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Implementing Cisco IP Switched Networks (SWITCH) Foundation Learning Guide: Foundation Learning for SWITCH 642-813, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Richard Froom, Balaji Sivasubramanian, Erum Frahim

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Jun 21, 2010

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Description

Implementing Cisco IP Switched Networks (SWITCH) Foundation Learning Guide: Foundation learning for SWITCH 642-813

 

Richard Froom, CCIE No. 5102

Balaji Sivasubramanian

Erum Frahim, CCIE No. 7549

 

Implementing Cisco IP Switched Networks (SWITCH) Foundation Learning Guide is a Cisco® authorized learning tool for CCNP® and CCDP® preparation. As part of the Cisco Press foundation learning series, this book covers how to plan, configure, and verify the implementation of complex enterprise switching solutions using the Cisco Campus Enterprise Architecture. The Foundation Learning Guide also covers secure integration of VLANs, WLANs, voice, and video into campus networks.

 

Each chapter opens with the list of topics covered to clearly identify the focus of that chapter. At the end of each chapter, a summary and review questions provide you with an opportunity to assess and reinforce your understanding of the material. Throughout the book detailed explanations with commands, configurations, and diagrams serve to illuminate theoretical concepts.

 

Implementing Cisco IP Switched Networks (SWITCH) Foundation Learning Guide is ideal for certification candidates who are seeking a tool to learn all the topics covered in the SWITCH 642-813 exam.

  • Serves as the official book for the Cisco Networking Academy CCNP SWITCH course
  • Provides a thorough presentation of the fundamentals of multilayer switched network design
  • Explains the implementation of the design features such as VLAN, Spanning Tree, and inter-VLAN routing in the multilayer switched environment
  • Explains how to implement high-availability technologies and techniques
  • Covers security features in a switched network
  • Presents self-assessment review questions, chapter topics, summaries, command syntax explanations, network diagrams, and configuration examples to facilitate effective studying

This book is in the Foundation Learning Guide Series. These guides are developed together with Cisco® as the only authorized, self-paced learning tools that help networking professionals build their understanding of networking concepts and prepare for Cisco certification exams.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Analyzing the Cisco Enterprise Campus Architecture

