorrent 245
4.6.4 RIAA Lawsuits 247
4.6.5 MGM v. Grokster 249
4.6.6 Legal Action Against The Pirate Bay 251
4.6.7 Legal Music Services on the Internet 252
4.7 Protections for Software 253
4.7.1 Software Copyrights 253
4.7.2 Violations of Software Copyrights 254
4.7.3 Software Patents 255
4.7.4 Safe Software Development 257
4.8 Open-Source Software 258
4.8.1 Consequences of Proprietary Software 259
4.8.2 \Open Source" Definition 260
4.8.3 Beneficial Consequences of Open-Source Software 261
4.8.4 Examples of Open-Source Software 262
4.8.5 The GNU Project and Linux 263
4.8.6 Impact of Open-Source Software 264
4.8.7 Critique of the Open-Source Software Movement 265
4.9 Legitimacy of Intellectual Property Protection for Software 266
4.9.1 Rights-Based Analysis 267
4.9.2 Utilitarian Analysis 268
4.9.3 Conclusion 270
4.10 Creative Commons 270
Summary 274
Review Questions 278
Discussion Questions 279
In-Class Exercises 280
Further Reading 280
References 281
An Interview with New Interviewee 1 287
5 Information Privacy 289
5.1 Introduction 289
5.2 Perspectives on Privacy 291
5.2.1 Defining Privacy 291
5.2.2 Harms and Benefits of Privacy 292
5.2.3 Is There a Natural Right to Privacy? 296
5.2.4 Privacy and Trust 300
5.2.5 Case Study 302
5.3 Information Disclosures 304
5.3.1 Facebook Tags 306
5.3.2 Enhanced 911 Services 307
5.3.3 Rewards or Loyalty Programs 307
5.3.4 Body Scanners 308
5.3.5 RFID Tags 309
5.3.6 Implanted Chips 311
5.3.7 OnStar 311
5.3.8 Automobile \Black Boxes" 312
5.3.9 Medical Records 312
5.3.10 Digital Video Recorders 313
5.3.11 Cookies and Flash Cookies 313
5.4 Data Mining 314
5.4.1 Data Mining Defined 314
5.4.2 Opt-in Ve

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Ethics for the Information Age, CourseSmart eTextbook, 5th Edition
Format: Safari Book

$42.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-287184-6