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Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Robert J. Houghtalen, A. Osman Akan, Ned H. C. Hwang

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Aug 31, 2009

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Description

This fundamental treatment of engineering hydraulics balances theory with practical design solutions to common engineering problems. The author examines the most common topics in hydraulics, including hydrostatics, pipe flow, pipelines, pipe networks, pumps, open channel flow, hydraulic structures, water measurement devices, and hydraulic similitude and model studies. Chapters dedicated to groundwater, deterministic hydrology, and statistical hydrology make this text ideal for courses designed to cover hydraulics and hydrology in one semester.

Table of Contents

1 FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF WATER

1.1 The Earth’s Atmosphere and Atmospheric Pressure

1.2 The Three Phases of Water

1.3 Mass (Density) and Weight (Specific Weight)

1.4 Viscosity of Water

1.5 Surface Tension and Capillarity

1.6 Elasticity of Water

1.7 Forces in a Fluid Field

 

2 PRESSURE AND PRESSURE FORCES

2.1 The Free Surface of Water

2.2 Absolute and Gage Pressures

2.3 Surfaces of Equal Pressure

2.4 Manometers

2.5 Hydrostatic Forces on Flat Surfaces

2.6 Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

2.7 Buoyancy

2.8 Flotation Stability

 

3 WATER FLOW IN PIPES

3.1 Description of Pipe Flow

3.2 The Reynolds Number

3.3 Forces in Pipe Flow

3.4 Energy in Pipe Flow

3.5 Loss of Head Due to Friction

3.6 Empirical Equations for Friction Head Loss

3.7 Friction Head Loss-Discharge Relationships

3.8 Loss of Head in Pipe Contractions

3.9 Loss of Head in Pipe Expansions

3.10 Loss of Head in Pipe Bends

3.11 Loss of Head in Pipe Valves

3.12 Method of Equivalent Pipes

3.12.1 Pipes in Series

3.12.2 Pipes in Parallel

 

4 PIPELINES AND PIPE NETWORKS

4.1 Pipelines Connecting Two Reservoirs

4.2 Negative Pressure Scenarios (Pipelines and Pumps)

4.3 Branching Pipe Systems

4.4 Pipe Networks

4.4.1 The Hardy Cross Method

4.4.2 The Newton Method

4.5 Water Hammer Phenomenon in Pipelines

4.6 Surge Tanks

 

5 WATER PUMPS

5.1 Centrifugal (Radial Flow) Pumps

5.2 Propeller (Axial Flow) Pumps

5.3 Jet (Mixed Flow) Pumps

5.4 Centrifugal Pump Characteristic Curves

5.5 Single Pump and Pipeline Analysis

5.6 Pumps in Parallel or in Series

5.7 Pumps and Branching Pipes

5.8 Pumps and Pipe Networks

5.9 Cavitation in Water Pumps

5.10 Specific Speed and Pump Similarity

5.11 Selection of a Pump

 

6 WATER FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS

6.1 Open Channel Flow Classifications

6.2 Uniform Flow in Open Channels

6.3 Hydraulic Efficiency of Open Channel Sections

6.4 Energy Principles in Open Channel Flow

6.5 Hydraulic Jumps

6.6 Gradually Varied Flow

6.7 Classifications of Gradually Varied Flow

6.8 Computation of Water Surface Profiles

6.9 Hydraulic Design of Open Channels

 

7 GROUND WATER HYDRAULICS

7.1 Movement of Ground Water

7.2 Steady Radial Flow to a Well

7.2.1 Steady Radial Flow in Confined Aquifers

7.2.2 Steady Radial Flow in Unconfined Aquifers

7.3 Unsteady Radial Flow to a Well

7.3.1 Unsteady Radial Flow in Confined Aquifers

7.3.2 Unsteady Radial Flow in Unconfined Aquifers

7.4 Field Determination of Aquifer Characteristics

7.4.1 Equilibrium Test in Confined Aquifers

7.4.2 Equilibrium Test in Unconfined Aquifers

7.4.3 Nonequilibrium Test

7.5 Aquifer Boundaries

7.6 Surface Investigations of Ground Water

7.6.1 The Electrical Resistivity Method

7.6.2 Seismic Wave Propagation Methods

7.7 Sea Water Intrusion in Coastal Areas

7.8 Seepage Through Dam Foundations

7.9 Seepage Through Earth Dams

 

8 HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES

8.1 Functions of Hydraulic Structures

8.2 Dams-Functions and Classifications

8.3 Stability of Gravity and Arch Dams

8.3.1 Gravity Dams

8.3.2 Arch Dams

8.4 Small Earth Dams

8.5 Weirs

8.6 Overflow Spillways

8.7 Side-Channel Spillways

8.8 Siphon Spillways

8.9 Culverts

8.10 Stilling Basins

 

9 WATER PRESSURE, VELOCITY, AND DISCHARGE

MEASUREMENTS

9.1 Pressure Measurements

9.2 Velocity Measurements

9.3 Discharge Measurements in Pipes

9.4 Discharge Measurements in Open Channels

9.4.1 Sharp-Crested Weirs

9.4.2 Broad-Crested Weirs

9.4.3 Venturi Flumes

 

10 HYDRAULIC SIMILITUDE AND MODEL STUDIES

10.1 Dimensional Homogeneity

10.2 Principles of Hydraulic Similitude

10.3 Phenomena Governed by Viscous Forces — Reynolds Number

Law

10.4 Phenomena Governed by Gravity Forces — Froude Number

Law

10.5 Phenomena Governed by Surface Tension — Weber Number

Law

10.6 Phenomena Governed by Both Gravity and Viscous Forces

10.7 Models for Floating and Submerged Bodies

10.8 Open Channel Models

10.9 The Pi-Theorem

 

11 HYDROLOGY FOR HYDRAULIC DESIGN

11.1 The Hydrologic Cycle

11.2 Precipitation

11.3 Design Storm

11.4 Surface Runoff and Stream Flow

11.5 Rainfall-Runoff Relationships — The Unit Hydrograph

11.6 Rainfall-Runoff Relationships — SCS Procedures

11.6.1 Losses from Rainfall and Rainfall Excess

11.6.2 Time of Concentration

11.6.3 SCS Synthetic Hydrograph

11.6.4 Summary of SCS Procedure

11.7 Storage Routing

11.8 Hydraulic Design — The Rational Method

11.8.1 Design of Stormwater Collection Systems

11.8.2 Design of Stormwater Pipes

 

12 STATISTICAL METHODS IN HYDROLOGY

12.1 Concepts of Probability

12.2 Statistical Parameters

12.3 Probability Distributions

12.3.1 Normal Distribution

12.3.2 Log-Normal Distribution

12.3.3 Gumbel Distribution

12.3.4 Log-Pearson Type III Distribution

12.4 Return Period and Hydrologic Risk

12.5 Frequency Analysis

12.5.1 Frequency Factors

12.5.2 Testing Goodness of Fit

12.5.3 Confidence Limits

12.6 Frequency Analysis Using Probability Graphs

12.6.1 Probability Graphs

12.6.2 Plotting Positions

12.6.3 Data Plotting and Theoretical Distributions

12.6.4 Estimating Future Magnitudes

12.7 Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationships

12.8 Applicability of Statistical Methods

 

SYMBOLS

ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS

INDEX

 

 

 

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Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems, CourseSmart eTextbook
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$82.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-607587-5