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Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Voice over IP and QoS (Cvoice) Foundation Learning Guide: (CCNP Voice CVoice 642-437), 4th Edition

By Kevin Wallace

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: May 24, 2011

Description

Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Voice over IP and QoS (CVOICE)

Foundation Learning Guide

Foundation Learning for the CCNP® Voice (CVOICE) 642-437 Exam

 

Kevin Wallace, CCIE®  No. 7945

 

Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Voice over IP and QoS (CVOICE) Foundation Learning Guide is a Cisco®-authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCNP Voice foundation learning. Developed in conjunction with the Cisco CCNP Voice certification team, it covers all aspects of planning, designing, and deploying Cisco VoIP networks and integrating gateways, gatekeepers, and QoS into them.

 

Updated throughout for the new CCNP Voice (CVOICE) Version 8.0 exam (642-437), this guide teaches you how to implement and operate gateways, gatekeepers, Cisco Unified Border Element, Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express, and QoS in a voice network architecture. Coverage includes voice gateways, characteristics of VoIP call legs, dial plans and their implementation, basic implementation of IP phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express environment, and essential information about gatekeepers and Cisco Unified Border Element. The book also provides information on voice-related QoS mechanisms that are required in Cisco Unified Communications networks.

 

Fourteen video lab demonstrations on the accompanying CD-ROM walk you step by step through configuring DHCP servers, CUCME autoregistration, ISDN PRI circuits, PSTN dial plans, DID, H.323 and MGCP gateways, VoIP dial peering, gatekeepers, COR, AutoQoS VoIP, and much more.

 

Whether you are preparing for CCNP Voice certification or simply want to gain a better understanding of VoIP and QoS, you will benefit from the foundation information presented in this book.

 

-  Voice gateways, including operational modes, functions, related call leg types, and routing techniques

-  Gateway connections to traditional voice circuits via analog and digital interfaces

-  Basic VoIP configuration, including A/D conversion, encoding, packetization, gateway protocols, dial peers, and transmission of DTMF, fax, and modem tones

-  Supporting Cisco IP Phones with Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express

-  Dial plans, including digit manipulation, path selection, calling privileges, and more

-  Gatekeepers, Cisco Unified Border Elements, and call admission control (CAC) configuration

-  QoS issues and mechanisms

-  Unique DiffServ QoS characteristics and mechanisms

-  Cisco AutoQoS configuration and operation

 

Companion CD-ROM

The CD-ROM that accompanies this book contains 14 video lab demonstrations running approximately 90 minutes.

This book is in the Foundation Learning Guide Series. These guides are developed together with Cisco® as the only authorized, self-paced learning tools that help networking professionals build their understanding of networking concepts and prepare for Cisco certification exams.

 

 

