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Exploring Science and Mathematics in a Child's World, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Genevieve A. Davis, David J. Keller

Published by Pearson

Published Date: May 14, 2008

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Description

Exploring Science and Mathematics in a Child’s World provides a cohesive discussion of how to make learning science and mathematics both valuable and enjoyable for young children. Part I chapters are foundational and help students understand child development, interrelated mathematics and science processes, and Concept Exploration design. Part II activity chapters uniquely help students gain a solid understanding of scientific topics, while they learn how to implement activities with children using constructivist and inquiry-based methods.

Table of Contents

PART I

Chapter 1: A CHILD'S WORLD – How Young Children Learn

INTRODUCTION

Implications for Adults

A Child's World of Cause and Effect

Creating Environments that Support Development

How Emergence of Language Supports Mathematics and Science Learning

Emergence of Symbolic Language

Mathematics Development

    Pattern – the underlying theme of all mathematic and science

    Sequence – organization and order of succession of events and experiences

    Seriation – organizing or ordering things in a logical way

    Spatial Relationships

    Object Permanence

    Sorting – putting together items with like attributes

    Comparing – noting similarities and differences between items or events

    Classifying

     One-to-One Correspondence

Thinking Skills

    Observing

     Imagining

    Problem Solving       

    Collecting and Organizing Data

National Standards in Mathematics and Science
Review and Discussion Questions

 

CHAPTER 2: NURTURING CHILD DEVELOPMENT – Environments that Promote Learning

INTRODUCTION

Creating a Culture of Caring: The Teacher’s Role

    Valuing Children and Childhood

    Safety within a Caring Culture

    Play

    Providing Emotional Security

    Being Responsive

   Constructing Meaning through Misconceptions

    Building a Sense of Community

Families and Schools Together

Children’s Questions and Curiosities

     Experiencing Newness

     Encouraging Wonder and Discovery

     Teachers’ Roles in Creating a Curious Classroom

Wiggle Room and Opportunities for Movement

    Creating an Environment

    Cooperative Culture for Independent Thinking

Concept Explorations - Long term projects

Documenting Experiences

    Documenting through Concept Exploration
Review and Discussion Questions

 

CHAPTER 3:  THE PROCESS OF PROBLEM SOLVING FOR CHILDREN

INTRODUCTION

The Nature of Problem Solving

Problem-Solving Styles

     Active Versus Reflective Styles

How Problem-Solving Styles Affect Classroom Practices and Student Experiences   

    Teacher Tendencies

     Student Tendencies

Teacher and Student Interactions

     Random Abstract Teachers and Concrete Sequential Students

     Concrete Sequential Teachers and Random Abstract Students

Classroom Experiences with Problem Solving

Authentic Learning – Problem Solving in the Real World

Design of Classroom Activities that Encourage Problem Solving

Teaching at Each of the Four Stages of Problem Solving

Collecting and Organizing Data

Review and Discussion Questions


CHAPTER 4:  MEASUREMENT ~ A WAY TO CAPTURE OBSERVATIONS IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

Using Senses to Experience the World

How Things Change and Grow

     Seeking Inventive Ways to Capture Change and Growth

Formal Approaches and Techniques of Measurement

    National Standards Concerning Measurement

    Instructional Psychology for Teaching Measurement

    Some Ideas for Teaching Children to Measure

Ways to Help Children Communicate and Share Mathematical Ideas

    Group Sharing and Discussion Format

    Journaling   

    Making a Book   

    Modeling Appropriate Mathematical and Scientific Language

    Relating Rational Counting of Units to the Process of Measurement
    Providing Discrete Items to Count when Measuring

    Developing Referents for Measurement

    Temperature

Review and Discussion Questions

Resources for Teachers 

 

CHAPTER 5:  ORGANIZING DATA IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS

INTRODUCTION

Usefulness of Charts and Graphs

Types of Charts

    Webs

    Venn Diagrams

Types of Graphs

     People Graphs

     Concrete Graphs

     Pictographs

     Bar Graphs

     Histograms

     Circle Graphs

     Line Graphs

Using Maps to Organize Data

Review and Discussion Questions

Resources for Teachers

 

CHAPTER 6:  CRITERIA FOR DEVELOPING CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS

INTRODUCTION

Provides Solid Science and Mathematics Content

     Solid Science Content

     Solid Mathematics Content

Considers the Appropriate Level of Child Development

Truly Integrates Mathematics and Science

Is Guided by the Child's World

Incorporates Children's Literature

Actively Involves Children through Common Basic Materials

Is Founded on a Safe Environment

Concept Exploration Design

    Concept Exploration Introduction

    Concept Exploration Activities for your Classroom

    Conceptual Framework for Science and Mathematics

Children’s Explorations

National Science Education Standards

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics National Standards

     The Pre-K – 2 Content Standards

     The Pre-K – 2 Process Standards

Resources

     Resource Books

     Storybooks

     Picture Books

     Multicultural Books

     Writing Your Own Book

Review and Discussion Questions

 

PART II   MATH/SCIENCE CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS

CHAPTER 7:  ASTRONOMY AND SPACE SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

    Newton's Three Laws of Motion and Basic Rocketry

    Star Formation

    Telescopes and Children

Mathematics: Addressing the NCTM Standards through Concept Explorations

    Number and Operation

    Algebra and Patterns

    Geometry

     Measurement

     Data Analysis

Observing with All the Senses

     Sight

     Sound

Safety

Concept Explorations on Astronomy and Space Science for Your Classroom

    1.  Solar System Models

    2. Solar Dances

    3. Golf Ball Lunology

    4.  Moon Watching

    5.  Binocular Beauties

    6.  Observing the Sun

    7.  Collecting Micro-Meteorites

    8.  Balloon Rockets

    9.  Film Canister Rockets

    10.  Water Rockets

    11.  Air Rockets

    12.  Chemical Rockets

    13.  How High Did It Go?

    Activities in Other Exploration That Relate to Astronomy and Space Science

Resources for Teachers

     Books

     Article

     Websites

    Children's Books on Astronomy and Space Science

 

CHAPTER 8:  BIRDS

INTRODUCTION

Science Concepts for Teachers

    Bird Basics   

    Feather Structure and Types

    Migratory Patterns

MATHEMATICS:  ADDRESSING THE NCTM STANDARDS THROUGH CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS

    Number Operation

    Algebra and Patterns

    Geometry

    Measurement

    Data Analysis with Number and Operation

Observing with All the Senses

     Sight

     Touch

     Sound

SAFETY

CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS ON BIRDS FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1.  Adopt a Bird

    2.  Feed the Birds

    3.  Chart the Birds

    4.  Food Preferences of Birds

    5.  Constructing Bird Hotels

    6.  What's A Bird Have to Say?

    7.  Construction Time: Can You Build as Well as a Bird?

    8.  Fright Distance

    9.  How Do Birds Interact with Each Other and with Other Animals

    10.  How High Do Birds Fly?

    11.  Where Do Birds Go for the Winter?

    12.  Feathers of Fine Friends

    13.  Egg Incubators

    14.  How Much Does a Bird Weigh?

    15.  Birds in Different Cultures

    Activities in Other Explorations that Relate to Birds

Resources for Teachers

     Books

    Journal   

    Computer Disk

     Web Sites

    Children's Books on Birds

 

CHAPTER 9:  CLOUDS

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

    What Causes Clouds

    Types of Clouds

    Mathematics: Addressing the NCTM Standards Through Learning Experiences

    Algebra

    Geometry

    Measurement

    Data Analysis

OBSERVING WITH ALL THE SENSES

     Sight

     Sound

SAFETY

CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS ON CLOUDS FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1.  Head in the Clouds

    2.  Capture the Clouds

    3.  Catch Your Breath

    4.  How High Is a Cloud?

    5.  What to Do with the Weather

    6.  Cloudy Sky Stories

    7.  I've Looked at Clouds from Both Sides Now

    8.  Which Way are You Going?

    9.  As the Saying Goes

    Activities in Other Explorations that Relate to Clouds

Resources for Teachers

     Books

     Websites

    Children's Books on Clouds

 

CHAPTER 10:  INSECTS

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

    Insect Basics

    Metamorphosis

MATHEMATICS: ADDRESSING THE NCTM STANDARDS THROUGH LEARNING EXPERIENCES

    Number and Operation

    Algebra, Patterns, and Sorting

    Geometry

    Measurement

    Data Analysis

OBSERVING WITH ALL THE SENSES

     Sight

     Sound

     Touch

     Smell and Taste

SAFETY

CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS ON INSECTS FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1.  Let's Build an Insect Zoo

    2.  Create an Insect and Design Its Habitat.

    3.  Bedtime Bonanza

    4.  Plant Hotels

    5.  My Life Story by Billy Beetle

    6.  Insect Galls

    7.  Butterfly Detectives

    8.  Interviewing Insects

    9.  Ant Investigations

    10.  Insect Picnic

    11.  Air Explorations

    12.  Insect Songs

    13.  Underground Activities

    14.  Chromo Pubescents

    Activities in Other Explorations that Relate to Insects

Resources for Teachers

     Books

    Articles

     Web Sites

     Children’s Books on Insects

   

