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Exploring Communication Disorders: A 21st Century Introduction through Literature and Media

By Dennis C. Tanner

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Sep 13, 2002

Table of Contents

All chapters end with “Summary,” “Study Questions,” and “Suggested Reading.”


To the Reader.

Foreword by Wayne A. Secord, Ph.D.

1. Communication Disorders, Literature, Media, and Society.

The Process of Communication.

Categories of Communication Disorders.

Fluency Disorders.

Voice Disorders.

Articulation and Phonology Disorders.

Language Disorders in Children.

Hearing Loss and Deafness.

Motor Speech Disorders and Dysphagia.

Aphasia in Adults.

Communication Disorders Resulting From Dementia.

Communication Disorders Resulting from Head and Neck Injuries.

Incidence and Prevalence of Communication Disorders.

History of the Perception and Treatment of People with Communication Disorders.

The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

Social Characteristics of Those with Communication Disorders.

Group Size, Power and Status.

Social Visibility and Cohesiveness.

Economic Disadvantage.

Social Inclusion Through Accommodation.

Social Perceptions and Stereotypes.

Literature, Media and People with Communication Disorders.

2. Stuttering and Cluttering.

Literature, Media and Personality Profiles.

Understanding Stuttering.

Definition of Stuttering.

The History of Stuttering.

Stuttering Behaviors.

Incidence and Prevalence of Stuttering.

Types of Fluency.

Normal Nonfluencies.

Confirmed Stuttering.

Developmental Stuttering.

Theories of Causes of Stuttering.

Psychological Theories of Stuttering.

Learning Theories of Stuttering.

Organic Theories of Stuttering.

Multiple Cause Theory of Stuttering.

Characteristics of Stuttering.

Stuttering and Singing.

Stuttering and Nonthreatening Audiences.

Stuttering, Speech Cues, and Self-Consciousness

Stuttering and Noise.

Stuttering and Delayed Auditory Feedback.

Stuttering and Other Variables.

Key Aspects of Stuttering.

What Is Heard.

What Is Seen.

What Is Felt.

Effects on Personality.

The Prevention of Stuttering in Children.

Strategies for Parents, Teachers, and Classmates.

Advice for Parents and Teachers.

Professional Treatment of Stuttering.

Types of Therapy.

Cure versus Control.

Treating Essential Aspects of Stuttering.

Treating Stuttering: What Is Heard.

Treating Stuttering: What Is Seen.

Treating Stuttering: What Is Felt.

Treating Stuttering: Effects on Personality.

Other Fluency Disorders.

Literature and Media Stereotypes.

3. The Voice and Its Disorders.

Literature, Media, and Personality Profiles.

The Human Resonating System.

Respiration and Voice.

The Biological Pump.

The Larynx.

The Pitch-Changing Mechanism.

Aerodynamic and Muscular Forces in Voice Production.

Voice Quality.

Causes of Differences in Voice Quality.

Descriptions of Voice Quality.

Breathy Quality.

Hoarse Quality.

Other Terms for Voice Quality.

Disorders of Resonance.

Cleft Lip and Palate.

The Cleft Palate Team.

Voice Disorders

Evaluation of Voice Disorders.

Vocal Cord Paralysis.

Causes of Vocal Cord Paralysis.

Treatment of Vocal Cord Paralysis.

Cancer and Other Diseases of the Larynx.

Alaryngeal Speech.

Psychogenic Voice Disorders.

Conversion Reactions.

Hysterical Aphonia.

Hysterical Dysphonia.

Treatment of Psychogenic Voice Disorders.

Disorders Related to Vocal Strain and Abuse.

Causative Factors.

Treatment of Disorders Related to Vocal Strain and Abuse.

Literature and Media Stereotypes.

4. Articulation and Phonological Disorders.

The Speech Articulators.

Phonetic Transcription.

Place and Manner of Production.


Dynamic Articulation.

Etiology of Articulation Disorders.

Deafness or Hearing Loss.

Structural Defects of the Articulators.

Motor Speech Disorders

Delayed Development.

Auditory Perceptual and Sensory-Motor Deficiencies.

Emotional Distress.

Dialect and Accent.

Evaluating Articulation and Phonology Disorders.

Articulation Testing.

Additional Diagnostic Information.

Treatment of Articulation Disorders.

Articulation Therapy for Hearing Loss and Deafness.

Articulation Therapy for Structural Defects of the Articulators.