Table of Contents

Introduction xxx

Chapter 1 Introducing Voice Gateways 1

The Role of Gateways 1

    Traditional Telephony Networks 2

    Cisco Unified Communications Overview 3

    Cisco Unified Communications Architecture 4

    Cisco Unified Communications Business Benefits 5

    Cisco Unified Communications Gateways 6

        Gateway Operation 7

        Comparing VoIP Signaling Protocols 10

    Gateway Deployment Example 12

    IP Telephony Deployment Models 13

        Single-Site Deployment 14

        Multisite WAN with Centralized Call-Processing Deployment 16

        Multisite WAN with Distributed Call-Processing Deployment 20

        Clustering over the IP WAN Deployment 24

    Modern Gateway Hardware Platforms 27

        Cisco 2900 Series Integrated Services Routers 27

        Cisco 3900 Series Integrated Services Routers 27

    Well-Known Older Enterprise Models 27

        Cisco 2800 Series Integrated Services Routers 28

        Cisco 3800 Series Integrated Services Routers 29

    Specialized Voice Gateways 30

        Cisco ATA 186 30

        Cisco VG248 Analog Phone Gateway 30

        Cisco AS5350XM Series Universal Gateway 30

        Cisco AS5400 Series Universal Gateway Platforms 31

        Cisco 7200 Series Routers 32

    Gateway Operational Modes 32

        Voice Gateway Call Legs 33

        Voice-Switching Gateway 34

        VoIP Gateway 34

        Cisco Unified Border Element 35

How Voice Gateways Route Calls 36

    Gateway Call-Routing Components 36

        Dial Peers 37

        Call Legs 39

    Configuring POTS Dial Peers 41

    Matching a Dial Peer 43

    Matching Outbound Dial Peers 48

    Default Dial Peer 49

    Direct Inward Dialing 50

        Two-Stage Dialing 51

        One-Stage Dialing 54

    Configuration of Voice Ports 57

    Analog Voice Ports 58

        Signaling Interfaces 59

        Analog Voice Port Interfaces 59

    Analog Signaling 61

        FXS and FXO Supervisory Signaling 61

        Analog Address Signaling 64

        Informational Signaling 65

        E&M Signaling 66

        E&M Physical Interface 68

        E&M Address Signaling 68

    Configuring Analog Voice Ports 69

        FXS Voice Port Configuration 69

        FXO Voice Port Configuration 72

        E&M Voice Port Configuration 74

    Trunks 76

        Analog Trunks 77

        Centralized Automated Message Accounting Trunk 80

        Direct Inward Dialing Trunk 83

    Timers and Timing 85

    Verifying Voice Ports 86

    Digital Voice Ports 90

    Digital Trunks 90

        T1 CAS 92

        E1 R2 CAS 94

        Nonfacility Associated Signaling 99

        Configuring a T1 CAS Trunk 100

        Configuring T1 CAS Trunks: Inbound E&M FGD and Outbound FGD EANA Example 108

        Configuring an E1 R2 Trunk Example 110

        Configuring an ISDN Trunk 112

    Verifying Digital Voice Ports 117

    Cross-Connecting a DS0 with an Analog Port 123

    Echo Cancellation 124

        Echo Origin 124

        Talker Echo 125

        Listener Echo 125

        Echo Cancellation 125

        Echo Canceller Operation 126

        Echo Canceller Components 126

        Configuring Echo Cancellation 127

Voice Packets Processing with Codecs and DSPs 128

    Codecs 128

    Impact of Voice Samples and Packet Size on Bandwidth 130

    Evaluating Quality of Codecs 130

        Mean Opinion Score 131

        Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality 131

        Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality 132

        Test Method Comparison 132

        Codec Quality 133

        Evaluating Overhead 133

        Bandwidth Calculation Example 135

        Per-Call Bandwidth Using Common Codecs 135

    Digital Signal Processors 136

        Hardware Conferencing and Transcoding Resources 137

        DSP Chip 138

        Codec Complexity 140

        Recommended Usage in Deployment Models 140

        Packet Voice DSP Module Conferencing 141

        DSP Calculator 141

    Configuring DSPs 144

    Configuring Conferencing and Transcoding on Voice Gateways 147

        DSP Farms 148

        DSP Profiles 149

        SCCP Configuration 150

        Unified Communications Manager Configuration 151

    Cisco IOS Configuration Commands for Enhanced Media Resources 154

        DSP Farm Configuration Commands for Enhanced Media Resources 155

        SCCP Configuration Commands for Enhanced Media Resources 157

    Verifying Media Resources 160

