# Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers with Microfluidics and CFD, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition

Published Date: Sep 26, 2005

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## Description

Designed for undergraduate and first-year courses in Fluid Mechanics, this is a revision of the best selling fluid mechanics book for chemical engineers.  It is a comprehensive text that offers an understanding of fluid mechanics essential for the chemical engineer. Thorough and clearly written, this book gives the undergraduate and first-year graduate student a complete overview of this essential topic by providing numerous real-world examples and problems of increasing detail and complexity. It also covers all the material necessary to pass the fluid mechanics portion of the Professional Engineer's exam.

Preface.

I. MACROSCOPIC FLUID MECHANICS.

1. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.

1.1 Fluid Mechanics in Chemical Engineering

1.2 General Concepts of a Fluid

1.3 Stresses, Pressure, Velocity, and the Basic Laws

1.4 Physical Properties - Density, Viscosity, and Surface Tension

1.5 Units and Systems of Units

Example 1.1 - Units Conversion

Example 1.2 - Mass of Air in a Room

1.6 Hydrostatics

Example 1.3 - Pressure in an Oil Storage Tank

Example 1.4 - Multiple Fluid Hydrostatics

Example 1.5 - Pressure Variations in a Gas

Example 1.6 - Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface

Example 1.7 - Application of Archimedes?f Law

1.7 Pressure Change Caused by Rotation

Example 1.8 - Overflow from a Spinning Container

Problems for Chapter 1

2. Mass, Energy, and Momentum Balances.

2.1 General Conservation Laws

2.2 Mass Balances

Example 2.1 - Mass Balance for Tank Evacuation

2.3 Energy Balances

Example 2.2 - Pumping n-Pentane

2.4 Bernoulli’s Equation

2.5 Applications of Bernoulli?fs Equation

Example 2.3 - Tank Filling

2.6 Momentum Balances

Example 2.4 - Impinging Jet of Water

Example 2.5 - Velocity of Wave on Water

Example 2.6 - Flow Measurement by a Rotameter

2.7 Pressure, Velocity, and Flow Rate Measurement

Problems for Chapter

3. Fluid Friction in Pipes.

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Laminar Flow

Example 3.1 - Polymer Flow in a Pipeline

3.3 Models for Shear Stress

3.4 Piping and Pumping Problems

Specified Flow Rate and Diameter

Specified Diameter and Pressure Drop

Specified Flow Rate and Pressure Drop

3.5 Flow in Noncircular Ducts

Example 3.6 - Flow in an Irrigation Ditch

3.6 Compressible Gas Flow in Pipelines

3.7 Compressible Flow in Nozzles

3.8 Complex Piping Systems

Example 3.7 - Solution of a Piping/Pumping Problem

Problems for Chapter 3

4. Flow in Chemical Engineering Equipment.

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Pumps and Compressors

Example 4.1 - Pumps in Series and Parallel

4.3 Drag Force on Solid Particles in Fluids

Example 4.2 - Manufacture of Lead Shot

4.4 Flow Through Packed Beds

Example 4.3 - Pressure Drop in a Packed-Bed Reactor

4.5 Filtration

4.6 Fluidization

4.7 Dynamics of a Bubble-Cap Distillation Column

4.8 Cyclone Separators

4.9 Sedimentation

4.10 Dimensional Analysis

Example 4.4 - Thickness of the Laminar Sublayer

Problems for Chapter 4

II. MICROSCOPIC FLUID MECHANICS.

5. Differential Equations of Fluid Mechanics.

5.1 Introduction to Vector Analysis

5.2 Vector Operations

Example 5.1 - The Gradient of a Scalar

Example 5.2 - The Divergence of a Vector

Example 5.3 - An Alternative to the Differential Element

Example 5.4 - The Curl of a Vector

Example 5.5 - The Laplacian of a Scalar

5.3 Other Coordinate Systems

5.4 The Convective Derivative

5.5 Differential Mass Balance

Example 5.6 - Physical Interpretation of the Net Rate of Mass Outflow

Example 5.7 - Alternative Derivation of the Continuity Equation

5.6 Differential Momentum Balances

5.7 Newtonian Stress Components in Cartesian Coordinates

Example 5.8 - Constant-Viscosity Momentum Balances in Terms of Velocity Gradients

