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Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective, 5th Edition

By Linda L. Lindsey

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Mar 3, 2010

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For mid-to-upper level courses in Gender Roles, Introduction to Women's Studies, and Sociology of Sex Roles.


This text provides a balanced, non-polarized view of controversial issues that dispel gender myths and demonstrates how material can be meaningfully applied to a student’s personal life.   


Focusing on the most recent research and theory—both in the U.S. and globally—Gender Roles provides an in-depth, survey and analysis of modern gender roles and issues from a sociological perspective while also integrating insights and research from other disciplines like biology, psychology, anthropology and history.

Table of Contents







Part I Theoretical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Chapter 1 The Sociology of Gender: Theoretical Perspectives and Feminist Frameworks

Chapter 2 Gender Development: Biology, Sexuality, and Health 

Chapter 3 Gender Development: The Socialization Process

Chapter 4 Gendered Language and Socialization

Chapter 5 Western History and the Construction of Gender Roles

Chapter 6 Global Perspectives on Gender  


Part II Gender Roles, Marriage, and the Family

Chapter 7 Gendered Love, Marriage, and Emerging Lifestyle

Chapter 8 Gender and Family Relations

Chapter 9 Men and Masculinity


Part III Gender Roles: Focus on Social Institutions

Chapter 10 Gender, Work, and the Workplace 

Chapter 11 Education and Gender Role Change  

Chapter 12 Religion and Patriarchy  

Chapter 13 Media

Chapter 14 Power, Politics, and the Law  





Part I Theoretical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Chapter 1 The Sociology of Gender: Theoretical Perspectives and Feminist Frameworks 

Basic Sociological Concepts  

    Key Concepts for the Sociology of Gender  

    Distinguishing Sex and Gender  

Sociological Perspectives on Gender Roles  


    Preindustrial Society

    Contemporary Society

    Conflict Theory  

    Marx, Engels, and Social Class 

    Contemporary Conflict Theory

    Gender and the Family

    Symbolic Interaction  

    Social Construction of Reality

    Doing Difference

    Feminist Sociological Theory  

    Linking Gender, Race, and Class

    Feminist Perspectives on the Family 

Feminism and its Branches  

    Liberal Feminism  

    Cultural Feminism

    Socialist Feminism  

    Radical Feminism  

    Multicultural and Global Feminism  


Feminism and the Media

    Portrayals of Feminism

    Feminism and Election 2008

    Hillary Rodham Clinton

    Challenging the Backlash to Feminism 

Chapter 2 Gender Development: Biology, Sexuality, and Health
Nature and Nurture

    Margaret Mead  


    Evolution, Genetics, and Biology


    Cognitive Biology

    The Hormone Puzzle  



Gendered Sexuality  

    Sigmund Freud: Anatomy Is Destiny  

    Ambiguous Sex, Ambiguous Gender


    Does Nature Rule? A  Sex Reassignment Tragedy

    Sexual Orientation  

    Global Focus: Challenging Definitions of Sex and Gender  

    Sexual Scripts  

    Patterns of Sexual Attitudes and Behavior  

    Gender and Orgasm

    Premarital/Nonmarital Sex

    Extramarital Relationships

    The Double Standard

    Sexuality in Later Life

Gender and Health  

    Till Death Do Us Part: Gender and Mortality  

    Global Patterns

    In Sickness and in Health: Gender and Morbidity  

    Men and Morbidity

    Women and Morbidity

    Premenstrual Syndrome


    Drug Use

    Explaining Gendered Health Trends  

The Women’s Health Movement  

    Challenging Gender Bias in Research  

    Progress in Women’s and  Men’s Health  

Nature versus Nurture Revisited: The Politics of Biology  

    The Female Advantage in Evolution

    Reframing the Debate


Chapter 3 Gender Development: The Socialization Process  

Gender Socialization and Cultural Diversity  

    Culture and Socialization  

    Gender Socialization: The Impact of Social Class and Race  

Theories of Gender Socialization  

    Social Learning Theory  

    Gender Socialization for Boys

    Gender Socialization for Girls

    Cognitive Development Theory  

    Gender Schema Theory  

    Social Cognitive Theory

    The Family  

    Do You Want a Boy or a Girl?