Summary 161

Chapter Review Questions 161

Chapter 2 Configuring Basic Voice over IP 165

Voice Coding and Transmission 165

    VoIP Overview 166

    Major Stages of Voice Processing in VoIP 166

    VoIP Components 167

        Sampling 169

        Quantization 170

        Coding 172

    VoIP Packetization 173

        Packetization Rate 173

        Codec Operations 175

        Packetization and Compression Example 175

    VoIP Media Transmission 176

        Real-Time Transport Protocol 177

        Real-Time Transport Control Protocol 177

        Compressed RTP 178

        Secure RTP 179

        VoIP Media Considerations 181

    Voice Activity Detection 182

        Bandwidth Savings 183

        Voice Port Settings for VAD 184

Voice Signaling Protocols: H.323 184

    H.323 Architecture 184

        H.323 Advantages 185

        H.323 Network Components 186

    H.323 Call Flows 192

        H.323 Slow Start Call Setup 193

        H.323 Slow Start Call Teardown 194

        H.225 RAS Call Setup 196

        H.225 RAS Call Teardown 197

    Codecs in H.323 199

        Negotiation in Slow Start Call Setup 199

        H.323 Fast Connect 200

        H.323 Early Media 202

    Configuring H.323 Gateways 203

        H.323 Gateway Configuration Example 203

    Customizing H.323 Gateways 204

        H.323 Session Transport 204

        Idle Connection and H.323 Source IP Address 205

        H.225 Timers 205

        H.323 Gateway Tuning Example 206

    Verifying H.323 Gateways 206

Voice Signaling Protocols: SIP 207

    SIP Architecture 207

        Signaling and Deployment 208

        SIP Architecture Components 208

        SIP Servers 209

        SIP Architecture Examples 210

    SIP Call Flows 211

        SIP Call Setup Using Proxy Server 212

        SIP Call Setup Using Redirect Server 213

    SIP Addressing 214

        SIP Addressing Variants Example 214

        Address Registration 215

        Address Resolution 215

    Codecs in SIP 216

        Delayed Offer 218

        Early Offer 219

        Early Media 219

    Configuring Basic SIP 221

        User Agent Configuration 221

        Dial-Peer Configuration 222

        Basic SIP Configuration Example 222

    Configuring SIP ISDN Support 223

        Calling Name Display 223

        Blocking and Substituting Caller ID 225

        Blocking and Substituting Caller ID Commands 226

    Configuring SIP SRTP Support 226

        SIPS Global and Dial-Peer Commands 227

        SRTP Global and Dial-Peer Commands 228

        SIPS and SRTP Configuration Example 228

    Customizing SIP Gateways 228

        SIP Transport 229

        SIP Source IP Address 229

        SIP UA Timers 230

        SIP Early Media 230

        Gateway-to-Gateway Configuration Example 231

        UA Example 232

    Verifying SIP Gateways 233

        SIP UA General Verification 233

        SIP UA Registration Status 234

        SIP UA Call Information 235

        SIP Debugging Overview 236

        Examining the INVITE Message 237

        Examining the 200 OK Message 237

        Examining the BYE Message 238

Voice Signaling Protocols: MGCP 239

    MGCP Overview 239

    MGCP Advantages 240

    MGCP Architecture 240

        MGCP Gateways 242

        MGCP Call Agents 243

    Basic MGCP Concepts 243

        MGCP Calls and Connections 243

        MGCP Control Commands 244

        Package Types 245

    MGCP Call Flows 246

    Configuring MGCP Gateways 248

        MGCP Residential Gateway Configuration Example 249

        Configuring an MGCP Trunk Gateway Example 250

        Configuring Fax Relay with MGCP Gateways 251

    Verifying MGCP 254

        Debug Commands 257

VoIP Quality Considerations 257

    IP Networking and Audio Clarity 257

        Jitter 258

        Delay 259

        Acceptable Delay 260

        Packet Loss 261

    VoIP and QoS 262

        Objectives of QoS 263

        Using QoS to Improve Voice Quality 264

    Transporting Modulated Data over IP Networks 265

        Differences from Fax Transmission in the PSTN 265

        Fax Services over IP Networks 265

    Understanding Fax/Modem Pass-Through, Relay, and Store and Forward 266

        Fax Pass-Through 266

        Modem Pass-Through 268

        Fax Relay 269

        Modem Relay 270

        Store-and-Forward Fax 273

    Gateway Signaling Protocols and Fax Pass-Through and Relay 274

        Cisco Fax Relay 275

        H.323 T.38 Fax Relay 277

