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Forty Studies that Changed Criminal Justice, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Amy B. Thistlethwaite, John D. Wooldredge

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Feb 19, 2009

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Description

For courses in Introduction to Criminal Justice or Research Methods.

 

This book is more than a collection of original published articles–it is a summary of studies that have shaped the criminal justice system. Carefully chosen based on their impact on the discipline or their capacity to spark controversy, the studies offer a historical look into the field of policing, courts and corrections. Each summary includes: a complete citation; background information; a description of methodology; a summary of results; an evaluation of the research; and suggestions for further reading. Throughout the book, students are shown a variety of research designs and evidence of research influencing the operation of the criminal justice system.

Table of Contents

PART I POLICE

 

1.         POLICE BEHAVIOR

 

POLICE PERSONALITY

ARE POLICE OFFICERS DIFFERENT FROM THE REST OF US?

 

Skolnick, J. (1966) Justice Without Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

 

POLICE STYLES

WHY IS THERE DIFFERENCES IN POLICE BEHAVIOR ACROSS COMMUNITIES?

 

Wilson, J. (1968) Varieties of Police Behavior: The Management of Law and Order in Eight Communities. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

 

POLICE OFFICER SOCIALIZATION

WHY ARE POLICE OFFICERS DIFFERENT FROM THE REST OF US?

 

Van Maanen, J. (1973) “Observations on the Making of Policemen.” Human Organization 33: 407-418.

 

2.         POLICE DISCRETION

 

POLICE OFFICERS’ USE OF DISCRETION

WHAT INFLUENCES POLICE DECISION-MAKING

 

Piliavin, I. and S. Briar (1964) “Police Encounters with Juveniles.” American Journal of Sociology 70: 206-214.

 

THE MINNEAPOLIS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE EXPERIMENT

DOES ARREST DETER CRIME?

 

Sherman, L. and R. Berk (1984) “The Specific Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault.” American Sociological Review 49: 261-272.

 

3.         POLICE OPERATIONS

 

THE KANSAS CITY PREVENTIVE PATROL EXPERIMENT

CAN THE POLICE PREVENT CRIME AND MAKE US FEEL SAFE?

 

Kelling, G., T. Pate, D. Dieckman, and C. Brown (1974) The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Summary Report. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.

 

POLICE RESPONSE TIME

HOW IMPORTANT IS IT FOR THE POLICE TO RESPOND QUICKLY WHEN WE CALL?

 

Pate, T., A. Ferrara, R. Bowers, and J. Lorence (1976) Police Response Time: Its Determinants and Effects. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.

 

PATROL STAFFING

WHICH IS BETTER: ONE- OR TWO-OFFICER PATROL UNITS?

 

Boydstun, J., M. Sherry, and N. Moelter (1977) Patrol Staffing in San Diego: One-or Two-Officer Units. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.

 

THE NEWARK FOOT PATROL EXPERIMENT

SHOULD THE POLICE PATROL IN CARS OR ON FOOT?

 

Police Foundation (1981) The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.

 

THE RAND STUDY OF INVESTIGATION

DO DETECTIVES REALLY SOLVE CRIMES?

 

Greenwood, P. and J. Petersilia (1975) The Criminal Investigation Process. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

 

4.         THE POLICE ROLE

 

PROBLEM-ORIENTED POLICING

CAN THE POLICE FIX THE UNDERLYING PROBLEMS RESPONSIBLE FOR CRIME?

 

Goldstein, H. (1979) “Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach.” Crime and Delinquency 24: 236-258.

 

BROKEN WINDOWS

CAN A BROKEN WINDOW LEAD TO CRIME?

           

Wilson, J. and G. Kelling (1982) “Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety.” The Atlantic Monthly March: 29-38.

 

5.         POLICE USE OF DEADLY FORCE

 

WHAT EXPLAINS THE VARIATION IN POLICE SHOOTINGS ACROSS DEPARTMENTS?

 

Milton, C., J. Halleck, J. Lardner, and G. Abrecht (1977) Police Use of Deadly Force. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.

 

6.         FEMALE POLICE OFFICERS

 

DO POLICEWOMEN PERFORM AS WELL AS POLICEMEN?