    Gendered Childhood: Clothes, Toys, and Play


    Toys and Gender Scripts

    Gendered Parenting Practices

    Peers and Preferences  




    Television Teaches

    Socialization for Gender Equity

    Global Focus: Son Preference in Asia  


    East  and Southern Asia

    Gendered Effects


Chapter 4 Gendered Language and Socialization  

The Generic Myth  

    Titles and Occupations  

    What’s in a Name?  

    Children’s Names

    Linguistic Derogation

Gendered Language Usage  


    Female Register

    Male Register

    The Language of Friendship  

Nonverbal Communication  

    Facial Expressions and Eye Contact  



    Touch and Personal Space  

Gender and Online Communication

    Men Online

    Women Online

Global Focus: The Language of Japanese Women  

    Style and Syntax


 Explaining Gendered Language Patterns

    The Dual-Culture Model

    The Dominance Model  

    The Social Constructionist Model  

The Impact of Linguistic Sexism  

    Cognition and Self-Esteem

    Toward Language Change  

    Gradual Change


Chapter 5 Western History and the Construction of Gender Roles  

Placing Women in History  

    The Gender, Race, and Class Link in History  

    Historical Themes about Women  

Classical Societies  

    The Glory That Was Greece  





    The Grandeur That Was Rome 

    Male Authority 

    Female Power

The Middle Ages  



    The Renaissance  

    Martin Luther and the Reformation

The American Experience  

    The First American Women  

    Gender Role Balance

    Colonization and Christianity

    The Colonial Era  

    Gendered Puritan Life

    The Victorians: True Womanhood  

    Frontier Life  


    The Union Movement

    The Depression

    World War II  

    Demand for Women’s Labor

    Women’s Diversity in the Labor Force

    What about the Children?


    The Postwar Era to the Millennium   

The Women’s Movement  

    The Early Movement: 1830 to 1890  

    The Seneca Falls Convention

    The Nineteenth Amendment  

    The Contemporary Movement  

    Second Wave Feminism

    National Organization for Women

    Offshoot Groups

    Third Wave Feminism


Chapter 6 Global Perspectives on Gender  

The United Nations Conferences on Women  

    The Legacy of Beijing: A Personal Perspective  

    The Impact of  Globalization  on Women  

    A Model of Women  and  Development  


    The Soviet Legacy  


    The Collision of Family and Employment

    Marriage and Family  

    Support or Backlash to Feminism?  