        SIP T.38 Fax Relay 278

        MGCP T.38 Fax Relay 280

        Gateway-Controlled MGCP T.38 Fax Relay 281

        Call Agent—Controlled MGCP T.38 Fax Relay 281

    DTMF Support 281

        H.323 DTMF Support 282

        MGCP DTMF Support 283

        SIP DTMF Support 283

Customization of Dial Peers 284

    Configuration Components of VoIP Dial Peer 284

        VoIP Dial-Peer Characteristics 284

    Configuring DTMF Relay 285

        DTMF Relay Configuration Example 286

    Configuring Fax/Modem Support 286

        Cisco Fax Relay and Fax Pass-Through 287

        T.38 Fax Relay Configuration 287

        Fax Relay Speed Configuration 288

        Fax Relay SG3 Support Configuration 288

        Fax Support Configuration Example 289

    Configuring Modem Support 289

        Modem Pass-Through 289

        Modem Relay 290

        Modem Relay Compression 290

        Modem Pass-Through and Modem Relay Interaction 291

        Modem Support Configuration Example 291

    Configuring Codecs 291

        Codec-Related Dial-Peer Configuration 292

        Codec Configuration Example 293

    Limiting Concurrent Calls 294

Summary 294

Chapter Review Questions 294

Chapter 3 Supporting Cisco IP Phones with Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 297

Introducing Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 297

    Fundamentals of Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 298

        Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Positioning 298

        Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Deployment Models 299

    Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Key Features and Benefits 301

        Phone Features 301

        System Features 302

        Trunk Features 303

        Voice-Mail Features 303

    Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Supported Platforms 303

        Cisco Integrated Services Routers Scalability 304

        Cisco Integrated Services Routers Generation 2 Scalability 305

        Memory Requirements 306

        Cisco Integrated Services Routers Licensing and Software 306

        Cisco Integrated Services Routers Generation 2 Licensing Model 307

    Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Operation 308

Operation of Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 308

    Overview of Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Endpoints 309

        Endpoint Signaling Protocols 309

        Endpoint Capabilities 309

        Basic Cisco IP Phone Models 310

        Midrange Cisco IP Phones 311

        Upper-End Cisco IP Phones 313

        Video-Enabled Cisco IP Phones 314

        Conference Stations 315

    Identifying Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Endpoint Requirements 318

        Phone Startup Process 318

    Power over Ethernet 322

        Two PoE Technologies 322

        Cisco Prestandard Device Detection 324

        IEEE 802.3af Device Detection 324

        Cisco Catalyst Switch: Configuring PoE 324

    VLAN Infrastructure 325

        Voice VLAN Support 326

        Ethernet Frame Types Generated by Cisco IP Phones 329

        Blocking PC VLAN Access at IP Phones 330

        Limiting VLANs on Trunk Ports at the Switch 330

    Configuring Voice VLAN in Access Ports Using Cisco IOS Software 331

    Configuring Trunk Ports Using Cisco IOS Software 331

        Verifying Voice VLAN Configuration 333

    IP Addressing and DHCP 334

        DHCP Parameters 335

        Router Configuration with an IEEE 802.1Q Trunk 335

        Router Configuration with Cisco EtherSwitch Network Module 336

        DHCP Relay Configuration 337

    Network Time Protocol 337

    Endpoint Firmware and Configuration 338

        Downloading Firmware 339

        Firmware Images 340

    Setting Up Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express in an SCCP Environment 340

        Configuring Source IP Address and Firmware Association 341

        Enabling SCCP Endpoints 342

        Locale Parameters 343

        Date and Time Parameters 343

        Parameter Tuning 344

        Generating Configuration Files for SCCP Endpoints 344

        Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express SCCP

        Environment Example 346

    Setting Up Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express in a SIP Environment 346

        Configuring Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express for SIP 347