Treatment of Phonological Disorders.

Articulation Therapy for Motor Speech Disorders.

Articulation Therapy for Auditory Perceptual and Sensory-Motor Deficiencies.

Other Articulation Therapies.

Literature and Media Stereotypes.

5. Language Development and Disorders.

Defining Language.

Linguistic Competence and Performance.

Cognitive, Linguistic, and Social-Communication Systems.


Assessing Language in Children.

Teachers, Language Delay and Disorders.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) .

Language Development.

Intelligence and Language Development.

Mental Deficiency.

Pervasive Developmental Disorders.


Environmental Deprivation.

Learning Disabilities.

Literature and Media Stereotypes.

6. Hearing Loss and Deafness.

The Study and Treatment of Hearing Disorders.

The Range of Human Hearing.

Hearing and Energy Transformation.

Acoustic Energy Stage.

Mechanical Energy Stage.

Hydraulic Energy Stage.

Neural Energy Stage.

Hearing and Speech Acoustics.

Types of Hearing Loss.

Conductive Hearing Loss.

Middle Ear Dysfunction and Conductive Hearing Loss.

Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

Central Auditory Processing Disorders.

Assessment of Hearing.

Otoscopic Examination.

Pure-Tone Audiometry.

Speech Audiometry.

Acoustic Impedance Audiometry.

Evoked Response Audiometry and Otoacoustic Emissions.

Aural Habilitation and Rehabilitation.

Medical and Surgical Treatment.

Literature and Media Stereotypes.

7. Motor Speech Disorders and Dysphagia.

The "Big Three" Neurogenic Communication Disorders.

Apraxia of Speech.

Automatic Speech.

Other Apraxias.

The Dysarthrias.

Spastic Dysarthria.

Flaccid Dysarthria.

Ataxic Dysarthria.

Hypokinetic Dysarthria.

Hyperkinetic Dysarthria.

Multiple and Mixed Dysarthrias.


The Swallowing Evaluation.

Dysphagia Therapy.

Literature and Media Stereotypes.

8. Aphasia in Adults.

Language and the Brain.

Etiology of Aphasia and Related Disorders.

The Syndrome of Aphasia.

Aphasia Is a Mulitmodality Disorder.




Gestural Problems.

Predominantly Expressive, Nonfluent Aphasia.

Predominantly Receptive, Fluent Aphasia.

Factors in Following Complex Verbal Instructions.

Loss of the Abstract Attitude.

Word Retrieval Behaviors: Rhyme or Reason.

Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon.

The Psychology of Aphasia.

The Five Major Psychological Concomitants of Aphasia.

Emotional Lability.

Catastrophic Reactions.


Organic Depression.

The Grief Responses.

Aphasia Rehabilitation.

Literature and Media Stereotypes.

9. Communication Disorders Resulting From Dementia.


Causes of Dementia.

Disruptive Behaviors.

Hallucinations and Delusions in Dementia.

Communication Disorders in Dementia.

Early Symptoms.

Middle Stages.

Late Stages.

Evaluating and Treating Communication Disorders in Patients with Dementia.

Literature and Media Stereotypes.

10. Communication Disorders Resulting From Head and Neck Injuries.

The Head-Injured Person.

The Mechanics of Traumatic Head and Neck Injuries.

Communication Disorders and Impaired Consciousness.


Communication Disorders and the Site of Traumatic Brain Injuries.

Executive Functions.

Disorientation and Traumatic Brain Injuries.

Memory Problems and Traumatic Brain Injury.

Three Components to Memory.




Memories, Libraries, and Tests.

Memory and Test-Taking.

Recognition and Recall.

Behavioral Disturbances.

Flat Affect.

Psychosis and Traumatic Brain Injury.

Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

Audiology and Traumatic Brain Injuries.

Principles of Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injuries.

Literature and Media Stereotypes.

11. Questions and Answers About the Profession.

Understanding the Profession.

Educational Preparation, Certification and Licensure.

Professional Practice.

The GRE.

Glossary of Terms.

Appendix A: Professional Issues and Informational Websites.

Appendix B: A Day at JFK.

Appendix C: Preponderance of Evidence.

Appendix D: Welcome to the Cyber Speech and Hearing Clinic.

Literature, Media and Personality: Home Pages, Suggested Readings, References, and Resources.

Academic References.

Additional Course Materials

What Every Student Should Know About Study Skills

ISBN-13: 978-0-321-44736-4

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