Introduction to Enterprise Campus Network Design 2

    Regulatory Standards Driving Enterprise Architectures 4

    Campus Designs 5

        Legacy Campus Designs 5

        Hierarchical Models for Campus Design 6

    Impact of Multilayer Switches on Network Design 7

        Ethernet Switching Review 7

        Layer 2 Switching 8

        Layer 3 Switching 10

        Layer 4 and Layer 7 Switching 11

    Layer 2 Switching In-Depth 12

    Layer 3 Switching In-Depth 12

    Understanding Multilayer Switching 14

    Introduction to Cisco Switches 15

        Cisco Catalyst 6500 Family of Switches 15

        Cisco Catalyst 4500 Family of Switches 15

        Cisco Catalyst 4948G, 3750, and 3560 Family of Switches 16

        Cisco Catalyst 2000 Family of Switches 16

        Nexus 7000 Family of Switches 16

        Nexus 5000 and 2000 Family of Switches 17

    Hardware and Software-Switching Terminology 17

    Campus Network Traffic Types 18

        Peer-to-Peer Applications 21

        Client/Server Applications 21

        Client-Enterprise Edge Applications 23

    Overview of the SONA and Borderless Networks 25

Enterprise Campus Design 27

    Access Layer In-Depth 29

    Distribution Layer 29

    Core Layer 31

        The Need for a Core Layer 32

        Campus Core Layer as the Enterprise Network Backbone 33

    Small Campus Network Example 33

    Medium Campus Network Example 34

    Large Campus Network Design 34

    Data Center Infrastructure 35

PPDIOO Lifecycle Approach to Network Design and Implementation 37

    PPDIOO Phases 37

        Benefits of a Lifecycle Approach 38

    Planning a Network Implementation 39

        Implementation Components 40

        Summary Implementation Plan 40

        Detailed Implementation Plan 42

Summary 43

Review Questions 43

Chapter 2 Implementing VLANs in Campus Networks 51

Implementing VLAN Technologies in a Campus Network 52

    VLAN Segmentation Model 53

        End-to-End VLAN 54

        Local VLAN 55

        Comparison of End-to-End VLANs and Local VLANs 56

        Mapping VLANs to a Hierarchical Network 57

    Planning VLAN Implementation 58

    Best Practices for VLAN Design 59

    Configuring VLANs 60

        VLAN Ranges 60

    Verifying the VLAN Configuration 63

    Troubleshooting VLANs 67

        Troubleshooting Slow Throughput 67

        Troubleshooting Communication Issues 68

Implementing Trunking in Cisco Campus Network 68

    Trunking Protocols 69

        Understanding Native VLAN in 802.1Q Trunking 71

    Understanding DTP 72

        Cisco Trunking Modes and Methods 72

        VLAN Ranges and Mappings 73

    Best Practices for Trunking 73

    Configuring 802.1Q Trunking 74

    Verifying Trunking Configurations 76

    Troubleshooting Trunking 77

VLAN Trunking Protocol 78

    VTP Pruning 81

    VTP Versions 82

        VTP Versions 1 and 2 82

        VTP Version 3 83

    VTP Messages Types 83

        Summary Advertisements 83

        Subset Advertisements 84

        Advertisement Requests 84

    VTP Authentication 84

    Best Practices for VTP Implementation 84

    Configuring VTP 85

    Verifying the VTP Configuration 85

    Troubleshooting VTP 87

Private VLANs 87

    Private VLANs Overview 88

        Private VLANs and Port Types 88

    Private VLAN Configuration 90

        Configuring Private VLANs in Cisco IOS 91

    Verifying Private VLAN 92

    Private VLAN Configuration Example 93

        Single Switch Private Configuration 93

        Private VLAN Configuration Across Switches 94

    Port Protected Feature 97

Configuring Link Aggregation with EtherChannel 97

    Describe EtherChannel 98

    PAgP and LACP Protocols 101

        PAgP Modes 101

        LACP Modes 103

    Configure Port Channels Using EtherChannel 105

        Guidelines for Configuring EtherChannel 105

        Layer 2 EtherChannel Configuration Steps 106

    Verifying EtherChannel 108

    EtherChannel Load Balancing Options 110

Summary 112

Review Questions 113

Chapter 3 Implementing Spanning Tree 119

Evolution of Spanning Tree Protocols 119

Spanning Tree Protocol Basics 121

    STP Operation 122

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol 125

    RSTP Port States 126

    RSTP Port Roles 127

    Rapid Transition to Forwarding 129

    RSTP Topology Change Mechanism 132

    Bridge Identifier for PVRST+ 136

    Compatibility with 802.1D 137

    Cisco Spanning Tree Default Configuration 137

    PortFast 138

    Configuring the PortFast Feature 138

    Configuring the Basic Parameters of PVRST+ 140

Multiple Spanning Tree 141

    MST Regions 143

    Extended System ID for MST 144

    Configuring MST 145

Spanning Tree Enhancements 150

    BPDU Guard 152

    BPDU Filtering 153

    Root Guard 155

    Preventing Forwarding Loops and Black Holes 158

        Loop Guard 158

        UDLD 161

        Comparison Between Aggressive Mode UDLD and Loop Guard 165

    Flex Links 166

Recommended Spanning Tree Practices 168

Troubleshooting STP 171

    Potential STP Problems 171

        Duplex Mismatch 172

        Unidirectional Link Failure 172

        Frame Corruption 173

        Resource Errors 173

        PortFast Configuration Error 174

    Troubleshooting Methodology 174

        Develop a Plan 175

        Isolate the Cause and Correct an STP Problem 175

        Document Findings 177

Summary 178

References 179

Review Questions 179

Chapter 4 Implementing Inter-VLAN Routing 183

Describing Inter-VLAN Routing 184

    Introduction to Inter-VLAN Routing 184

    Inter-VLAN Routing Using an External Router (Router-on-a-Stick) 186

        External Router: Advantages and Disadvantages 189

    Inter-VLAN Routing Using Switch Virtual Interfaces 190

        SVI: Advantages and Disadvantages 192

    Routing with Routed Ports 192

        Routed Port: Advantage and Disadvantages 193

    L2 EtherChannel Versus L3 EtherChannel 194

Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing 194

    Inter-VLAN Configuration with External Router 195

        Implementation Planning 195

        Inter-VLAN Configuration with SVI 197

        Implementation Plan 197

        Switch Virtual Interface Configuration 198

        SVI Autostate 199

    Configuring Routed Port on a Multilayer Switch 200

    Verifying Inter-VLAN Routing 201

    Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Problems 204

        Example of a Troubleshooting Plan 205

    Configuration of Layer 3 EtherChannel 206

    Routing Protocol Configuration 208

    Verifying Routing Protocol 208

Implementing Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol in a Multilayer Switched Environment 210