        Configuring Source IP Address and Associating Firmware 347

        Enabling SIP Endpoints 348

        Locale Parameters 348

        Date and Time Parameters 348

        NTP and DST Parameters 349

        Generating Configuration Files for SIP Endpoints 349

        Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express SIP Environment Example 350

Configuration of Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 350

    Directory Numbers and Phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 350

        Directory Number Types 352

        Single- and Dual-Line Directory Numbers 353

        Octo-Line Directory Number 354

        Nonexclusive Shared-Line Directory Number 355

        Exclusive Shared-Line Directory Number 356

        Multiple Directory Numbers with One Telephone Number 357

        Multiple-Number Directory Number 358

        Overlaid Directory Number 358

    Creating Directory Numbers for SCCP Phones 359

        Single-Line Ephone-dn Configuration 360

        Dual-Line Ephone-dn Configuration 360

        Octo-Line Ephone-dn Configuration 361

        Dual-Number Ephone-dn Configuration 361

    Configuring SCCP Phone-Type Templates 362

        Configuring SCCP Phone-Type Templates 362

        Ephone Template for Conference Station 7937G Configuration Example 364

    Creating SCCP Phones 365

        Configuring the SCCP Ephone Type 365

        Configuring SCCP Ephone Buttons 366

        Configuring Ephone Preferred Codec 366

        Basic Ephone Configuration Example 367

        Multiple Ephone Configuration Example 367

        Multiple Directory Numbers Configuration Example 368

        Shared Directory Number Configuration Example 369

        Controlling Automatic Registration 369

        Partially Automated Endpoint Deployment 370

        Partially Automated Deployment Example 371

    Creating Directory Numbers for SIP Phones 371

        Voice Register Directory Number Configuration Example 372

    Creating SIP Phones 372

        Configuring SIP Phones 373

        Tuning SIP Phones 373

        Shared Directory Number Configuration Example 374

    Configuring Cisco IP Communicator Support 374

        Configuring Cisco IP Communicator 375

    Managing Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Endpoints 375

    Rebooting Commands 376

    Verifying Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Endpoints 377

        Verifying Phone VLAN ID 378

        Verifying Phone IP Parameters 378

        Verifying Phone TFTP Server 379

        Verifying Firmware Files 379

        Verifying TFTP Operation 380

        Verifying Phone Firmware 381

        Verifying SCCP Endpoint Registration 381

        Verifying SIP Endpoint Registration 382

        Verifying the SIP Registration Process 383

        Verifying the SCCP Registration Process 383

        Verifying Endpoint-Related Dial Peers 384

Summary 385

Chapter Review Questions 385

Chapter 4 Introducing Dial Plans 389

Numbering Plan Fundamentals 389

    Introducing Numbering Plans 389

        North American Numbering Plan 390

        European Telephony Numbering Space 393

        Fixed and Variable-Length Numbering Plan Comparison 394

        E.164 Addressing 395

    Scalable Numbering Plans 396

        Non-Overlapping Numbering Plan 396

        Scalable Non-Overlapping Numbering Plan Considerations 398

        Overlapping Numbering Plans 398

        Overlapping Numbering Plan Example 399

        Scalable Overlapping Numbering Plan Considerations 400

    Private and Public Numbering Plan Integration 400

        Private and Public Numbering Plan Integration Functions 401

        Private and Public Numbering Plan Integration Considerations 402

    Number Plan Implementation Overview 402

        Private Number Plan Implementation Example 403

        Public Number Plan Implementation 404

    Call Routing Overview 404

    Call Routing Example 405

Dial Plan Components 406

    Defining Dial Plans 406

        Dial Plan Implementation 407

        Dial Plan Requirements 407

    Endpoint Addressing Considerations 408

    Call Routing and Path Selection 409

    PSTN Dial Plan Requirements 410

        Inbound PSTN Calls 410

        Outbound PSTN Calls 412

    ISDN Dial Plan Requirements 413

    Digit Manipulation 414

    Calling Privileges 415

    Call Coverage 416

        Call Coverage Features 416

Summary 417

Chapter Review Questions 417

Chapter 5 Implementing Dial Plans 421

Configuring Digit Manipulation 421

    Digit Collection and Consumption 421

    Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Addressing Method 422

        User Input on SCCP Phones 423

        SCCP Digit Collection 424

        SIP Digit Collection (Simple Phones) 424

        SIP Digit Collection (Enhanced Phones) 425

        Dial-Peer Management 426

    Digit Manipulation 427

    Digit Stripping 429

    Digit Forwarding 429

    Digit Prefixing 431

    Number Expansion 431

        Simple Digit Manipulation for POTS Dial Peers Example 432

        Number Expansion Example 433

    Caller ID Number Manipulation 434

        CLID Commands 434

        Station ID Commands 434

        Displaying Caller ID Information 435

    Voice Translation Rules and Profiles 437

        Understanding Regular Expressions in Translation Rules 439

        Search and Replace with Voice Translation Rules Example 441

        Voice Translation Profiles 442

        Translation Profile Processing 443

        Voice Translation Profile Search-and-Replace Example 444

        Voice Translation Profile Call Blocking Example 445

    Voice Translation Profiles Versus the dialplan-pattern Command 447

        Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express with dialplan-pattern Example 447

        Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express with Voice Translation Profiles Example 448

