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How to Think Logically, 2nd Edition

By Gary Seay, Susana Nuccetelli

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jul 28, 2011

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Concise Principles of Reasoning

 

Concise, yet covering all the basics of a 15-week course in informal logic or critical reasoning, this text engages students with a lively format and clear writing style. The small scale of the book keeps the cost low, a vital consideration in today’s economy, yet without compromising on logical rigor.

 

The author’s presentation strikes a careful balance: it offers clear, jargon-free writing while preserving rigor.  Brimming with numerous pedagogical features, this accessible text assists students with analysis, reconstruction, and evaluation of arguments and helps them become independent, analytical thinkers.  Introductory students are exposed to the basic principles of reasoning while also having their appetites whetted for future courses in philosophy.

 

Teaching and Learning Experience

 

Improve Critical Thinking - Abundant pedagogical aids -- including exercises and study questions within each chapter -- encourage students to examine their assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, assess their conclusions, and more!

 

Engage Students - Chapter and section outlines, summaries, illustrative examples, special-emphasis boxes and key terms present new ideas in manageable-sized units of information so students can digest each concept before moving on to the next one, and ensure students key-in on crucial points to remember.

 

Support Instructors -Teaching your course just got easier!  You can create a Customized Text or use our Instructor’s Manual, or PowerPoint Presentation Slides.  Plus, this concise textbook contains only as much material as you can cover in a course, creating an affordable alternative you can assign with confidence to a cost-conscious student population.  Additionally, each chapter in How to Think Logically is designed as a self-contained unit so that you can choose the combination and order of chapters according to the needs of your courses; making the text a flexible base for courses in logic, critical thinking, and rhetoric.

 

Table of Contents

 

IN THIS SECTION:

1.) BRIEF

2.) COMPREHENSIVE

 


BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I: THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF REASONING

 

Chapter One   What Is Logical Thinking? And Why Should We Care?

Chapter Two   Thinking Logically and Speaking One’s Mind

Chapter Three    The Virtues of Belief  

 

PART II: REASON AND ARGUMENT 

 

Chapter Four   Tips for Argument Analysis

Chapter Five   Evaluating Deductive Arguments

Chapter Six    Analyzing Inductive Arguments

 

PART III:  INFORMAL FALLACIES

 

Chapter Seven   Some Ways an Argument Can Fail

Chapter Eight   Avoiding Ungrounded Assumptions

Chapter Nine   From Unclear Language to Unclear Reasoning

Chapter Ten   Avoiding Irrelevant Premises

 

PART IV: MORE ON DEDUCTIVE REASONING 

 

Chapter Eleven    Compound Propositions

Chapter Twelve   Checking the Validity of Propositional Arguments 

Chapter Thirteen    Categorical Propositions and Immediate Inferences                        

Chapter Fourteen   Categorical Syllogisms

  

Appendix: Summary of Informal Fallacies

 

Answers to Selected Exercises

Glossary/Index

 


COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I: THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF REASONING

 

Chapter One    What Is Logical Thinking? And Why Should We Care?

 

            1.1       The Study of Reasoning

            1.2       Logic and Reasoning

            1.3       What Arguments Are

            1.4       Reconstructing Arguments                               

            1.5       Arguments and Non-arguments

            1.6       Chapter Summary

            1.7       Key Words

 

Chapter Two    Thinking Logically and Speaking One’s Mind

 

            2.1       Rational Acceptability

            2.2       Beyond Rational Acceptability

            2.3       From Mind to Language                   

            2.4       Indirect Use and Figurative Language                                                                                                           

            2.5       Definition: An Antidote to Unclear Language

            2.6       Chapter Summary

            2.7       Key Words

 

Chapter Three    The Virtues of Belief

 