    DHCP Operation 211

        Configuring DHCP and Verifying DHCP 212

        Configure DHCP on the Multilayer Switch 212

        Configure DHCP Relay 213

        Verifying DHCP Operation 214

Deploying CEF-Based Multilayer Switching 215

    Multilayer Switching Concepts 215

        Explaining Layer 3 Switch Processing 216

        CAM and TCAM Tables 217

        Distributed Hardware Forwarding 220

    Cisco Switching Methods 221

        Route Caching 222

        Topology-Based Switching 223

    CEF Processing 225

        CEF Operation and Use of TCAM 227

        CEF Modes of Operation 227

        Address Resolution Protocol Throttling 228

        Sample CEF-Based MLS Operation 230

        CEF-Based MLS Load Sharing 231

    Configuring CEF and Verifying CEF Configuration 232

        CEF-Based MLS Configuration 232

        CEF-Based MLS Verification 232

Troubleshooting CEF 236

Summary 237

Review Questions 237

Chapter 5 Implementing High Availability and Redundancy in a Campus Network 243

Understanding High Availability 244

    Components of High Availability 244

        Redundancy 245

        Technology 246

        People 246

        Processes 247

        Tools 248

    Resiliency for High Availability 249

        Network-Level Resiliency 249

        High Availability and Failover Times 249

    Optimal Redundancy 251

        Provide Alternate Paths 252

        Avoid Too Much Redundancy 253

        Avoid Single Point of Failure 253

        Cisco NSF with SSO 254

        Routing Protocols and NSF 255

Implementing High Availability 255

    Distributed VLANs on Access Switches 256

    Local VLANs on Access Switches 256

    Layer 3 Access to the Distribution Interconnection 257

    Daisy Chaining Access Layer Switches 257

    StackWise Access Switches 259

    Too Little Redundancy 260

Implementing Network Monitoring 262

    Network Management Overview 262

    Syslog 263

        Syslog Message Format 265

        Configuring Syslog 267

    SNMP 269

        SNMP Versions 270

        SNMP Recommendations 272

        Configuring SNMP 272

    IP Service Level Agreement 273

        IP SLA Measurements 273

        IP SLA Operations 275

        IP SLA Source and Responder 275

        IP SLA Operation with Responder 275

        IP SLA Responder Timestamps 277

        Configuring IP SLA 277

Implementing Redundant Supervisor Engines in Catalyst Switches 280

    Route Processor Redundancy 281

    Route Processor Redundancy Plus 282

        Configuring and Verifying RPR+ Redundancy 283

    Stateful Switchover (SSO) 284

        Configuring and Verifying SSO 285

    NSF with SSO 286

        Configuring and Verifying NSF with SSO 287

Understanding First Hop Redundancy Protocols 288

    Introduction to First Hop Redundancy Protocol 288

        Proxy ARP 289

        Static Default Gateway 290

    Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) 291

        HSRP States 294

        HSRP State Transition 295

        HSRP Active Router and Spanning Tree Topology 296

        Configuring HSRP 296

        HSRP Priority and Preempt 297

        HSRP Authentication 298

        HSRP Timer Considerations and Configuration 299

        HSRP Versions 301

        HSRP Interface Tracking 302

        HSRP Object Tracking 304

        HSRP and IP SLA Tracking 305

        Multiple HSRP Groups 306

        HSRP Monitoring 307

    Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol 309

        VRRP Operation 311