        Verifying Voice Translation Rules 449

    Configuring Digit Manipulation 450

Configuring Path Selection 454

    Call Routing and Path Selection 454

    Dial-Peer Matching 455

        Matching to Inbound and Outbound Dial Peers 458

        Inbound Dial-Peer Matching 458

        Outbound Dial-Peer Matching 459

        Dial-Peer Call Routing and Path Selection Commands 459

    Matching Dial Peers in a Hunt Group 462

    H.323 Dial-Peer Configuration Best Practices 462

    Path Selection Strategies 464

    Site-Code Dialing and Toll-Bypass 464

        Toll-Bypass Example 464

        Site-Code Dialing and Toll-Bypass Example 466

    Tail-End Hop-Off 467

        TEHO Example 467

    Configuring Site-Code Dialing and Toll-Bypass 468

        Step 1: Create Translation Rules and Profiles 469

        Step 2: Define VoIP Dial Peers 470

        Step 3: Add Support for PSTN Fallback 471

        Step 4: Create a Dial Peer for PSTN Fallback 472

    Outbound Site-Code Dialing Example 472

    Inbound Site-Code Dialing Example 474

    Configuring TEHO 475

        Step 1: Define VoIP Outbound Digit Manipulation for TEHO 476

        Step 2: Define Outbound VoIP TEHO Dial Peer 476

        Step 3: Define Outbound POTS TEHO Dial Peer 476

        Complete TEHO Configuration 477

Implementing Calling Privileges on Cisco IOS Gateways 477

    Calling Privileges 477

    Understanding COR on Cisco IOS Gateways 479

        COR Behavior Example 479

        COR Example 482

    Understanding COR for SRST and CME 483

    Configuring COR for Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 485

        Step 1: Define COR Labels 485

        Step 2: Configure Outbound Corlists 486

        Step 3: Configure Inbound Corlists 487

        Step 4: Assign Corlists to PSTN Dial Peers 488

        Step 5: Assign Corlists to Incoming Dial Peers and Ephone-dns 489

    Configuring COR for SRST 490

    Verifying COR 491

Summary 492

Chapter Review Questions 493

Chapter 6 Using Gatekeepers and Cisco Unified Border Elements 497

Gatekeeper Fundamentals 497

    Gatekeeper Responsibilities 498

    Gatekeeper Signaling 500

        RAS Messages 501

        Gatekeeper Discovery 504

        Registration Request 506

        Lightweight Registration 506

        Admission Request 507

        Admission Request Message Failures 507

        Information Request 509

        Location Request 510

        Gatekeeper Signaling: LRQ Sequential 511

        Gatekeeper Signaling: LRQ Blast 512

        H.225 RAS Intrazone Call Setup 514

        H.225 RAS Interzone Call Setup 515

        Zones 516

    Zone Prefixes 517

    Technology Prefixes 518

Configuring H.323 Gatekeepers 520

    Gatekeeper Configuration Steps 520

        Gateway Selection Process 521

        Configuration Considerations 521

        Basic Gatekeeper Configuration Commands 522

    Configuring Gatekeeper Zones 524

    Configuring Zone Prefixes 526

    Configuring Technology Prefixes 527

    Configuring Gateways to Use H.323 Gatekeepers 529

    Dial-Peer Configuration 532

    Verifying Gatekeeper Functionality 533

Providing Call Admission Control with an H.323 Gatekeeper 535

    Gatekeeper Zone Bandwidth Operation 535

        Zone Bandwidth Calculation 536

        bandwidth Command 538

        Zone Bandwidth Configuration Example 539

        Verifying Zone Bandwidth Operation 540

Introducing the Cisco Unified Border Element Gateway 541