 

Bloch, P. and D. Anderson (1974) Policewomen on Patrol. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.

 

PART II COURTS

 

1.         PRE-CONVICTION DISPOSITIONS

 

BARRIERS TO PRE-TRIAL RELEASE

ARE SUSPECTS PUNISHED BEFORE GUILT IS DETERMINED?

 

Foote, C. (1954) “Compelling Appearance in Court: Administration of Bail in Philadelphia.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 102: 1031-1079.

 

PROSECUTORS’ USE OF DISCRETION IN DECISION-MAKING

DO PROSECUTORS CONSIDER EXTRA-LEGAL FACTORS IN THEIR DECISIONS?   

 

Albonetti, C. (1987) “Prosecutorial Discretion: The Effects of Uncertainty.” Law and Society Review 21: 291-313.

 

2.         THE GUILTY PLEA PROCESS

 

“GOING RATE” SENTENCES FOR DEFENDANTS WHO PLEAD GUILTY

How is the penal code used by attorneys in case processing?    

 

Sudnow, D. (1965) “Normal Crimes: Sociological Features of the Penal Code in a Public Defender Office.” Social Problems 12: 255-276.

 

The Defense Attorney’s Role in Plea Bargaining

ARE DEFENDANTS PRESSURED BY THEIR OWN ATTORNEYS TO PLEAD GUILTY?

 

Alschuler, A. (1975) “The Defense Attorney’s Role in Plea Bargaining.” The Yale Law Journal 84: 1179-1314.

 

Organizational DIFFERENCES IN CASE PROCESSING ACROSS COURTS

hOW DOES COURT “CULTURE” INFLUENCE case processing?

 

Eisenstein, J. and H. Jacob (1977) Felony Justice: An Organizational Analysis of Criminal Courts. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

 

PROCEDURAL INJUSTICES and due process violations in court

WHAT INFLUENCES Defendants’ CYNICISM TOWARD THE LEGAL PROCESS?

 

Casper, J. (1972) American Criminal Justice: The Defendant’s Perspective.

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

 

3.         THE JURY TRIAL

 

Jury DECISION-MAKING

WHY DO juries and judges SOMETIMES DISAGREE? 

 

Kalven Jr., H. and H. Zeisel (1966) The American Jury. Boston: Little, Brown & Company (shortly thereafter published by University of Chicago Press). 

 

the INSANITY Defense

ARE jurors ABLE to understand different legal rules for establishing a defendant’s criminal responsibility? 

 

Simon, R. (1967) The Jury and the Defense of Insanity. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

 

4.         SENTENCING

 

JUDICIAL DISCRETION IN Sentencing DECISIONS

Do judges discriminate against individuals OF lower socio-economic status?

 

Hagan, J. (1974) “Extra-legal Attributes and Criminal Sentencing: An Assessment of a Sociological Viewpoint.” Law and Society Review 8: 357-383.

 

JUDGES’ ASSESSMENTS OF AN OFFENDER’S RISK FOR FUTURE CRIMINALITY   

ARE SENTENCES AFFECTED BY STEREOTYPES OF “DANGEROUS OFFENDERS”?   

 

Steffensmeier, D., J. Ulmer, and J. Kramer (1998) “The Interaction of Race, Gender, and Age in Criminal Sentencing: The Punishment Cost of Being Young, Black, and Male.” Criminology 36: 763-797.

 

5.         STRUCTURING SENTENCING DECISIONS

 

SENTENCING GUIDELINES

CAN A SENTENCING SCHEME BE DEVELOPED TO REDUCE INEQUITES IN PRISON SENTENCES?

 

Wilkins, L., J. Kress, D. Gottfredson, J. Calpin, and A. Gelman

(1978) Sentencing Guidelines: Structuring Judicial Discretion. Washington, DC: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. 

 

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MANDATORY SENTENCING GUIDELINES FOR REDUCING JUDICIAL SENTENCING DISCRETION

WHAT IS THE EVIDENCE THAT GUIDELINES ACTUALLY "WORK" TO REDUCE SENTENCING DISPARITIES? 