    Reform and the Chinese Family  



    The One-Child Policy  

    Son Preference

    To Get Rich Is Glorious  

    The  Gender Paradox of  Globalization and  Development  


    The Religious—Political Heritage  

    The Social Reform Movement  

    The Gandhis and Nehru

    The Gender Gap in Human Development  


    Feminism in an Indian Context  


    The Occupation  

    Gender Equity and Public Policy 

    Work and Family: A Nondilemma  

    Marriage and the Family  

    Demography and Family Change

    Japanese Men

    Japanese Women


    A Japanese Woman’s Profile  

Latin America  

    The Gender Divide  

    Family Planning

    Latin American Women, Globalization, and Development  

    Feminist Agendas  

    The Class—Gender Link


    Religion, Family, and Employment  



    The Workplace

The Muslim World  

    Islamization: Iran and Afghanistan  

    The Shah and Khomeini 

    Toward Reform

    The Arab Middle East  

    North Africa: Female Genital Mutilation  

    To Veil or Not to Veil  




    The Equality Future


Part II   Gender Roles, Marriage, and the Family


Chapter 7 Gendered Love, Marriage, and Emerging Lifestyle


    Linking Love and Marriage  

    Friends and Lovers  

    Defining Love

    Distinguishing Love and Friendship  

    Same-Gender Friends

    Other-Gender Friends

    Gendered Love and Love Myths  

    Gender and Styles of Romance

    Men in Love

    Androgynous Love

Mate Selection  

    The Marriage Gradient  



    Race and SES


    The Marriage Squeeze  

    African American Women

    Sociological Perspectives on Mate Selection  

Gender Roles in Marriage and the Family  

    The Marriage Gap

    Theoretical Perspectives on Marriage and the Family  


    Conflict Theory

    Feminist Perspective  

    Symbolic Interaction

    Gender and the Family Values Debate  


    Housewife Status

    The Issue of Housework  

    Global Trends

    Dual Earners

    Multicultural  Variations

    Extramarital Relationships  

    Gender Differences

    Global Focus: The Second Wives of Hong Kong Men  

Gender Roles in Emerging Marriages and Lifestyles  


    Equity Benefits

    Commuter Marriage  


    Gender Differences


    Gender Differences

    Gender Stereotypes


Chapter 8 Gender and Family Relations  

The Parenthood Transition  


    The Motherhood Mandate

    Conflict Theory

    Challenging the Motherhood Mandate



    New Fathers

    Children’s Development  

    A Fatherhood Mandate

    Voluntary Childlessness  

Parents as Dual Earners  

    Children of Employed Women  

    The Child Care Issue

    Children’s Time with Parents



    Helicopter Parents

Families in Multicultural Perspective  

    African American Families  

    The Myth of Black Matriarchy

    Multiple Risks of Race, Class, and Gender

    Latino Families  

    Puerto Rican Families

    Mexican American Families

    Cuban American Families

    Asian American Families  

    Native American Families  


    Gender and Adjustment in Divorce  

    Gender Role Beliefs and Emotional Well-Being



    The Impact of Gendered Law in Divorce  



    Divorce and Poverty

    Dividing Assets

    Child Support


Single-Parent Families  

    Mothers and the Single-Parent Household  

    Fathers and the Single-Parent Household  

Gender Patterns in Gay and Lesbian Families  

    Same-Sex Marriage  

    Lesbian Mothers  

    Gay Fathers  

    Future Families


Chapter 9 Men and Masculinity  

Historical Notes and Masculine Markers  

    Patriarchy and History 

    War and Soldiering

    The Depression


    Kuwait, Iraq, and Afghanistan



    Brutalized Bodies

    Sports Violence

On Masculinity  

    Hegemonic Masculinity  

    Masculinity’s Norms  

    Antifeminine Norm

    Interpersonal Relations 

    Success Norm 

    Gendered Occupations

    Intellectual Success

    Toughness Norm

    Aggression Norm 

    School Violence

    Sexual Prowess Norm

    Tenderness Norm

    Images to Accept of Reject?


    The Demography of Homophobia  

    The Risks of Race and Ethnicity Gender

    Masculinity and Homophobic Labels  

    Gay Men

    Gay Rights

Masculinity and Fatherhood  

    Images of Fatherhood  


    Parents as Partners  

    Men in the Delivery Room


Men at Middle Age and in Later  Life  


    Midlife as Crisis  

    Women at Midlife

    Men at Midlife




Gendered Violence  



    Profile of the Rapist

    Rape on College Campus

    Pornography and Rape

    Masculinity and Rape

    Why Doesn’t She Leave?

    Sociological Perspectives

The Men’s Movement in the United States  

    National Organization of Men Against Sexism  

    Mythopoetic Men  

    African American Men  

    Promise Keepers  

     Toward the Future  

Part III  Gender Roles: Focus on Social Institutions


Chapter 10 Gender, Work, and the Workplace  

Historical Overview  

    The Home as the Workplace  

    The Industrial Revolution

    Victorian Myths

    War and Jobs

Balancing Multiple Work and Family Roles  

    Employment and Health  


    Unpaid Work  

    Money and Mental Health


Gendered Institutions in Choice of Work  

    The  Influence  of Family on Workplace  


    Married with Children: The Demography of Career Achievement

    Career versus Job

    Economic Trends and the Family  

    The Legal System  

Women in the Labor Force  

    Gender-Typing in Occupational Distribution  

    Women in the Professions

    White Collar Women

    The Wage Gap  

    Triple Jeopardy: Gender, Race, and Social Class

    The Human Capital Model  

    Symbolic Interaction and Conflict Theory


    Corporate Women  

    Corporate Barriers

    The Glass Ceiling

    Toward Corporate Success

    Women Business Owners  

    Gendered Management Styles: The Partnership Alternative  

Global Focus: Microenterprise and Women  

    Women and Microcredit  


Chapter 11 Education and Gender Role Change  

A Brief Lesson in History  

    The Enlightenment  

    Progressive Education  

The Process of Education  

    Kindergarten  and Early Childhood Education

    Elementary  and Middle School  

    Jane and the Gendered Curriculum

    Dick and the Gendered Curriculum

    High School  

    Gender and Mathematics

    Social Class and Race  

    Gender Diversity: Race, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement

