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Grading, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition

By Susan M. Brookhart

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jul 3, 2008

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A supplement for General K—12 Methods courses and courses in Tests and Measurements.

Whatever his/her feeling about grades, nearly every teacher must give them. That's the rationale behind this straightforward text–helping prospective teachers understand grading and learn to do it well. Grading, Second Edition continues to be the resource staying true to its original intent–to help current and future teachers begin to see themselves as competent graders. Throughout the material, the focus is on explaining how grades function in schools and schooling, and on developing skills in grading work and creating report cards. Based on current research and informed by the author's experience, the text is replete with detailed explanations, stories and illustrations, student work samples, sample report cards and other school artifacts, and references for further study. After an introduction to the historical, social, legal, and psychological contexts of grading, chapters cover grading individual units of student work, followed by coverage of techniques for turning discrete grades into report-card marks. Every major section of the book concludes with a more comprehensive assignment that will help readers assess their knowledge of the major concepts and applications recently studied. Every chapter ends with a set of questions or exercises that serve as a self-assessment tools and a means to practice skill development. Organized into three major parts (Understanding Grading, Integrating Assessment and Instruction, and Combining Grades Into Marks for Report Cards), with the added encouragement of self-reflection at the onset and throughout, Grading, Second Edition fully prepares current teachers and those working toward that goal to refine and perfect a simple, yet compelling function in the process of school, grading.


Table of Contents



Chapter 1    Introduction

Why Grading

Purposes for Grading

Definitions of Terms


Self-Reflection: Now and Later

Chapter 2    Grading in Its Contexts

The Historical Context of Grading

Current Context of Grading

Social Context of Grading

Legal Context of Grading

Chapter 3    The Educational Psychology of Grading

Student Perceptions

Influence of Grading Practices on Motivation to Learn

Functions of Feedback to Students

The Classroom Assessment Environment



Chapter 4    Designing Assessments That Reflect Intentions for Learning

Matching Assessment and Instruction

Paper-and-Pencil Tests

Novel Applications are Required to Tap Higher Order Thinking

Performance Assessments

Scoring Is Part of the Match

Chapter 5    Deciding on the Bases for Grading

Formative and Summative Evaluation

Bases for Grading

Kinds of Grading Schemes

Assessment Versus Grading

Chapter 6    Providing Grades and Other Feedback to Students

Providing Informative Feedback

Student Involvement in Assessment

Grading Is a Skill

Grading Tests

Grading Projects, Term Papers, and Written Reports

Final Thoughts



Chapter 7    Grading Policies and Formats

Grades Should Reflect Achievement

Report Card Formats

Grading Policies

Grade-Point Averages

Self-Reflection Is Critical

Chapter 8    Developmental Concerns in Grading

Grading in Special Education

Grading in Early Childhood

Grading in Elementary and Secondary Classrooms

Chapter 9    Developing Skills at Combining Grades into Marks for Report Cards

Arriving at a Categorical Grade

Arriving at a Letter Grade via Rubrics

Arriving at a Letter Grade via Points

Electronic Methods: Gradebook Packages, Web-Based Systems

Chapter 10    Other Ways of Communicating About Student Achievement

Sending Work Home

A Communication Process



Parent-Teacher, Student-Teacher, or Student-Parent-Teacher Conferences

Appendix A    Test Blueprints

Appendix B    Do's and Don'ts for Writing Good Test Items

Appendix C    Alternative Assessment Checklist

Appendix D    Key for Sample Papers from Chapter 6

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Grading, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition
Format: Safari Book

$17.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-500009-0