Infants and Children: Prenatal Through Middle Childhood, 2nd Edition

By Laura E. Berk

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jul 29, 1996

Table of Contents

I. THEORY AND RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT.

1. History, Theory, and Research Strategies.
Child Development as an Interdisciplinary, Scientific and Applied Field.
Basic Themes and Issues.
Organismic versus Mechanistic Child • Continuity versus Discontinuity in Development • Nature versus Nurture • A Balanced Point of View.
Historical Foundations.
Medieval Times • The Reformation • Philosophies of the Enlightenment • Darwin's Theory of Evolution • Early Scientific Beginnings.
Social Issues: Social Change and Child-Rearing Advice to Parents.
Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories.
• The Psychoanalytic Perspective • Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory • Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory.
Recent Perspectives.
Information Processing • Ethology • Ecological Systems Today • Cross-Cultural Research and Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory.
Comparing Child Development Theories.
Studying the Child.
Common Methods Used to Study Children • General Research Designs • Designs for Studying Development • Ethics in Research on Children.
Cultural Influences: School Matters in Mexican-American Homes: An Ethnographic Study.
The Chronological Approach of this Book.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.

II. FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT.

2. Biological and Environmental Foundations.
Genetic Foundations.
The Genetic Code • The Sex Cells • Conception • Boy or Girl? • Multiple Births • Patterns of Genetic Inheritance.
Chromosomal Abnormalities.
Down Syndrome • Abnormalities of the Sex Chromosomes
Reproductive Choices.
Genetic Counseling • Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Medicine • The Alternative of Abortion • The Alternative of Adoption.
Social Issues: The Pros and Cons of Reproductive Technologies.
Environmental Contexts for Development.
The Family • Social Class and Family Functioning • The Impact of Poverty • Beyond the Family: Neighborhoods, Schools, Towns, and Cities • The Cultural Context.
Cultural Influences: The African-American Extended Family.
Social Issues: The Children's Defense Fund.
Understanding the Relationship between Heredity and Environment.
The Question of How Much? • The Question of How?
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

3. Prenatal Development.
Motivations for Parenthood.
Why Have Children? • How Large a Family? • Is There a Best Time During Adulthood to Have a Child?
Social Issues: A Global Perspective on Family Planning.
Prenatal Development.
The Period of the Zygote • The Period of the Embryo • The Period of the Fetus.
Prenatal Environmental Influences.
Teratogens • Other Maternal Factors • The Importance of Prenatal Health Care.
Social Issues: Prenatal Transmission of AIDS.
From Research to Practice: Intervening with Prenatally Malnourished Infants.
Preparing for Parenthood.
Seeking Information • The Baby Becomes a Reality • Models of Effective Parenthood • Practical Concerns • The Marital Relationship.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

4. Birth and the Newborn Baby.
The Stages of Childbirth.
Stage 1: Dilation and Effacement of the Cervix • Stage 2: Delivery of the Baby • Stage 3: Birth of the Placenta • The Baby's Adaptation to Labor and Delivery • The Newborn Baby's Appearance • Assessing the Newborn's Physical Condition: The Apgar Scale.
Approaches to Childbirth.
Natural, or Prepared, Childbirth • Home Delivery.
Cultural Influences: Childbirth Practices Around the World.
Medical Interventions.
Fetal Monitoring • Labor and Delivery Medication • Instrument Delivery • Induced Labor • Cesarean Delivery.
Birth Complications.
Oxygen Deprivation • Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants • Postterm Infants • Understanding Birth Complications.
Social Issues: A Cross-National Perspective on Infant Mortality.
Precious Moments after Birth.
The Newborn Baby's Capacities.
Newborn Reflexes • Sensory Capacities • Newborn States • Neonatal Behavioral Assessment.
The Transition to Parenthood.
From Research to Practice: Postpartum Depression and the Mother Infant Relationship.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