            3.1       Belief, Disbelief, and Non-Belief                                    

            3.2       Beliefs’ Virtues and Vices

            3.3       Accuracy and Truth                                   

            3.4       Reasonableness                                   

            3.5       Consistency                                                                                                           

            3.6       Conservatism and Revisability

            3.7       Rationality vs. Irrationality

            3.8       Chapter Summary

            3.9       Key Words

 

PART II: REASON AND ARGUMENT

 

Chapter Four    Tips for Argument Analysis

 

            4.1       A Principled Way of Reconstructing Arguments

            4.2       Missing Premises

            4.3       Extended Arguments

            4.4       Types of Reason

            4.5       Norms and Argument

            4.6       Chapter Summary

            4.7       Key Words

                       

Chapter Five    Evaluating Deductive Arguments

 

            5.1       Validity

            5.2       Soundness

            5.3       Cogency

            5.4       Chapter Summary

            5.5       Key Words

 

Chapter Six    Analyzing Inductive Arguments

 

            6.1       Reconstructing Inductive Arguments

            6.2       Some Types of Inductive Argument

            6.3       Evaluating Inductive Arguments

            6.4       Chapter Summary

            6.5       Key Words

 

PART III:  INFORMAL FALLACIES

 

Chapter Seven    Some Ways an Argument Can Fail

 

            7.1       What Is a Fallacy?

            7.2       Classification of Informal Fallacies

            7.3       When Inductive Arguments Go Wrong

            7.4       Chapter Summary

            7.5       Key Words

 

Chapter Eight    Avoiding Ungrounded Assumptions

           

            8.1       Fallacies of Presumption

            8.2       Begging the Question

            8.3       Begging-the-Question-Against

            8.4       Complex Question

            8.5       False Alternatives

            8.6       Accident

            8.7       Chapter Summary

            8.8       Key Words

 

Chapter Nine    From Unclear Language to Unclear Reasoning

 

            9.1       Unclear Language and Argument Failure

            9.2       Semantic Unclarity

            9.3       Vagueness

            9.4       Ambiguity

            9.5       Confused Predication

            9.6       Chapter Summary

            9.7       Key Words

 

 Chapter Ten    Avoiding Irrelevant Premises

 

            10.1     Fallacies of Relevance

            10.2     Appeal to Pity

            10.3     Appeal to Force

            10.4     Appeal to Emotion

            10.5     Ad Hominem

            10.6     Beside the Point

            10.7     Straw Man

            10.8     Is the Appeal to Emotion Always Fallacious?

            10.9     Chapter Summary

            10.10   Key Words

 

PART IV: MORE ON DEDUCTIVE REASONING 

 

Chapter Eleven    Compound Propositions

           

            11.1     Argument as a Relation Between Propositions

            11.2     Simple and Compound Propositions

            11.3     Symbolizing Compound Propositions

            11.4     Defining Connectives with Truth Tables

            11.5     Truth Tables for Compound Propositions

            11.6     Chapter Summary

            11.7     Key Words

 

Chapter Twelve    Checking the Validity of Propositional Arguments

 

            12.1     Checking Validity with Truth Tables

            12.2     Some Standard Argument Forms

            12.3     Formal Fallacies

            12.4     A Simplified Approach to Proofs of Validity

            12.5     Chapter Summary

            12.6     Key Words

 

Chapter Thirteen    Categorical Propositions and Immediate Inferences

                       

         13.1    What Is a Categorical Proposition?

            13.2     Venn Diagrams for Categorical Propositions

            13.3     The Square of Opposition

            13.4     Other Immediate Inferences

            13.5     Chapter Summary

            13.6     Key Words

 

Chapter Fourteen    Categorical Syllogisms

 

            14.1    What Is a Categorical Syllogism?

            14.2     Syllogistic Argument Forms

            14.3     Testing for Validity with Venn Diagrams

            14.4     Distribution of Terms

            14.5     Rules of Validity and Syllogistic Fallacies

            14.6     Chapter Summary

            14.7     Key Words

 

Appendix: Summary of Informal Fallacies

 

Answers to Selected Exercises

Glossary/Index

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