Example 5.9 - Vector Form of Variable-Viscosity Momentum Balance

Problems for Chapter 5

6. Solution of Viscous-Flow Problems.

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Solution of the Equations of Motion in Rectangular Coordinates

Example 6.1 - Flow Between Parallel Plates

6.3 Alternative Solution Using a Shell Balance

Example 6.2 - Shell Balance for Flow Between Parallel Plates

Example 6.3 - Film Flow on a Moving Substrate

Example 6.4 - Transient Viscous Diffusion of Momentum (FEMLAB)

6.4 Poiseuille and Couette Flows in Polymer Processing

Example 6.5 - The Single-Screw Extruder

Example 6.6 - Flow Patterns in a Screw Extruder (FEMLAB)

Example 6.7 - Flow Through an Annular Die

Example 6.8 - Spinning a Polymeric Fiber

6.6 Solution of the Equations of Motion in Spherical Coordinates

Example 6.9 - Analysis of a Cone-and-Plate Rheometer

Problems for Chapter 6

7. Laplace’s Equation, Irrotational and Porous-Media Flows.

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Rotational and Irrotational Flows

Example 7.1 - Forced and Free Vortices

7.4 Physical Interpretation of the Stream Function

7.5 Examples of Planar Irrotational Flow

Example 7.2 - Stagnation Flow

Example 7.3 - Combination of a Uniform Stream and a Line Sink (C)

Example 7.4 - Flow Patterns in a Lake (FEMLAB)

7.6 Axially Symmetric Irrotational Flow

7.7 Uniform Streams and Point Sources

7.8 Doublets and Flow Past a Sphere

7.9 Single-Phase Flow in a Porous Medium

Example 7.5 - Underground Flow of Water

7.10 Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media

7.11 Wave Motion in Deep Water

Problems for Chapter 7

8. Boundary-Layer Aand Other Nearly Unidirectional Flows.

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Simplified Treatment of Laminar Flow Past a Flat Plate

Example 8.1 - Flow in an Air Intake

8.3 Simplification of the Equations of Motion

8.4 Blasius Solution for Boundary-Layer Flow

8.5 Turbulent Boundary Layers

Example 8.2 - Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers Compared

8.6 Dimensional Analysis of the Boundary-Layer Problem

8.7 Boundary-Layer Separation

Example 8.3 - Boundary-Layer Flow Between Parallel Plates (FEMLAB Library)

Example 8.4 - Entrance Region for Laminar Flow Between Flat Plates

8.8 The Lubrication Approximation

Example 8.5 - Flow in a Lubricated Bearing (FEMLAB)

8.9 Polymer Processing by Calendering

Example 8.6 - Pressure Distribution in a Calendered Sheet

8.10 Thin Films and Surface Tension

Problems for Chapter 8

9. Turbulent Flow.

9.1 Introduction

Example 9.1 - Numerical Illustration of a Reynolds Stress Term

9.2 Physical Interpretation of the Reynolds Stresse

9.3 Mixing-Length Theory

9.4 Determination of Eddy Kinematic Viscosity and Mixing Length

9.5 Velocity Profiles Based on Mixing Length Theory 486

Example 9.2 - Investigation of the von K?Larm?Lan Hypothesis

9.6 The Universal Velocity Profile for Smooth Pipes

9.7 Friction Factor in Terms of Reynolds Number for Smooth Pipes

Example 9.3 - Expression for the Mean Velocity

9.8 Thickness of the Laminar Sublayer

9.9 Velocity Profiles and Friction Factor for Rough Pipe

9.10 Blasius-Type Law and the Power-Law Velocity Profile

9.11 A Correlation for the Reynolds Stresses

9.12 Computation of Turbulence by the k/? Method

Example 9.4 - Flow Through an Orifice Plate (FEMLAB)

