# Even You Can Learn Statistics, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition

Published Date: Aug 17, 2009

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## Description

Even You Can Learn Statistics, 2nd Ed. is the easiest guide to using statistics in your everyday work or study. Experienced educators David Levine and David Stephan teach statistics hands-on, in plain English, with as little math and as many revealing examples as possible. Levine and Stephan define each concept and technique in plain English, and then explain why it's important, when it's used, and how you can apply it yourself. This Second Edition is fully-updated with new examples that designed to be easily worked with Microsoft Excel, the free OpenOffice.org Calc spreadsheet program, or any TI-83 compatible calculator. This new edition also adds detailed problems and worked solutions at the end of every chapter, along with a library of updated multiple choice questions that help you quickly test and build your knowledge. It contains more Excel and OpenOffice.org guidance, as well as an entirely new chapter on multiple regression, the powerful statistical tool for understanding the relationship between several independent variables in applications ranging from business to science. If you do want to understand statistics' deeper mathematical foundations, optional "Equation Blackboard" sections illuminate the equations at work beneath many of today's most crucial statistical techniques. Along the way, Levine and Stephan also help you overcome common misconceptions about statistics, so you can use any statistical method more confidently and successfully.

Acknowledgments. . . . . viii

About the Authors . . . . . ix

Introduction The Even You Can Learn Statistics Owners Manual. . . . xi

Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Statistics . . . . . 1

1.1 The First Three Words of Statistics. . . . . . . 2

1.2 The Fourth and Fifth Words . . . . 4

1.3 The Branches of Statistics . . . . . 5

1.4 Sources of Data . . . . . 6

1.5 Sampling Concepts . . . . 7

1.6 Sample Selection Methods. . . . . 9

Chapter 2 Presenting Data in Charts and Tables. . . . . 19

2.1 Presenting Categorical Variables. . . . . . 19

2.2 Presenting Numerical Variables. . . . .. 26

2.3 Misusing Charts. . . . . 32

Chapter 3 Descriptive Statistics . . . . 43

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency . . . . 43

3.2 Measures of Position. . . . . 47

3.3 Measures of Variation. . . . . . 51

3.4 Shape of Distributions . . . . . 57

Chapter 4 Probability . . . . . . 71

4.1 Events. . . . . . 71

4.2 More Definitions . . . . . . 72

4.3 Some Rules of Probability . . . . . 74

4.4 Assigning Probabilities . . . . 77

Chapter 5 Probability Distributions . . . . 83

5.1 Probability Distributions for Discrete Variables . . .. . 83

5.2 The Binomial and Poisson Probability Distributions. . . . 89

5.3 Continuous Probability Distributions and the Normal Distribution . . . 97

5.4 The Normal Probability Plot. . . . . 105

Chapter 6 Sampling Distributions and Confidence Intervals . . . . 119

6.1 Sampling Distributions. . . . . . . 119

6.2 Sampling Error and Confidence Intervals. . . . . . 123

6.3 Confidence Interval Estimate for the Mean Using the t Distribution (ó Unknown) . . . . . 127

6.4 Confidence Interval Estimation for Categorical Variables. .. . . 131

Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing . . . 141

7.1 The Null and Alternative Hypotheses. . . . . . 141

7.2 Hypothesis Testing Issues . . . . . 143

7.3 Decision-Making Risks . . . . . . . 145

7.4 Performing Hypothesis Testing . . . . . 147

7.5 Types of Hypothesis Tests . . . . 148

Chapter 8 Hypothesis Testing: Z and t Tests . . . . 153

8.1 Testing for the Difference Between Two Proportions. . . . . . 153

8.2 Testing for the Difference Between the Means of Two Independent Groups .. . . . . . 160

8.3 The Paired t Test . . . . . 166

Chapter 9 Hypothesis Testing: Chi-Square Tests and the One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). . . . . .179

9.1 Chi-Square Test for Two-Way Cross-Classification Tables . . . . . 179

9.2 One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): Testing for the Differences Among the Means of More Than Two Groups . . . . 186

Chapter 10 Simple Linear Regression . . . . . ..207

10.1 Basics of Regression Analysis . . . . . . . 208

10.2 Determining the Simple Linear Regression Equation . . . . . . 209

10.3 Measures of Variation . . . . . . 217

10.4 Regression Assumptions. . . . . . . . . 222

10.5 Residual Analysis. . . . . . .223

10.6 Inferences About the Slope. . . . . 225

10.7 Common Mistakes Using Regression Analysis . . . . . 228

Chapter 11 Multiple Regression . . . . . ..245

11.1 The Multiple Regression Model . . . . . 245

11.2 Coefficient of Multiple Determination. . . . . . 248

11.3 The Overall F test. . . . . . . 249

11.4 Residual Analysis for the Multiple Regression Model . . . . . . 250

11.5 Inferences Concerning the Population Regression Coefficients . . . . 251

Chapter 12 Quality and Six Sigma Applications of Statistics . . . . 265

12.1 Total Quality Management . . . . . 265

12.2 Six Sigma. . . . . . . 267

12.3 Control Charts . . . . . 268

12.4 The p Chart. . . . . . .271

12.5 The Parable of the Red Bead Experiment: Understanding Process Variability . . . . . . . . 276

12.6 Variables Control Charts for the Mean and Range . . . . . 278

Appendix A Calculator and Spreadsheet Operation and Configuration . . . . ..295

A.C1 Calculator Operation Conventions ...... 295

A.C2 Calculator Technical Configuration ...... 297

A.C3 Using the A2MULREG Program ...... 298

A.C4 Using TI Connect ...... 298

A.S1 Spreadsheet Operation Conventions ..... 299

Appendix B Review of Arithmetic and Algebra . . . . .301

Assessment Quiz . . . . . . 301

Symbols. . . . . 304

Answers to Quiz. . . . . . . 310

Appendix C Statistical Tables . . . 311

Appendix D Spreadsheet Tips. . . . . . ..339

CT: Chart Tips . . . . . 339

FT: Function Tips . . . . .341

ATT: Analysis ToolPak Tips (Microsoft Excel only). . . . .343

Appendix E Advanced Techniques. . . . . . 347

E.1 Using PivotTables to Create Two-Way Cross-Classification Tables . . . . 347

E.2 Using the FREQUENCY Function to Create Frequency Distributions. . . . . . . 349

E.3 Calculating Quartiles . . . . . . 350

E.4 Using the LINEST Function to Calculate Regression Results. . . . . 351

Glossary . . . . ..359

Index . . . . .367

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Even You Can Learn Statistics, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition
Format: Safari Book

\$12.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-216113-8