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Fundamentals of Embedded Software: Where C & Assembly Meet, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Daniel W. Lewis

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Feb 8, 2012

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Description

For sophomore-level courses in Assembly Language Programming in Computer Science, Embedded Systems Design, Real-Time Analysis, Computer Engineering, or Electrical Engineering curricula. Requires prior knowledge of C, C++, or Java. 

 

This book is intended to provide a highly motivating context in which to learn procedural programming language. Using a non-product specific approach and a programming (versus hardware) perspective, this text lays a foundation that supports the multi-threaded style of programming and high-reliability requirements of embedded software. Reflecting current industrial applications and programming practice, it focuses on the more modern 32-bit protected mode processors and on C as the dominant programming language—with coverage of assembly and how it can be used in conjunction with, and support of, C.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction        

1.1  WHAT IS AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM?

1.2  WHAT’S UNIQUE ABOUT THE DESIGN GOALS FOR EMBEDDED SOFTWARE?

1.3  What Does "Real-Time" Mean?

1.4  What Does "multithreading" mean?

1.5  HOW POWERFUL ARE EMBEDDED PROCESSORS?

1.6  WHAT PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES ARE USED?

1.7  HOW IS BUILDING AN EMBEDDED APPLICATION DIFFERENT?

1.8  HOW BIG ARE TYPICAL EMBEDDED PROGRAMS?

PROBLEMS


2 Data Representation

2.1  FIXED-PRECISION BINARY NUMBERS 

2.2 POSITIONAL NUMBER SYSTEMS

2.2.1 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion

2.2.2 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion

2.2.3 Hexadecimal — A Shorthand for Binary

2.2.4 Fixed Precision, Rollover and Overflow

2.3 BINARY REPRESENTATION OF INTEGERS

2.3.1 Signed Integers

2.3.2 Positive and Negative Representations of the Same Magnitude

2.3.3 Interpreting the Value of a 2’s-Complement Number

2.3.4 Changing the Sign of Numbers with Integer and Fractional Parts

2.3.5 Binary Addition and Subtraction

2.3.6 Range and Overflow

2.4 BINARY REPRESENTATION OF REAL NUMBERS

2.4.1 Floating-Point Real Numbers

2.4.2 Fixed-Point Real Numbers

2.5 ASCII REPRESENTATION OF TEXT

2.6 BINARY-CODED DECIMAL (BCD)

PROBLEMS

 

3 Implementing Arithmetic        

3.1  2’s Complement and hardware complexity

3.2   MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

3.2.1 Signed vs. Unsigned Multiplication

3.2.2 Shifting Instead of Multiplying or Dividing by Powers of 2

3.2.3 Multiplying by an Arbitrary Constant

3.2.4 Dividing by an Arbitrary Constant

3.3   ARITHMETIC FOR FIXED-POINT REALS

3.3.1 Fixed-Point Using a Universal 16.16 Format

3.3.2 Fixed-Point Using a Universal 32.32 Format

3.3.3 Multiplication of 32.32 Fixed Point Reals

3.3.4 Example: Multiplying two 4.4 Fixed Point Reals

PROBLEMS

 

4 Getting the Most Out of C        

4.1   Integer Data Types

4.1.1 Integer Range and the Standard Header File LIMITS.H

4.2   BOOLEAN Data Types

4.3 Mixing Data Types

4.4 Manipulating Bits in Memory

4.4.1 Testing Bits

4.4.2 Setting, Clearing, and Inverting Bits

4.4.3 Extracting Bits

4.4.4 Inserting Bits

4.5 Manipulating Bits in INPUT/OUTPUT PORTS

4.5.1 Write-Only I/O Devices

4.5.2 I/O Devices Differentiated by Reads Versus Writes

4.5.3 I/O Devices Differentiated by Sequential Access

4.5.4 I/O Devices Differentiated by Bits in the Written Data

4.6 Accessing Memory-Mapped I/O Devices

4.6.1 Accessing Data Using a Pointer

4.6.2 Arrays, Pointers, and the “Address of” Operator

4.7 Structures

4.7.1 Packed Structures

4.7.2 Bit Fields

4.8 Variant Access

4.8.1 Casting the Address of an Object

4.8.2 Using Unions

Problems

  

5 Programming in Assembly

Part 1: Computer Organization

5.1   Memory

5.1.1 Data Alignment

5.2   The Central Processing Unit (CPU)

5.2.1 Other Registers

5.2.2 The Fetch-Execute Cycle

5.3   Input/Output (I/O)

5.4   Introduction to the ARM® CortexTM- M3 V7M Architecture

5.4.1 Internal Organization

5.4.2 Instruction Pipelining

5.4.3 Memory Model

5.4.4 Bit-Banding

5.5   ARM ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE

5.5.1 Instruction Formats and Operands

5.5.2 Translating Assembly into Binary

Problems

 

6  Programming in Assembly

Part 2: Data Manipulation

6.1   LOADING CONSTANTS INTO REGISTERS

6.2   LOADING MEMORY DATA INTO REGISTERS

6.3   STORING DATA FROM REGISTERS TO MEMORY

6.4   CONVERTING SIMPLE C ASSIGNMENT STATEMENTS INTO ARM ASSEMBLY

6.5   MEMORY ADDRESS CALCULATIONS

6.6 MEMORY ADDRESSING EXAMPLES

6.6.1 Translating C Pointer Expressions to Assembly

6.6.2 Translating C Subscript Expressions to Assembly

6.6.3 Translating Structure References to Assembly

6.7  STACK INSTRUCTIONS

6.8 DATA PROCESSING INSTRUCTIONS

6.8.1 Updating the Flags in the APSR

6.8.2 Arithmetic Instructions

6.8.3 Bit Manipulation Instructions

6.8.4 Shift Instructions

6.8.5 Bitfield Manipulation Instructions

6.8.6 Miscellaneous Bit, Byte and Halfword Instructions

PROBLEMS

 

