For courses in Introduction to Criminal Justice or Research Methods.
This book is more than a collection of original published articles–it is a summary of studies that have shaped the criminal justice system. Carefully chosen based on their impact on the discipline or their capacity to spark controversy, the studies offer a historical look into the field of policing, courts and corrections. Each summary includes: a complete citation; background information; a description of methodology; a summary of results; an evaluation of the research; and suggestions for further reading. Throughout the book, students are shown a variety of research designs and evidence of research influencing the operation of the criminal justice system.
Table of Contents
PART I POLICE
1. POLICE BEHAVIOR
ARE POLICE OFFICERS DIFFERENT FROM THE REST OF US?
Skolnick, J. (1966) Justice Without Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
WHY IS THERE DIFFERENCES IN POLICE BEHAVIOR ACROSS COMMUNITIES?
Wilson, J. (1968) Varieties of Police Behavior: The Management of Law and Order in Eight Communities. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
POLICE OFFICER SOCIALIZATION
WHY ARE POLICE OFFICERS DIFFERENT FROM THE REST OF US?
Van Maanen, J. (1973) “Observations on the Making of Policemen.” Human Organization 33: 407-418.
2. POLICE DISCRETION
POLICE OFFICERS’ USE OF DISCRETION
WHAT INFLUENCES POLICE DECISION-MAKING
Piliavin, I. and S. Briar (1964) “Police Encounters with Juveniles.” American Journal of Sociology 70: 206-214.
THE MINNEAPOLIS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE EXPERIMENT
DOES ARREST DETER CRIME?
Sherman, L. and R. Berk (1984) “The Specific Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault.” American Sociological Review 49: 261-272.
3. POLICE OPERATIONS
THE KANSAS CITY PREVENTIVE PATROL EXPERIMENT
CAN THE POLICE PREVENT CRIME AND MAKE US FEEL SAFE?
Kelling, G., T. Pate, D. Dieckman, and C. Brown (1974) The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Summary Report. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
POLICE RESPONSE TIME
HOW IMPORTANT IS IT FOR THE POLICE TO RESPOND QUICKLY WHEN WE CALL?
Pate, T., A. Ferrara, R. Bowers, and J. Lorence (1976) Police Response Time: Its Determinants and Effects. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
WHICH IS BETTER: ONE- OR TWO-OFFICER PATROL UNITS?
Boydstun, J., M. Sherry, and N. Moelter (1977) Patrol Staffing in San Diego: One-or Two-Officer Units. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
THE NEWARK FOOT PATROL EXPERIMENT
SHOULD THE POLICE PATROL IN CARS OR ON FOOT?
Police Foundation (1981) The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
THE RAND STUDY OF INVESTIGATION
DO DETECTIVES REALLY SOLVE CRIMES?
Greenwood, P. and J. Petersilia (1975) The Criminal Investigation Process. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
4. THE POLICE ROLE
CAN THE POLICE FIX THE UNDERLYING PROBLEMS RESPONSIBLE FOR CRIME?
Goldstein, H. (1979) “Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach.” Crime and Delinquency 24: 236-258.
CAN A BROKEN WINDOW LEAD TO CRIME?
Wilson, J. and G. Kelling (1982) “Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety.” The Atlantic Monthly March: 29-38.
5. POLICE USE OF DEADLY FORCE
WHAT EXPLAINS THE VARIATION IN POLICE SHOOTINGS ACROSS DEPARTMENTS?
Milton, C., J. Halleck, J. Lardner, and G. Abrecht (1977) Police Use of Deadly Force. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
6. FEMALE POLICE OFFICERS
DO POLICEWOMEN PERFORM AS WELL AS POLICEMEN?
Bloch, P. and D. Anderson (1974) Policewomen on Patrol. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
PART II COURTS
1. PRE-CONVICTION DISPOSITIONS
BARRIERS TO PRE-TRIAL RELEASE
ARE SUSPECTS PUNISHED BEFORE GUILT IS DETERMINED?
Foote, C. (1954) “Compelling Appearance in Court: Administration of Bail in Philadelphia.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 102: 1031-1079.
PROSECUTORS’ USE OF DISCRETION IN DECISION-MAKING
DO PROSECUTORS CONSIDER EXTRA-LEGAL FACTORS IN THEIR DECISIONS?
Albonetti, C. (1987) “Prosecutorial Discretion: The Effects of Uncertainty.” Law and Society Review 21: 291-313.
2. THE GUILTY PLEA PROCESS
“GOING RATE” SENTENCES FOR DEFENDANTS WHO PLEAD GUILTY
How is the penal code used by attorneys in case processing?
Sudnow, D. (1965) “Normal Crimes: Sociological Features of the Penal Code in a Public Defender Office.” Social Problems 12: 255-276.
The Defense Attorney’s Role in Plea Bargaining
ARE DEFENDANTS PRESSURED BY THEIR OWN ATTORNEYS TO PLEAD GUILTY?
Alschuler, A. (1975) “The Defense Attorney’s Role in Plea Bargaining.” The Yale Law Journal 84: 1179-1314.
Organizational DIFFERENCES IN CASE PROCESSING ACROSS COURTS
hOW DOES COURT “CULTURE” INFLUENCE case processing?
Eisenstein, J. and H. Jacob (1977) Felony Justice: An Organizational Analysis of Criminal Courts. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
PROCEDURAL INJUSTICES and due process violations in court
WHAT INFLUENCES Defendants’ CYNICISM TOWARD THE LEGAL PROCESS?