    Cisco Unified Border Element Overview 541

    Cisco UBE Gateways in Enterprise Environments 543

    Protocol Interworking on Cisco UBE Gateways 547

        Signaling Method Refresher 547

        Cisco Unified Border Element Protocol Interworking 548

    Media Flows on Cisco UBE Gateways 549

    Codec Filtering on Cisco UBEs 550

    RSVP-Based CAC on Cisco UBEs 552

        RSVP-Based CAC 552

        RSVP-Based CAC Call Flow 553

    Cisco Unified Border Element Call Flows 554

        SIP Carrier Interworking 554

        SIP Carrier Interworking Call Flow 554

        SIP Carrier Interworking with Gatekeeper-Based CAC Call Setup 555

Configuring Cisco Unified Border Elements 557

    Protocol Interworking Command 557

    Configuring H.323-to-SIP DTMF Relay Interworking 558

    Configuring Media Flow and Transparent Codec 558

        media Command 559

        codec transparent Command 559

        Media Flow-Around and Transparent Codec Example 559

    Configuring H.323-to-H.323 Fast-Start-to-Slow-Start Interworking 560

    H.323-to-H.323 Interworking Example 560

    Verifying Cisco Unified Border Element 560

        Debugging Cisco Unified Border Element Operations 562

        Viewing Cisco Unified Border Element Calls 562

Summary 563

Chapter Review Questions 563

Chapter 7 Introducing Quality of Service 567

Fundamentals of QoS 567

    QoS Issues 567

        After Convergence 568

        Quality Issues in Converged Networks 570

        Bandwidth Capacity 570

        End-to-End Delay and Jitter 572

        Packet Loss 575

    QoS and Voice Traffic 576

QoS Policy 577

    QoS for Unified Communications Networks 577

        Example: Three Steps to Implementing QoS on a Network 577

    QoS Requirements 580

        Videoconferencing 580

        Data 580

    Methods for Implementing QoS Policy 581

        Implementing QoS Traditionally Using CLI 581

        Implementing QoS with MQC 582

        Implementing QoS with Cisco AutoQoS 583

        Comparing QoS Implementation Methods 583

    QoS Models 584

        Best-Effort Model 584

        IntServ Model 584

        DiffServ Model 585

        QoS Model Evaluation 586

Characteristics of QoS Models 587

    DiffServ Model 587

    DSCP Encoding 589

    DiffServ PHBs 590

        Expedited Forwarding PHB 590

        Assured Forwarding PHB 591

    DiffServ Class Selector 593

    DiffServ QoS Mechanisms 593

        Classification 593

        Marking 594

        Congestion Management 595

        Congestion Avoidance 596

        Policing 596

        Shaping 597

        Compression 598

        Link Fragmentation and Interleaving 598

        Applying QoS to Input and Output Interfaces 599

    Cisco QoS Baseline Model 601

        Cisco Baseline Marking 601

        Cisco Baseline Mechanisms 602

        Expansion and Reduction of the Class Model 603

Summary 603

Chapter Review Questions 604

Chapter 8 Configuring QoS Mechanisms 607

Classification, Marking, and Link-Efficiency QoS Mechanisms 607

    Modular QoS CLI 608

        Example: Advantages of Using MQC 609

        MQC Components 609

    Configuring Classification 610

    MQC Classification Options 611

        Class Map Matching Options 612

    Configuring Classification with MQC 613

        Configuring Classification Using Input Interface and RTP Ports 614

        Configuring Classification Using Marking 615

    Class-Based Marking Overview 615

        Configuring Class-Based Marking 616