        VRRP Transition Process 312

        Configuring VRRP 312

    Gateway Load Balancing Protocol 315

        GLBP Functions 316

        GLBP Features 317

        GLBP Operations 318

        GLBP Interface Tracking 318

        GLBP Configuration 322

        GLBP with VLAN Spanning Across Access Layer Switches 322

Cisco IOS Server Load Balancing 323

    Cisco IOS SLB Modes of Operation 325

    Configuring the Server Farm in a Data Center with Real Servers 326

    Configuring Virtual Servers 328

Summary 330

Review Questions 331

Chapter 6 Securing the Campus Infrastructure 333

Switch Security Fundamentals 334

    Security Infrastructure Services 334

    Unauthorized Access by Rogue Devices 336

    Layer 2 Attack Categories 337

Understanding and Protecting Against MAC Layer Attack 339

    Suggested Mitigation for MAC Flooding Attacks 341

    Port Security 341

        Port Security Scenario 1 341

        Port Security Scenario 2 342

        Configuring Port Security 343

        Caveats to Port Security Configuration Steps 344

        Verifying Port Security 345

        Port Security with Sticky MAC Addresses 347

    Blocking Unicast Flooding on Desired Ports 348

Understanding and Protecting Against VLAN Attacks 349

    VLAN Hopping 349

    VLAN Hopping with Double Tagging 350

    Mitigating VLAN Hopping 351

    VLAN Access Control Lists 352

    Configuring VACL 353

Understanding and Protecting Against Spoofing Attacks 355

    Catalyst Integrated Security Features 355

    DHCP Spoofing Attack 356

    DHCP Snooping 358

    ARP Spoofing Attack 361

    Preventing ARP Spoofing Through Dynamic

    ARP Inspection 362

    IP Spoofing and IP Source Guard 368

        Configuring IPSG 370

Securing Network Switches 372

    Neighbor Discovery Protocols 372

    Cisco Discovery Protocol 373

        Configuring CDP 373

        Configuring LLDP 375

    CDP Vulnerabilities 375

    Securing Switch Access 376

        Telnet Vulnerabilities 377

        Secure Shell 377

        VTY ACLs 378

        HTTP Secure Server 379

        Authentication Authorization Accounting (AAA) 380

    Security Using IEEE 802.1X Port-Based Authentication 387

        Configuring 802.1X 389

Switch Security Considerations 390

    Organizational Security Policies 391

    Securing Switch Devices and Protocols 391

        Configuring Strong System Passwords 392

        Restricting Management Access Using ACLs 392

        Securing Physical Access to the Console 393

        Securing Access to vty Lines 393

        Configuring System Warning Banners 393

        Disabling Unneeded or Unused Services 394

        Trimming and Minimizing Use of CDP/LLDP 395

        Disabling the Integrated HTTP Daemon 395

        Configuring Basic System Logging 396

        Securing SNMP 396

        Limiting Trunking Connections and Propagated VLANs 396

        Securing the Spanning-Tree Topology 396

    Mitigating Compromises Launched Through a Switch 397

Troubleshooting Performance and Connectivity 398

    Techniques to Enhance Performance 398

    Monitoring Performance with SPAN and VSPAN 400

    Using SPAN to Monitor the CPU Interface of Switches 403

    Monitoring Performance with RSPAN 404

    Monitoring Performance with ERSPAN 408

    Monitoring Performance Using VACLs with the Capture Option 410

    Troubleshooting Using L2 Traceroute 412

    Enhancing Troubleshooting and Recovery Using Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager 413

