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Gronlund's Writing Instructional Objectives, 8th Edition

By Norman E. Gronlund, Susan M. Brookhart

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jan 16, 2008


A unique and classic text, Gronlund’s essential “how to” text again provides a step-by-step guide to writing instructional objectives as intended learning outcomes. The author describes how to state objectives in terms of the type of performance students must demonstrate in order to show that they have achieved the goals of the instruction–and illustrates his recommended methods with numerous examples. Gronlund’s is a specific procedure for writing objectives–one that can be used to achieve all types of learning outcomes and is especially suited to teaching thinking, performance, and problem-solving skills. The book stresses the important role of objectives in the teaching-learning-assessment process–starting from state content standards–and how objectives can be used to improve student learning.  The improvements made to this revision only enhance its usefulness and reputation as the best guide on the market for writing instructional objectives and using them in teaching and assessment.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1    Focusing on Intended Learning Outcomes

                    Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes

                    Levels of Goals and Objectives

                    Uses of Instructional Objectives

                    Learning Outcomes and the Instructional Process

                    Stating Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes

                    What About Standards?

Chapter 2    Obtaining Clear Statements of Instructional Objectives

                    Stating the General Instructional Objectives

                    Selecting the Proper Level of Generality

                    Stating the Specific Learning Outcomes

                    Obtaining a Representative Sample of Specific Learning Outcomes

                    Emphasizing Instructional Intent

                    Keeping the Specific Learning Outcomes Useful for Various Units of Study

                    Using Specific Learning Outcomes in Lesson Planning

                    Making Sure the Specific Learning Outcomes are Relevant

                    Revising the General Objectives as Needed

Chapter 3    Using Objectives in Planning for Teaching and Assessment

                    Planning for Instruction

                    Planning for Assessment

Chapter 4    Content Standards and Instructional Objectives

                    Nature of Content Standards

                    Need for Instructional Objectives

Chapter 5    Considerations in Preparing Instructional Objectives

                    Using a Frame of References as a Guide

                    Other Guides in Preparing Instructional Objectives

                    Considerations in Selecting Instructional Objectives

                    Preparing Instructional Objectives Cooperatively



Chapter 6    Writing Objectives for Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Outcomes

                    Stating Objectives at the Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Levels

                    Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction

                    Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction

                    The Problem of Limiting Objectivesd to Intellectual Outcomes

Chapter 7    Writing Objectives for Higher-Level Thinking Skills

                    Making a Useful List of Outcomes

                    Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction

                    Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction

                    Affective Components of Thinking

Chapter 8    Writing Objectives for Affective Outcomes

                    Basing Statements on the Taxonomy Categories

                    Basing Statements on Traditional Categories

                    Adapting Statements to Areas and Levels of Instruction

                    Deciding If Affective Outcomes Should be Stated Separately

Chapter 9    Writing Performance Objectives for Skills and Products

                    Writing Objectives for Procedure Outcomes

                    Writing Objectives for Product Outcomes

                    Focusing on Both Procedure and Product Outcomes

                    Isolating Performance Skills When Writing Objectives

                    Guidelines for Writing and Using Peformance Objectives for Skills and Products

Chapter 10    Writing Performance Objectives for Problem-Solving Projects

                    Stating Objectives for Restricted Problem-Solving Projects

                    Stating Objectives for Extended Problem-Solving Projects

                    Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives in Problem-Solving Projects



Chapter 11    Using Objectives in Achievement Testing

                    Preparing the List of Instructional Objectives

                    Outlining the Content

                    Preparing the Table of Specifications

                    Constructing Relevant Test Items

                    Using a Simple Table for Item Writing

                    Using Detailed Specifications for Item Writing

                    Using Objectives for Interpreting Test Results

Chapter 12    Using Objectives in Performance and Affective Assessment

                    Assessing Performance Skills

                    Assessing Affective Outcomes

                    Using Student Portfolios

                    Guidelines for Preparing and Using Assessment Instruments


Purchase Info

ISBN-10: 0-13-175593-5

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-175593-2

Format: Book

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