 

Moore, C. and T. Miethe (1986) “Regulated and Unregulated Sentencing Decisions: An Analysis of First-year Practices Under Minnesota’s Felony Sentencing Guidelines.Law and Society Review 20: 253-277.

 

PART III CORRECTIONS

 

1.        CORRECTIONAL GOALS

 

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CORRECTIONAL TREATMENT

CAN CRIMINALS BE REHABILITATED?

 

Martinson, R. (1974) “What Works? Questions and Answers About Prison Reform.” The Public Interest 35: 22-54.

 

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

DOES THE DEATH PENALTY DETER MURDER?

 

Ehrlich, I. (1975) “The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life and Death.” The American Economic Review 65: 397-417.

 

SELECTIVE INCAPACITATION

CAN CRIME BE REDUCED WITHOUT INCREASING PRISON POPULATIONS?

 

Greenwood, P. with A. Abrahamse (1982) Selective Incapacitation. Santa Monica: Rand.

 

COLLECTIVE INCAPACITATION

DOES INCARCERATION SAVE MONEY?

 

Zedlewski, E. (1987) Making Confinement Decisions. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

 

2.        COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS

 

FELONY PROBATION

IS IT SAFE TO PUT FELONS ON PROBATION?

 

Petersilia, J., S. Turner, J. Kahan, and J. Peterson (1985) Granting Felons Probation: Public Risks and Alternatives. California: Rand Corporation.

 

PAROLE PREDICTION

IS IT POSSIBLE TO PREDICT WHO WILL SUCCEED OR FAIL ON PAROLE?

 

Burgess, E. (1928) “Factors Determining Success or Failure on Parole.” In A. Bruce, E. Burgess, and A. Harno The Workings of the Indeterminate-Sentence Law and

the Parole System in Illinois (pp. 205-249). Springfield: Illinois Board of Parole.

 

3.     INMATE SUBCULTURES

 

INMATE SOCIAL NETWORKS

HOW DO INMATES BECOME SOCIALIZED INTO A PRISON CULTURE?

 

Clemmer, D. (1940) The Prison Community. Boston: Christopher Publishing Company. 

 

THE “PAINS OF IMPRISONMENT”

HOW DO INMATES ADAPT TO IMPRISONMENT?

 

Sykes G. (1958) The Society of Captives: A Study of a Maximum Security Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

 

FEMALE INMATE SUBCULTURES

ARE FEMALE INMATE EXPERIENCES DIFFERENT FROM THE EXPERIENCES OF MALE INMATES?

 

Giallombardo, R. (1966) Society of Women: A Study of a Women’s Prison. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

 

INMATE RACE RELATIONS

DO PRISON SUBCULTURES DIFFER BY AN INMATE’S RACE?

 

Carroll, L. (1974) Hacks, Blacks, and Cons. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

 

4.        INMATE VIOLENCE

 

INMATE VICTIMIZATION

ARE PRISONS SAFE FOR INMATES?

 

Fuller, D. and T. Orsagh (1977) “Violence and Victimization within a State Prison System.” Criminal Justice Review 2: 35-55.

 

PRISON RIOTS

WHAT CAUSES INMATES TO RIOT?

 

Wilsnack, R. (1976) “Explaining Collective Violence in Prisons: Problems and Possibilities.” In A. Cohen, G. Cole, and R. Bailey (eds.) Prison Violence. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books.

 

5.       CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS

 

THE STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT

WHAT EXPLAINS THE COERCIVE BEHAVIOR OF PRISON GUARDS?

 

Haney, C., C. Banks, and P. Zimbardo (1973) “Interpersonal Dynamics in a Simulated Prison.” International Journal of Criminology and Penology 1: 69-97.

 

CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS’ ATTITUDES

DO CORRCTIONAL OFFICERS’ ATTITUDES DIFFER BY RACE?

 

Jacobs, J. and L. Kraft (1978) “Integrating the Keepers: A Comparison of Black and White Prison Guards in Illinois.” Social Problems 25: 304-318. 

 

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Forty Studies that Changed Criminal Justice, CourseSmart eTextbook
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$30.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-505764-3