Example 9.5 - Turbulent Jet Flow (FEMLAB)

9.13 Analogies Between Momentum and Heat Transfer

Example 9.6 - Evaluation of the Momentum/Heat-Transfer Analogies

9.14 Turbulent Jets

Problems for Chapter 9

10. Bubble Motion, Two-Phase Flow, and Fluidization.

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Rise of Bubbles in Unconfined Liquids

Example 10.1 - Rise Velocity of Single Bubbles

10.3 Pressure Drop and Void Fraction in Horizontal Pipes

Example 10.2 - Two-Phase Flow in a Horizontal Pipe

10.4 Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Pipes

Example 10.3 - Limits of Bubble Flow

Example 10.4 - Performance of a Gas-Lift Pump

Example 10.5 - Two-Phase Flow in a Vertical Pipe

10.5 Flooding

10.6 Introduction to Fluidization

10.7 Bubble Mechanics

10.8 Bubbles in Aggregatively Fluidized Beds

Example 10.6 - Fluidized Bed with Reaction (C)

Problems for Chapter 10

11. Non-Newtonian Fluids.

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Classification of Non-Newtonian Fluids

11.3 Constitutive Equations for Inelastic Viscous Fluids

Example 11.1 - Pipe Flow of a Power-Law Fluid

Example 11.2 - Pipe Flow of a Bingham Plastic

Example 11.3 - Non-Newtonian Flow in a Die (FEMLAB Library)

11.4 Constitutive Equations for Viscoelastic Fluids

11.5 Response to Oscillatory Shear

11.6 Characterization of the Rheological Properties of Fluids

Example 11.4 - Proof of the Rabinowitsch Equation

Example 11.5 - Working Equation for a Coaxial Cylinder Rheometer: Newtonian Fluid

Problems for Chapter 11

12. Microfluidics and Electrokinetic Flow Effects.

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Physics of Microscale Fluid Mechanics

12.3 Pressure-driven Flow Through Microscale Tubes

Example 12.1 - Calculation of Reynolds Numbers

12.4 Mixing, Transport, and Dispersion

12.5 Species, Energy, and Charge Transport

12.6 The Electrical Double Layer and Electrokinetic Phenomena

Example 12.2 - Relative Magnitudes of Electroosmotic and Pressure-driven Flow

Example 12.3 - Electroosmotic Flow Around a Particle

Example 12.4 - Electroosmosis in a Microchannel (FEMLAB)

Example 12.5 - Electroosmotic Switching in a Branched Microchannel (FEMLAB)

12.7 Measuring the Zeta Potential

Example 12.6 - Magnitude of Typical Streaming Potentials

12.8 Electroviscosity

12.9 Particle and Macromolecule Motion in Microfluidic Channels

Example 12.7 - Gravitational and Magnetic Settling of Assay Beads

Problems for Chapter 12

13. An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics and Flowlab.

13.1 Introduction and Motivation

13.2 Numerical Methods

13.3 Learning CFD by Using FlowLab

13.4 Practical CFD Examples

Example 13.1 - Developing Flow in a Pipe Entrance Region (FlowLab)

Example 13.2 - Pipe Flow Through a Sudden Expansion (FlowLab)

Example 13.3 - A Two-Dimensional Mixing Junction (FlowLab)

Example 13.4 - Flow Over a Cylinder (FlowLab)

References for Chapter 13

14. Femlab for Solving Fluid Mechanics Problems.

14.1 Introduction to FEMLAB

14.2 How to Run FEMLAB

Example 14.1 - Flow in a Porous Medium with an Obstruction (FEMLAB)

14.3 Draw Mode

14.4 Solution and Related Modes

14.5 Fluid Mechanics Problems Solvable by FEMLAB

Problems for Chapter 14

Appendix A: Useful Mathematical Relationships.

Appendix B: Answers to the True/False Assertions.

Appendix C: Some Vector and Tensor Operations.

Index.

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