Casper, J. (1972) American Criminal Justice: The Defendant’s Perspective.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
3. THE JURY TRIAL
WHY DO juries and judges SOMETIMES DISAGREE?
Kalven Jr., H. and H. Zeisel (1966) The American Jury. Boston: Little, Brown & Company (shortly thereafter published by University of Chicago Press).
the INSANITY Defense
ARE jurors ABLE to understand different legal rules for establishing a defendant’s criminal responsibility?
Simon, R. (1967) The Jury and the Defense of Insanity. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
JUDICIAL DISCRETION IN Sentencing DECISIONS
Do judges discriminate against individuals OF lower socio-economic status?
Hagan, J. (1974) “Extra-legal Attributes and Criminal Sentencing: An Assessment of a Sociological Viewpoint.” Law and Society Review 8: 357-383.
JUDGES’ ASSESSMENTS OF AN OFFENDER’S RISK FOR FUTURE CRIMINALITY
ARE SENTENCES AFFECTED BY STEREOTYPES OF “DANGEROUS OFFENDERS”?
Steffensmeier, D., J. Ulmer, and J. Kramer (1998) “The Interaction of Race, Gender, and Age in Criminal Sentencing: The Punishment Cost of Being Young, Black, and Male.” Criminology 36: 763-797.
5. STRUCTURING SENTENCING DECISIONS
CAN A SENTENCING SCHEME BE DEVELOPED TO REDUCE INEQUITES IN PRISON SENTENCES?
Wilkins, L., J. Kress, D. Gottfredson, J. Calpin, and A. Gelman
(1978) Sentencing Guidelines: Structuring Judicial Discretion. Washington, DC: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MANDATORY SENTENCING GUIDELINES FOR REDUCING JUDICIAL SENTENCING DISCRETION
WHAT IS THE EVIDENCE THAT GUIDELINES ACTUALLY "WORK" TO REDUCE SENTENCING DISPARITIES?
Moore, C. and T. Miethe (1986) “Regulated and Unregulated Sentencing Decisions: An Analysis of First-year Practices Under Minnesota’s Felony Sentencing Guidelines.” Law and Society Review 20: 253-277.
PART III CORRECTIONS
1. CORRECTIONAL GOALS
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CORRECTIONAL TREATMENT
CAN CRIMINALS BE REHABILITATED?
Martinson, R. (1974) “What Works? Questions and Answers About Prison Reform.” The Public Interest 35: 22-54.
DOES THE DEATH PENALTY DETER MURDER?
Ehrlich, I. (1975) “The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life and Death.” The American Economic Review 65: 397-417.
CAN CRIME BE REDUCED WITHOUT INCREASING PRISON POPULATIONS?
Greenwood, P. with A. Abrahamse (1982) Selective Incapacitation. Santa Monica: Rand.
DOES INCARCERATION SAVE MONEY?
Zedlewski, E. (1987) Making Confinement Decisions. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
2. COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
IS IT SAFE TO PUT FELONS ON PROBATION?
Petersilia, J., S. Turner, J. Kahan, and J. Peterson (1985) Granting Felons Probation: Public Risks and Alternatives. California: Rand Corporation.
IS IT POSSIBLE TO PREDICT WHO WILL SUCCEED OR FAIL ON PAROLE?
Burgess, E. (1928) “Factors Determining Success or Failure on Parole.” In A. Bruce, E. Burgess, and A. Harno The Workings of the Indeterminate-Sentence Law and
the Parole System in Illinois (pp. 205-249). Springfield: Illinois Board of Parole.
3. INMATE SUBCULTURES
INMATE SOCIAL NETWORKS
HOW DO INMATES BECOME SOCIALIZED INTO A PRISON CULTURE?
Clemmer, D. (1940) The Prison Community. Boston: Christopher Publishing Company.
THE “PAINS OF IMPRISONMENT”
HOW DO INMATES ADAPT TO IMPRISONMENT?
Sykes G. (1958) The Society of Captives: A Study of a Maximum Security Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
FEMALE INMATE SUBCULTURES
ARE FEMALE INMATE EXPERIENCES DIFFERENT FROM THE EXPERIENCES OF MALE INMATES?
Giallombardo, R. (1966) Society of Women: A Study of a Women’s Prison. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
INMATE RACE RELATIONS
DO PRISON SUBCULTURES DIFFER BY AN INMATE’S RACE?
Carroll, L. (1974) Hacks, Blacks, and Cons. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
4. INMATE VIOLENCE
ARE PRISONS SAFE FOR INMATES?
Fuller, D. and T. Orsagh (1977) “Violence and Victimization within a State Prison System.” Criminal Justice Review 2: 35-55.
WHAT CAUSES INMATES TO RIOT?
Wilsnack, R. (1976) “Explaining Collective Violence in Prisons: Problems and Possibilities.” In A. Cohen, G. Cole, and R. Bailey (eds.) Prison Violence. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books.
5. CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS
THE STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT
WHAT EXPLAINS THE COERCIVE BEHAVIOR OF PRISON GUARDS?
Haney, C., C. Banks, and P. Zimbardo (1973) “Interpersonal Dynamics in a Simulated Prison.” International Journal of Criminology and Penology 1: 69-97.
CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS’ ATTITUDES
DO CORRCTIONAL OFFICERS’ ATTITUDES DIFFER BY RACE?
Jacobs, J. and L. Kraft (1978) “Integrating the Keepers: A Comparison of Black and White Prison Guards in Illinois.” Social Problems 25: 304-318.
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Forty Studies that Changed Criminal Justice, CourseSmart eTextbook
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