III. INFANCY AND TODDLERHOOD: THE FIRST TWO YEARS.

5. Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.
Body Growth in the First Two Years.
Changes in Body Size • Changes in Body Proportions • Changes in Muscle-Fat Makeup • Early Skeletal Growth • Appearance of Teeth.
Brain Development.
Development of Neurons • Development of the Cerebral Cortex
Factors Affecting Early Physical Growth.
Heredity • Nutrition • Affection and Stimulation.
Changing States of Arousal.
Cultural Influences: Cultural Variation in Infant Sleeping Arrangements.
Motor Development During the First Two Years.
The Sequence of Motor Development • Motor Skills as Complex Systems of Action • Maturation, Experience, and the Development of Motor Skills • Fine Motor Development: The Special Case of Voluntary Reaching • Bowel and Bladder Control.
Basic Learning Mechanisms.
Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Habituation and Dishabituation • Imitation.
From Research to Practice: The Mysterious Tragedy of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.
Perceptual Development in Infancy.
Hearing • Vision • Intermodal Perception.
Understanding Perceptual Development.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

6. Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.
Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory.
Key Piagetian Concepts • The Sensorimotor Stage • Recent Research on Sensorimotor Development • Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage.
Information Processing during the First Two Years.
A Model of Human Information Processing • Attention and Memory • Categorization • Evaluation of Information-Processing Findings.
The Social Context of Early Cognitive Development.
From Research to Practice: Parent-Toddler Interaction and Early Make Believe Play.
Individual Differences in Early Mental Development.
Infant Intelligence Tests • Early Environment and Mental Development • Early Intervention for At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.
Social Issues: The Carolina Abecedarian Project: A Model of Infant-Toddler Intervention.
Language Development during the First Two Years.
Three Theories of Language Development • Getting Ready to Talk • First Words • The Two-Word Utterance Phase • Comprehension versus Production • Individual Differences in Language Development • Supporting Early Language Development.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

7. Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.
Theories of Infant and Toddler Personality.
Erik Erikson: Trust and Autonomy • Margaret Mahler: Separation-Individuation • Similarities between Erikson's and Mahler's Theories.
Emotional Development during the First Two Years.
Development of Some Basic Emotions • Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others • Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotions • The Beginnings of Emotional Self-Regulation.
Temperament and Development.
Measuring Temperament • Stability of Temperament • Genetic Influences • Environmental Influences • Temperament and Child Rearing: The Goodness-of-Fit Model.
From Research to Practice: Difficult Children: When Parents Establish a Good Fit.
Development of Attachment.
Early Theories of Attachment • Bowlby's Ethological Theory • Measuring the Security of Attachment • Cultural Variations • Factors that Affect Attachment Security • Multiple Attachments • Attachment and Later Development.
Cultural Issues: Young Children's Attachment to Soft Objects.
Social Issues: Infant Day Care and Attachment.
Self-Development during the First Two Years.
Self-Recognition • Categorizing the Self • Emergence of Self-Control.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
Milestones of Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.

IV. EARLY CHILDHOOD: TWO TO SIX YEARS.

8. Physical Development in Early Childhood.
Body Growth in Early Childhood.
Changes in Body Size and Proportions • Skeletal Growth • Asynchronies in Physical Growth.
Brain Development in Early Childhood.
Lateralization and Handedness • Other Advances in Brain Development.
Factors Affecting Growth and Health in Early Childhood.
Hereditary and Hormonal Influences • Emotional Well-Being • Nutrition • Infectious Disease • Childhood Injuries.
Social Issues: Lead Poisoning in Childhood.
Cultural Influences: Child Health Care in the United States and European Nations.
From Research to Practice: Day Care and Infectious Disease.
Motor Development in Early Childhood.
Gross Motor Development • Fine Motor Development • Factors that Affect Early Childhood Motor Skills.
Perceptual Development in Early Childhood.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

9. Cognitive Development in Early Childhood.
Piaget's Theory: The Preoperational Stage.
Advances in Mental Representation • Make-Believe Play • Limitations of Preoperational Thought • Recent Research on Preoperational Thought • Evaluation of the Preoperational Stage • Piaget and Education.
From Research to Practice: Young Children's Understanding of Death.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory.
Children's Private Speech • Social Origins of Early Childhood Cognition • Vygotsky and Education.
Information Processing in Early Childhood.
Attention • Memory • The Young Child's Theory of Mind • Early Literacy and Mathematical Development • A Note on Academics in Early Childhood.
Individual Differences in Mental Development during Early Childhood.
Early Childhood Intelligence Tests • Home Environment and Mental Development • Preschool and Day Care • Educational Television.
Social Issues: Project Head Start: A Social Policy Success Story.
Language Development in Early Childhood.
Vocabulary Development • Grammatical Development • Becoming an Effective Conversationalist • Supporting Language Learning in Early Childhood.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

10. Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood.
Erikson's Theory: Initiative versus Guilt.
Self-Development in Early Childhood.
Foundations of Self-Concept • Understanding Intentions • Emergence of Self-Esteem • Emotional Development in Early Childhood • Understanding Emotion • Improvements in Emotional Self-Regulation • Changes in Self-Conscious emotions • Development of Empathy.
From Research to Practice: Helping Young Children Manage Fears.
Peer Relations in Early Childhood.
Advances in Peer Sociability • First Friendships.
Foundations of Morality in Early Childhood.
The Psychoanalytic Perspective • Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory • The Cognitive-Developmental Perspective • The Other Side of Morality: Development of Aggression.
Social Issues: Regulating Children's Television.
Gender Typing in Early Childhood.
Preschooler's Gender-Stereotyped Beliefs and Behavior • Genetic Influences on Gender Typing • Environmental Influences on Gender Typing • Gender-Role Identity • Reducing Gender Stereotyping in Young Children.
Child Rearing and Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood.
Styles of Child Rearing • What Makes Authoritarian Child Rearing So Effective? • Cultural and Situational Influences on Child-Rearing Styles • Child Maltreatment.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.
Milestones of Development in Early Childhood.

V. MIDDLE CHILDHOOD: SIX TO ELEVEN YEARS.

11. Physical Development in Middle Childhood.
Body Growth in Middle Childhood.
Changes in Body Size and Proportions • Secular Trends in Physical Growth • Skeletal Growth • Brain Development.
Common Health Problems in Middle Childhood.
Vision and Hearing • Malnutrition • Obesity • Type A Behavior • Bedwetting • Illnesses • Unintentional Injuries.
Health Education in Middle Childhood.
Cultural Influences: Children's Understanding of Health and Illness.
Motor Development and Play in Middle Childhood.
Gross Motor Development • Fine Motor Development • Individual and Group Differences in Motor Development • Organized Games with Rules • Shadows of Our Evolutionary Past • Physical Education.
Social Issues: Are Adult-Organized Sports Good for Children? .
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

12. Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.
Piaget's Theory: The Concrete Operational Stage.
Conservation • Classification • Seriation • Spatial Reasoning • Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought • Recent Research on Concrete Operational Thought • Evaluation of the Concrete Operational Stage.
Information Processing in Middle Childhood.
Attention • Memory Strategies • The Knowledge Base and Memory Performance • Culture and Memory Strategies • The School-Age Child's Theory of Mind • Self-Regulation • Applications of Information Processing to Academic Learning.
From Research to Practice: Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Individual Differences in Mental Development during Middle Childhood.
Defining and Measuring Intelligence • Explaining Individual Differences in IQ • Overcoming Cultural Bias in Intelligence Tests.
Language Development in Middle Childhood.
Vocabulary • Grammar • Pragmatics • Learning Two Languages at a Time.
Social Issues: Bilingual Education in the United States.
Children's Learning in Schools.
The Educational Philosophy • Teacher-Pupil Interaction • Computers in the Classroom • Teaching Children with Special Needs.
How Well Educated are America's Children?
Cultural Issues: Education in Japan, Taiwan, and the United States.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

13. Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood.
Erikson's Theory: Industry versus Inferiority.
Self-Development in Middle Childhood.
Changes in Self-Concept • Development of Self-Esteem • Influences on Self-Esteem.
Emotional Development in Middle Childhood.
Understanding Others.
Selman's Stages of Perspective Taking • Perspective Taking and Social Behavior
Moral Development in Middle Childhood.
Learning about Justice through Sharing • Changes in Moral and Social Conventional Understanding.
Cultural Influences: Children's Moral Concepts in India and the United States.
Peer Relations in Middle Childhood.
Changes in Peer Sociability • Peer Groups • Friendships • Peer Acceptance.
Gender Typing in Middle Childhood.
Gender-Stereotyped Beliefs • Gender-Role Identity and Behavior • Cultural Influences on Gender Typing.
Family Influences in Middle Childhood.
Parent-Child Relationships • Siblings • Divorce • Remarriage • Maternal Employment.
Some Common Problems of Development.
Fears and Anxieties • Child Sexual Abuse.
From Research to Practice: Children's Eyewitness Testimony.
Stress and Coping in Middle Childhood.
Social Influences: Children of War.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.
Milestones of Development in Middle Childhood.

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Infants and Children: Prenatal Through Middle Childhood, 2nd Edition

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-26204-5

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