CHAPTER 11:  LEAVES

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

    The Value of Leaves

    Photosynthesis

    Compost

MATHEMATICS:  ADDRESSING THE NCTM STANDARDS THROUGH CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS

    Number and Operation and Algebra

     Geometry

     Measurement

     Data Analysis

    Patterns and Sequencing

OBSERVING WITH ALL THE SENSES

     Sight

     Sound

     Touch

     Smell

SAFETY

CONCEPT EXPLORATION ON LEAVES FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1.  Falling Leaves

    2.  Quiet Leaves
    3.  Leafy Lunch

    4.  Scratch and Sniff

    5.  Evergreens Also Have Leaves

    6.  Insects Like Leaves Too!

    7.  A Tribute to Transpiration

    8.  Leaves - Where Do They All Go?

    9.  Leaves - Alike But Different

    10. A Rainbow Connection of Leaves

    11.  Leaves' Lasting Impressions

    12.  From a Leaf's Perspective

    Activities in Other Exploration that Relate to Leaves

Resources for Teachers

     Books

     Web Sites

    Children's Books on Leaves

 

CHAPTER 12:  MATH/SCIENCE CONCEPT EXPLORATION: LIGHT AND COLOR

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

    What Is Light and How Is It Produced?

    Polarization

    Light’s Enigma: The Duality of Wave and Particle Theories of Light

    Visible Light

    The Speed of Light

    The Normal Sighted Eye

    Primary Colors

    Absorption and Reflection of Light

    Refraction

    What Are Lasers and How Do They Work?

MATHEMATICS:  ADDRESSING THE NCTM STANDARDS THROUGH LEARNING EXPERIENCES

    Number and Operation

    Algebra

     Geometry

     Measurement

    Data Analysis

OBSERVING WITH ALL THE SENSES

     Sight

     Sound

SAFETY

CONCEPTS EXPLORATONS ON LIGHT AND COLOR FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1. Pinhole Projects

    2. Mirrors

    3. Seeing Yourself as Others See You

    4. The Candle Burning Under Water

    5. Up Periscope

    6. Doubling Your Fish

    7. Reflections of a Laser Pointer

    8. Magic Marker Magic

    9. Combining Colors

    10. Color Television Basic Color

    11. Paper Chromatography

    12. Technicolor World

    13. Grow Plants with a Green Filter

    14. Visualizing Sound with Light

    Activities in Other Explorations that Relate to Light and Color

Resources for Teachers

     Books

     Web Sites

     Children’s Books  

 

CHAPTER 13:  ROCKS

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

    Don't Take All Rocks for Granite- What are Minerals and Rocks?

    The Rock Cycle

MATHEMATICS:  ADDRESSING THE NCTM STANDARDS THROUGH CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS

    Number and Operation

    Algebra

     Geometry

     Measurement

     Data Analysis

OBSERVING WITH ALL THE SENSES

     Sight

     Touch

     Sound

SAFETY

CONCEPTS EXPLORATONS ON ROCKS FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1.  Rocks Waiting to Be Found

    2.  Swap Rocks with Students in Other Schools

    3.  My Life Story by Rocky

    4.  Building Stones

    5.  Rainbow Rocks

    6.  Stream Sorting

    7.  Statues, Jewels, and Trinkets

    8.  Rocks - Pieces and Parts

    9.  Fossils

    10.  Graveyard Geology

    Activities in Other Explorations That Relate to Rocks

Resources for Teachers

     Books

     Web Sites

    Children's Books on Rocks

 

CHAPTER 14:  SEEDS

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

    The Nature of Seeds

    Parts of a Seed

    Seed Germination

    Seed Transportation

MATHEMATICS:  ADDRESSING THE NCTM STANDARDS THROUGH CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS

    Number and Operation

    Algebra and Patterns

     Geometry

     Measurement

     Data Analysis

OBSERVING WITH ALL THE SENSES

     Sight

     Touch

     Sound

     Taste

     Smell

SAFETY

CONCEPTS EXPLORATONS ON SEEDS FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1. Eating Seeds is Fun!