    Performance Monitoring Using the Network Analysis Module in the Catalyst 6500 Family of Switches 414

Summary 415

Review Questions 416

Chapter 7 Preparing the Campus Infrastructure for Advanced Services 419

Planning for Wireless, Voice, and Video Application in the Campus Network 420

    The Purpose of Wireless Network Implementations in the Campus Network 420

    The Purpose of Voice in the Campus Network 421

    The Purpose of Video Deployments in the Campus Network 423

    Planning for the Campus Network to Support Wireless Technologies 423

        Introduction to Wireless LANs (WLAN) 423

        Cisco WLAN Solutions as Applied to Campus Networks 426

        Comparing and Contrasting WLANs and LANs 428

        Standalone Versus Controller-Based Approaches to WLAN

        Deployments in the Campus Network 429

        Controller-Based WLAN Solution 430

        Traffic Handling in Controller-Based Solutions 433

        Traffic Flow in a Controller-Based Solution 434

        Hybrid Remote Edge Access Points (HREAP) 435

        Review of Standalone and Controller-Based WLAN Solutions 436

        Gathering Requirements for Planning a Wireless Deployment 436

    Planning for the Campus Network to Support Voice 437

        Introduction to Unified Communications 438

        Campus Network Design Requirements for Deploying VoIP 439

    Planning for the Campus Network to Support Video 440

        Voice and Video Traffic 441

        Video Traffic Flow in the Campus Network 442

        Design Requirements for Voice, Data, and Video in the Campus Network 444

Understanding QoS 444

    QoS Service Models 446

    AutoQoS 447

    Traffic Classification and Marking 448

        DSCP, ToS, and CoS 448

        Classification 449

    Trust Boundaries and Configurations 450

        Marking 451

        Traffic Shaping and Policing 451

        Policing 452

    Congestion Management 453

        FIFO Queuing 453

        Weighted Round Robin Queuing 453

        Priority Queuing 455

        Custom Queuing 455

    Congestion Avoidance 455

        Tail Drop 456

        Weighted Random Early Detection 456

Implementing IP Multicast in the Campus Network 458

    Introduction to IP Multicast 459

    Multicast IP Address Structure 462

        Reserved Link Local Addresses 463

        Globally Scoped Addresses 463

        Source-Specific Multicast Addresses 463

        GLOP Addresses 464

        Limited-Scope Addresses 464

    Multicast MAC Address Structure 464

    Reverse Path Forwarding 465

    Multicast Forwarding Tree 466

        Source Trees 467

        Shared Trees 468

        Comparing Source Trees and Shared Trees 469

    IP Multicast Protocols 470

        PIM 470

        Automating Distribution of RP 474

        Auto-RP 474

        Bootstrap Router 475

        Comparison and Compatibility of PIM Version 1 and Version 2 476

    Configuring Internet Group Management Protocol 478

        IGMPv1 478

        IGMPv2 478

        IGMPv3 479

        IGMPv3 Lite 479

        IGMP Snooping 480

Preparing the Campus Infrastructure to Support Wireless 484

    Wireless LAN Parameters 484

    Configuring Switches to Support WLANs 484

        Preparing the Campus Network for Integration of a Standalone WLAN Solution 484

        Preparing the Campus Network for Integration of a Controller-Based WLAN Solution 485

Preparing the Campus Infrastructure to Support Voice 487

    IP Telephony Components 487

    Configuring Switches to Support VoIP 488

        Voice VLANs 488

        QoS for Voice Traffic from IP Phones 490

        Power over Ethernet 491

        Additional Network Requirements for VoIP 493

Preparing the Campus Infrastructure to Support Video 494

    Video Components 494

    Configuring Switches to Support Video 495

Summary 496

Review Questions 497

Appendix A 503

 

9781587058844     TOC    5/20/2010

 

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