7 Programming in Assembly

Part 3: Control Structures

7.1   INSTRUCTION SEQUENCING

7.2   IMPLEMENTING DECISIONS

7.2.1 Conditional Branch Instructions

7.2.2 If-Then and If-Then-Else Statements

7.2.3 Compound Conditionals

7.1.4 The “If-Then” (IT) Instruction

7.2 IMPLEMENTING LOOPS

7.2.1 Speeding Up Array Access

7.3 IMPLEMENTING FUNCTIONS

7.3.1 Function Call and Return

7.3.2 Register Usage

7.3.3 Parameter Passing

7.3.4 Return Values

7.3.5 Temporary Variables

7.3.6 Preserving Registers

PROBLEMS 

 

8 Programming in Assembly

Part 4: I/O Programming

8.1 THE CORTEX-M3 I/O HARDWARE

8.1.1 Interrupts and Exceptions

8.1.2 Thread and Handler Modes

8.1.3 Entering the Exception Handler

8.1.4 Returning from the Exception Handler

8.1.5 Latency Reduction

8.1.6 Priorities and Nested Exceptions

8.2  SYNCHRONIZATION, TRANSFER RATE, AND LATENCY

8.3 BUFFERS AND QUEUES

8.3.1 Double Buffering

8.4 ESTIMATING I/O PERFORMANCE CAPABILITY

8.4.1  Polled Waiting Loops

8.4.2  Interrupt-Driven I/O

8.4.3 Direct Memory Access

8.4.4 Comparison of Methods

PROBLEMS

 

9 Concurrent Software

9.1  FOREGROUND/BACKGROUND SYSTEMS

9.1.1 Thread State and Serialization

9.1.2 Managing Latency

9.1.3  Interrupt Overrun

9.1.4 Moving Work into the Background

9.2  MULTI-THREADED PROGRAMMING

9.2.1 Concurrent Execution of Independent Threads

9.2.2 Context Switching

9.2.3 Non-preemptive (Cooperative) Multithreading

9.2.4 Preemptive Multithreading

9.3  SHARED RESOURCES AND CRITICAL SECTIONS

9.3.1 Disabling Interrupts

9.3.2 Disabling Task Switching

9.3.3 Spin Locks

9.3.4 Mutex Objects

9.3.5 Semaphores

PROBLEMS 

    

10 Scheduling      

10.1  THREAD STATES

10.2  PENDING THREADS

10.3  CONTEXT SWITCHING

10.4  ROUND-ROBIN SCHEDULING

10.5  PRIORITY-BASED SCHEDULING

10.5.1 Resource Starvation

10.5.2 Priority Inversion

10.5.3 The Priority Ceiling Protocol

10.5.4 The Priority Inheritance Protocol

10.6  ASSIGNING PRIORITIES

10.6.1 Deadline-Driven Scheduling

10.6.2 Rate-Monotonic Scheduling

10.7  DEADLOCK

10.8  WATCHDOG TIMERS

PROBLEMS 


11 Memory Management

11.1  OBJECTS IN C

11.2  SCOPE

11.2.1 Refining Local Scope

11.2.2 Refining Global Scope

11.3  LIFETIME

11.4  AUTOMATIC ALLOCATION

11.4.1 Storage Class “Register”

11.5  STATIC ALLOCATION

11.6  THREE PROGRAMS TO DISTINGUISH STATIC FROM AUTOMATIC

11.6.1 Object Creation

11.6.2 Object Initialization

11.6.3 Object Destruction

11.7  DYNAMIC ALLOCATION

11.7.1 Fragmentation

11.7.2 Memory Allocation Pools

11.8  AUTOMATIC ALLOCATION WITH VARIABLE SIZE (alloca)

11.8.1 Variable-Size Arrays

11.9  RECURSIVE FUNCTIONS AND MEMORY ALLOCATION

PROBLEMS 

        

12 Shared Memory

12.1  RECOGNIZING SHARED OBJECTS

12.2  REENTRANT FUNCTIONS

12.3  READ-ONLY DATA

12.3.1 Type Qualifier "const"

12.4  CODING PRACTICES TO AVOID

12.4.1 Functions That Keep Internal State in Local Static Objects

12.4.2 Functions That Return the Address of a Local Static Object

12.5  ACCESSING SHARED MEMORY

12.5.1 The Effect of Processor Architecture

12.5.2 Read-Only and Write-Only Access

12.5.3 Type Qualifier “volatile”

PROBLEMS 

 

13 System Initialization

13.1 MEMORY LAYOUT

13.2 THE CPU AND VECTOR TABLE

13.3  C RUN-TIME ENVIRONMENT

13.3.1 Copying Initial Values from Non-Volatile Memory into the Data Region

13.3.2 Zeroing Uninitialized Statics

13.3.3 Setting Up a Heap

13.4  SYSTEM TIMER

13.5  OTHER PERIPHERAL DEVICES

 

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Fundamentals of Embedded Software: Where C & Assembly Meet, CourseSmart eTextbook
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$66.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-291656-1