    Gendered Tracking and Vocational Education 

    Gender in the Hidden CurriculumAthletics and Masculinity

    Higher Education  

    The Gendered College Classroom

    Major and Career Paths

    Graduate School

    Academic Women


Gender Issues in Education  

    Shortchanged Students: Boys or Girls in Educational Crisis?

    Assessing the Boy Crisis

    College Entrance Exams

    College Enrollment: Race, Social Class, and Age

    What a Degree Buys

    Single-Gender Education  

    Sexual Harassment in Schools  

    Sexual Harassment or Bullying?  

    Gender Parity in College

The Lessons of Title IX  

Global Focus: The Developing World’s Gender Gap in Education  


Chapter 12 Religion and Patriarchy  

Rediscovering the Feminine Face of God  

    Goddess Images  

    Women’s Religious Roles  

    Goddess as Creator  



    The Principle of Gender Complementarity  



    Feminist Views of Islam  

    Islamic Women in the United States 


    The Feminine in Hindu Scripture  



    Family Life  

    Sexuality and Social Control

    The Texts of Terror  

    Contemporary Images  


    The Bible and Patriarchy  

    The Writings of Paul

    Biblical Men

    Alternative Views of Biblical Women  

    Gender Roles and American Christians  

    American Protestants

    American Catholics

Gender, Religiosity, and Leadership  

    Gender and Religious Orientation  

    Sociological Perspectives

    The Issue of Ordination  

    Confucianism and Islam





    Clergy Women as Leaders  

Toward an Inclusive Theology  

    The Language of Religion  

    Reinterpretation of Scripture  

    Feminist Theology  


Chapter 13 Media  

Print Media  





    Subtlety and Subliminals

    Age and Gender

    The Business of Beauty


    Screen History  

    Good Women and Bad Women

    James Bond and “His Girls”

    Pairing Sex and Violence   

    Aging Females, Ageless Males  

    Gender Parity and Portrayal


    Rock Music  

    The Women of Rock

    Challenges to Misogyny

    MTV and Music Videos


    Gendered Violence  

    Prime Time  

    Invisible Women

    Intersecting Gender, Race, and Ethnicity 

    Comedy and Reality TV

    Beauty and Age

    Employed Women

    Soap Operas  

    TVs Gendered Exceptions


Men’s Images in Media  




    Situation Comedies: Men in Families

    TV’s Gender, Race, and Class Link  

    Working Class Men

    Changing Images

Gender and Mass Media Industries  


    Broadcast Journalism  



Media and Social Change

    Changing for Profit and Social Progress

    Women as Media Executives


Chapter 14 Power, Politics, and the Law  

The Law  



    Disparate Impact

    Equal Pay Act

    Comparable Worth

    Affirmative Action

    The Gender—Race Link  
    The Courts

    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

    Education and Title IX  

    The Courts


    Benefits to Females

    Sexual Harassment  

    The Thomas—Hill Controversy

    Domestic Relations  


    Family Economics

    Domestic Abuse and the Courts

    Reproductive Rights  

    Legal History





    Criminal Justice

    Prostitution: A Case Study


    The Gender Gap

    Gender and Public Office

    Women in Office  


    Barriers to the Female Candidate  

    Socialization Factors

    Beliefs about Women’s Roles

    Structural Barriers

    Race and Gender in Election 2008

    The Primary Election

    The General Election

    HRC: The Hillary Factor

The Equal Rights Amendment  

    Ratification’s Rocky Path  

    Issues of Interpretation   

    The Draft

    ERA Campaign Network

Feminism in the Twenty-First Century  


Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective, 5th Edition

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