        Class-Based Marking Configuration Example 616

    Trust Boundaries 617

        Trust Boundary Marking 618

        Configuring Trust Boundary 619

        Trust Boundary Configuration Example 619

    Mapping CoS to Network Layer QoS 620

        Default LAN Switch Configuration 621

        Mapping CoS and IP Precedence to DSCP 621

        CoS-to-DSCP Mapping Example 622

        DSCP-to-CoS Mapping Example 622

        Configuring Mapping 624

        Mapping Example 624

    Link-Efficiency Mechanisms Overview 625

    Link Speeds and QoS Implications 626

    Serialization Issues 626

        Serialization Delay 627

    Link Fragmentation and Interleaving 627

        Fragment Size Recommendation 628

        Configuring MLP with Interleaving 629

        MLP with Interleaving Example 630

    Configuring FRF.12 Frame Relay Fragmentation 631

        Configuring FRF.12 Fragmentation 632

        FRF.12 Configuration Example 632

    Class-Based RTP Header Compression 633

        RTP Header Compression Example 634

    Configuring Class-Based Header Compression 635

        Class-Based RTP Header Compression Configuration Example 635

Queuing and Traffic Conditioning 636

    Congestion and Its Solutions 637

        Congestion and Queuing: Aggregation 637

        Queuing Components 638

        Software Interfaces 639

    Policing and Shaping 640

    Policing and Shaping Comparison 641

    Measuring Traffic Rates 642

        Example: Token Bucket as a Coin Bank 643

        Single Token Bucket 644

    Class-Based Policing 645

        Single-Rate, Dual Token Bucket Class-Based Policing 646

        Dual-Rate, Dual Bucket Class-Based Policing 647

    Configuring Class-Based Policing 649

        Configuring Class-Based Policing 649

        Class-Based Policing Example: Single Rate, Single Token Bucket 650

        Class-Based Policing Example: Single Rate, Dual Token Bucket 651

    Class-Based Shaping 652

        Configuring Class-Based Shaping 653

        Class-Based Shaping Example 653

        Hierarchical Class-Based Shaping with CB-WFQ Example 653

    Low Latency Queuing 655

        LLQ Architecture 656

        LLQ Benefits 656

        Configuring LLQ 657

        Monitoring LLQ 658

        Calculating Bandwidth for LLQ 659

Introduction to Cisco AutoQoS 661

    Cisco AutoQoS VoIP 661

        Cisco AutoQoS VoIP Functions 662

    Cisco AutoQoS VoIP Router Platforms 663

    Cisco AutoQoS VoIP Switch Platforms 663

    Configuring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP 664

        Configuring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP: Routers 665

        Configuring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP: Switches 665

    Monitoring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP 666

        Monitoring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP: Routers 666

        Monitoring Cisco AutoQoS VoIP: Switches 667

    Automation with Cisco AutoQoS VoIP 668

    Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise 668

    Configuring Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise 670

    Monitoring Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise: Phase 1 672

    Monitoring Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise: Phase 2 672

Summary 673

Chapter Review Questions 673

Appendix A Answers to Chapter Review Questions 677

 

 

9781587204197   TOC   4/21/2011

 

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