    2. What Foods Do We Eat?

    3. What Do Our Animal Neighbors Eat?

    4. Seeds Growing in Nature

    5. The Germination Race

    6. Trees Grow from Seeds

    7. Flower Seeds to Flower Seeds

    8. Pop corn, Indian Corn, Sweet Corn

    9. Let’s be Gentle!

    10. All Quiet on the Stage!

    11. Lights, Camera, Action

    12. Story Time

    13. Seed Mosaics

    Activities in Other Exploration that Relate to Seeds

Resources for Teachers

    Books   

    Article

     Web Sites

     Children’s Books on Seeds

 

CHAPTER 15:  SUN AND SHADOWS

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

    The Sun is a Nuclear Furnace

    The Earth's Revolution and Rotation Determine the Earth's Seasons

    The Sun in Our Sky

    Observing the Daily and Annual Motion of the Sun in Our Sky

MATHEMATICS:  ADDRESSING THE NCTM STANDARDS THROUGH CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS

    Number and Operation

    Algebra

     Geometry

     Measurement

     Data Analysis

OBSERVING WITH ALL THE SENSES

     Sight

     Touch

SAFETY

CONCEPTS EXPLORATONS ON SUN AND SHADOWS FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1. Here Comes the Sun

    2. I Saw the Sun Move

    3. Me and My Shadow

    4. Silhouettes

    5. Exploring the Shapes and Sizes of Shadows

    6. Photo Opportunities

    7. Shadow Game

    8. The Warmth of the Sun

    9. The Sun Is a Spotlight

    10. Mythology and the Sun

    Activities in Other Exploration that Relate to Sun and Shadows

Resources for Teachers

     Books

    Article

     Web Sites

     Children’s Books on Sun and Shadows

 

CHAPTER 16:  TOYS AND TOOLS

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

Simple Machines

Mechanical Advantage

Inertia

Center of Gravity

Friction

Mass and Weight

MATHEMATICS:  ADDRESSING THE NCTM STANDARDS THROUGH CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS

    Number and Operation

    Algebra

     Geometry

     Measurement

     Data Analysis and Probability

OBSERVING WITH ALL THE SENSES

     Sight

     Touch

     Sound

SAFETY

CONCEPTS EXPLORATONS ON TOYS AND TOOLS FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1. Toy Festival

    2. How Many Simple Machines Can You Find?

    3. Rulers and Pencils

    4. Strings and Things

    5. The Toy Factory

    6. Toys of Different Countries

    7. The Human Machine

    8. Invention Convention

    9. The Ball Olympics

    Activities in Other Exploration that Relate to Toys and Tools

Resources for Teachers

     Books

     Article

    Web Sites

    Children’s Books on Toys and Tools

 

CHAPTER 17:  WATER

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

    Water Cycle

    A Detailed Water Cycle

    The Water Planet

    The Curious Nature of Water

MATHEMATICS:  ADDRESSING THE NCTM STANDARDS THROUGH CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS

    Number and Operation

    Algebra, Patterns, and Sorting

     Geometry

     Measurement

     Data Analysis

OBSERVING WITH ALL THE SENSES

     Sight

     Touch

     Sound

     Taste and Smell

SAFETY

CONCEPTS EXPLORATONS ON WATER FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1. Splish, Splash

    2. Water, Water, Everywhere!

    3. How Much Water Do We Use in a day?

    4. Don’t Drown Lincoln

    5. Little Water – Big Water

    6. Water Resources and Water Treatment Plants

    7. The Classroom River

    8. Drip, Drop, Tick, Tock

    9. Water Words

    10. Water’s Work

    11. Sequencing Water Processes

    12. I Scream! You Scream! We all Scream for Ice Cream!

    Activities in Other Exploration that Relate to Water

Resources for Teachers

     Books

     Journal

     Web Sites

     Children’s Books on Water

    Books About Rain

    Books About Snow

 

CHAPTER 18:  WIND

INTRODUCTION

SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS

    What Is Wind?

    Wind Chill

MATHEMATICS:  ADDRESSING THE NCTM STANDARDS THROUGH CONCEPT EXPLORATIONS

     Geometry

     Measurement

     Data Analysis

OBSERVING WITH ALL THE SENSES

     Sight

     Sound    

    Touch

    Smell and Taste

SAFETY

CONCEPTS EXPLORATONS ON WIND FOR YOUR CLASSROOM

    1. See the Wind

    2. Capture the Wind

    3. Let’s Go Fly a Kite

    4. Construct a Maximum Wind Gust Measuring Device

    5. Watching the Leaves Blow

    6. Animals Using the Wind

    7. Using the Wind to Do Work

    8. Water Evaporation

    9. Micro and Macro

    Activities in Other Explorations That Relate to Wind

Resources for Teachers

     Books

     Websites 

     Children’s Books on Wind



APPENDIX: NCTM PROCESS STANDARDS THROUGH GRADE 12
REFERENCES

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Exploring Science and Mathematics in a Child's World, CourseSmart eTextbook
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