Infants, Children and Adolescents, 2nd Edition

By Laura E. Berk

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Aug 28, 1995

Table of Contents



1. History, Theory, and Research Strategies.
Child Development as an Interdisciplinary, Scientific and Applied Field.
Basic Themes and Issues.
Organismic versus Mechanistic Child • Continuity versus Discontinuity in Development • Nature versus Nurture • A Balanced Point of View
Historical Foundations.
Medieval Times • The Reformation • Philosophies of the Enlightenment • Darwin's Theory of Evolution • Early Scientific Beginnings
Social Issues: Social Change and Child-Rearing Advice to Parents.
Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories.
• The Psychoanalytic Perspective • Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory • Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory
Recent Perspectives.
Information Processing • Ethology • Ecological Systems Today • Cross-Cultural Research and Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Comparing Child Development Theories.
Studying the Child.
Common Methods Used to Study Children • General Research Designs • Designs for Studying Development • Ethics in Research on Children
Cultural Influences: School Matters in Mexican-American Homes: An Ethnographic Study.
The Chronological Approach of this Book.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.


2. Biological and Environmental Foundations.
Genetic Foundations.
The Genetic Code • The Sex Cells • Conception • Boy or Girl? • Multiple Births • Patterns of Genetic Inheritance
Chromosomal Abnormalities.
Down Syndrome • Abnormalities of the Sex Chromosomes
Reproductive Choices.
Genetic Counseling • Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Medicine • The Alternative of Abortion • The Alternative of Adoption
Social Issues: The Pros and Cons of Reproductive Technologies.
Environmental Contexts for Development.
The Family • Social Class and Family Functioning • The Impact of Poverty • Beyond the Family: Neighborhoods, Schools, Towns, and Cities • The Cultural Context
Cultural Influences: The African-American Extended Family.
Social Issues: The Children's Defense Fund.
Understanding the Relationship between Heredity and Environment.
The Question of How Much? • The Question of How?
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

3. Prenatal Development.
Motivations for Parenthood.
Why Have Children? • How Large a Family? • Is There a Best Time During Adulthood to Have a Child?
Social Issues: A Global Perspective on Family Planning.
Prenatal Development.
The Period of the Zygote • The Period of the Embryo • The Period of the Fetus
Prenatal Environmental Influences.
Teratogens • Other Maternal Factors • The Importance of Prenatal Health Care
Social Issues: Prenatal Transmission of AIDS.
From Research to Practice: Intervening with Prenatally Malnourished Infants.
Preparing for Parenthood.
Seeking Information • The Baby Becomes a Reality • Models of Effective Parenthood • Practical Concerns • The Marital Relationship
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

4. Birth and the Newborn Baby.
The Stages of Childbirth.
Stage 1: Dilation and Effacement of the Cervix • Stage 2: Delivery of the Baby • Stage 3: Birth of the Placenta • The Baby's Adaptation to Labor and Delivery • The Newborn Baby's Appearance • Assessing the Newborn's Physical Condition: The Apgar Scale
Approaches to Childbirth.
Natural, or Prepared, Childbirth • Home Delivery
Cultural Influences: Childbirth Practices Around the World.
Medical Interventions.
Fetal Monitoring • Labor and Delivery Medication • Instrument Delivery • Induced Labor • Cesarean Delivery
Birth Complications.
Oxygen Deprivation • Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants • Postterm Infants • Understanding Birth Complications
Social Issues: A Cross-National Perspective on Infant Mortality.
Precious Moments after Birth.
The Newborn Baby's Capacities.
Newborn Reflexes • Sensory Capacities • Newborn States • Neonatal Behavioral Assessment
The Transition to Parenthood.
From Research to Practice: Postpartum Depression and the Mother Infant Relationship.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.


5. Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.
Body Growth in the First Two Years.
Changes in Body Size • Changes in Body Proportions • Changes in Muscle-Fat Makeup • Early Skeletal Growth • Appearance of Teeth
Brain Development.
Development of Neurons • Development of the Cerebral Cortex
Factors Affecting Early Physical Growth.
Heredity • Nutrition • Affection and Stimulation
Changing States of Arousal.
Cultural Influences: Cultural Variation in Infant Sleeping Arrangements.
Motor Development During the First Two Years.
The Sequence of Motor Development • Motor Skills as Complex Systems of Action • Maturation, Experience, and the Development of Motor Skills • Fine Motor Development: The Special Case of Voluntary Reaching • Bowel and Bladder Control
Basic Learning Mechanisms.
Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Habituation and Dishabituation • Imitation
From Research to Practice: The Mysterious Tragedy of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.
Perceptual Development in Infancy.
Hearing • Vision • Intermodal Perception
Understanding Perceptual Development.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

6. Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.
Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory.
Key Piagetian Concepts • The Sensorimotor Stage • Recent Research on Sensorimotor Development • Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage
Information Processing during the First Two Years.
A Model of Human Information Processing • Attention and Memory • Categorization • Evaluation of Information-Processing Findings
The Social Context of Early Cognitive Development.
From Research to Practice: Parent-Toddler Interaction and Early Make Believe Play.
Individual Differences in Early Mental Development.
Infant Intelligence Tests • Early Environment and Mental Development • Early Intervention for At-Risk Infants and Toddlers
Social Issues: The Carolina Abecedarian Project: A Model of Infant-Toddler Intervention.
Language Development during the First Two Years.
Three Theories of Language Development • Getting Ready to Talk • First Words • The Two-Word Utterance Phase • Comprehension versus Production • Individual Differences in Language Development • Supporting Early Language Development
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

7. Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.
Theories of Infant and Toddler Personality.
Erik Erikson: Trust and Autonomy • Margaret Mahler: Separation- Individuation • Similarities between Erikson's and Mahler's Theories
Emotional Development during the First Two Years.
Development of Some Basic Emotions • Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others • Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotions • The Beginnings of Emotional Self-Regulation
Temperament and Development.
Measuring Temperament • Stability of Temperament • Genetic Influences • Environmental Influences • Temperament and Child Rearing: The Goodness-of-Fit Model
From Research to Practice: Difficult Children: When Parents Establish a Good Fit.
Development of Attachment.
Early Theories of Attachment • Bowlby's Ethological Theory • Measuring the Security of Attachment • Cultural Variations • Factors that Affect Attachment Security • Multiple Attachments • Attachment and Later Development
Cultural Issues: Young Children's Attachment to Soft Objects.
Social Issues: Infant Day Care and Attachment.
Self-Development during the First Two Years.
Self-Recognition • Categorizing the Self • Emergence of Self-Control
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
Milestones of Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.


8. Physical Development in Early Childhood.
Body Growth in Early Childhood.
Changes in Body Size and Proportions • Skeletal Growth • Asynchronies in Physical Growth
Brain Development in Early Childhood.
Lateralization and Handedness • Other Advances in Brain Development
Factors Affecting Growth and Health in Early Childhood.
Hereditary and Hormonal Influences • Emotional Well-Being • Nutrition • Infectious Disease • Childhood Injuries
Social Issues: Lead Poisoning in Childhood.
Cultural Influences: Child Health Care in the United States and European Nations.
From Research to Practice: Day Care and Infectious Disease.
Motor Development in Early Childhood.
Gross Motor Development • Fine Motor Development • Factors that Affect Early Childhood Motor Skills
Perceptual Development in Early Childhood.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

9. Cognitive Development in Early Childhood.
Piaget's Theory: The Preoperational Stage.
Advances in Mental Representation • Make-Believe Play • Limitations of Preoperational Thought • Recent Research on Preoperational Thought • Evaluation of the Preoperational Stage • Piaget and Education
From Research to Practice: Young Children's Understanding of Death.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory.
Children's Private Speech • Social Origins of Early Childhood Cognition • Vygotsky and Education
Information Processing in Early Childhood.
Attention • Memory • The Young Child's Theory of Mind • Early Literacy and Mathematical Development • A Note on Academics in Early Childhood
Individual Differences in Mental Development during Early Childhood.
Early Childhood Intelligence Tests • Home Environment and Mental Development • Preschool and Day Care • Educational Television
Social Issues: Project Head Start: A Social Policy Success Story.
Language Development in Early Childhood.
Vocabulary Development • Grammatical Development • Becoming an Effective Conversationalist • Supporting Language Learning in Early Childhood
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

10. Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood.
Erikson's Theory: Initiative versus Guilt.
Self-Development in Early Childhood.
Foundations of Self-Concept • Understanding Intentions • Emergence of Self-Esteem • Emotional Development in Early Childhood • Understanding Emotion • Improvements in Emotional Self-Regulation • Changes in Self-Conscious emotions • Development of Empathy
From Research to Practice: Helping Young Children Manage Fears.
Peer Relations in Early Childhood.
Advances in Peer Sociability • First Friendships
Foundations of Morality in Early Childhood.
The Psychoanalytic Perspective • Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory • The Cognitive-Developmental Perspective • The Other Side of Morality: Development of Aggression
Social Issues: Regulating Children's Television.
Gender Typing in Early Childhood.
Preschooler's Gender-Stereotyped Beliefs and Behavior • Genetic Influences on Gender Typing • Environmental Influences on Gender Typing • Gender-Role Identity • Reducing Gender Stereotyping in Young Children
Child Rearing and Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood.
Styles of Child Rearing • What Makes Authoritarian Child Rearing So Effective? • Cultural and Situational Influences on Child-Rearing Styles • Child Maltreatment
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.
Milestones of Development in Early Childhood.


11. Physical Development in Middle Childhood.
Body Growth in Middle Childhood.
Changes in Body Size and Proportions • Secular Trends in Physical Growth • Skeletal Growth • Brain Development
Common Health Problems in Middle Childhood.
Vision and Hearing • Malnutrition • Obesity • Type A Behavior • Bedwetting • Illnesses • Unintentional Injuries
Health Education in Middle Childhood.
Cultural Influences: Children's Understanding of Health and Illness.
Motor Development and Play in Middle Childhood.
Gross Motor Development • Fine Motor Development • Individual and Group Differences in Motor Development • Organized Games with Rules • Shadows of Our Evolutionary Past • Physical Education
Social Issues: Are Adult-Organized Sports Good for Children? .
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

12. Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.
Piaget's Theory: The Concrete Operational Stage.
Conservation • Classification • Seriation • Spatial Reasoning • Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought • Recent Research on Concrete Operational Thought • Evaluation of the Concrete Operational Stage
Information Processing in Middle Childhood.
Attention • Memory Strategies • The Knowledge Base and Memory Performance • Culture and Memory Strategies • The School-Age Child's Theory of Mind • Self-Regulation • Applications of Information Processing to Academic Learning
From Research to Practice: Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Individual Differences in Mental Development during Middle Childhood.
Defining and Measuring Intelligence • Explaining Individual Differences in IQ • Overcoming Cultural Bias in Intelligence Tests
Language Development in Middle Childhood.
Vocabulary • Grammar • Pragmatics • Learning Two Languages at a Time
Social Issues: Bilingual Education in the United States.
Children's Learning in Schools.
The Educational Philosophy • Teacher-Pupil Interaction • Computers in the Classroom • Teaching Children with Special Needs
How Well Educated are America's Children?
Cultural Issues: Education in Japan, Taiwan, and the United States.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

13. Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood.
Erikson's Theory: Industry versus Inferiority.
Self-Development in Middle Childhood.
Changes in Self-Concept • Development of Self-Esteem • Influences on Self-Esteem
Emotional Development in Middle Childhood.
Understanding Others.
Selman's Stages of Perspective Taking • Perspective Taking and Social Behavior
Moral Development in Middle Childhood.
Learning about Justice through Sharing • Changes in Moral and Social Conventional Understanding
Cultural Influences: Children's Moral Concepts in India and the United States.
Peer Relations in Middle Childhood.
Changes in Peer Sociability • Peer Groups • Friendships • Peer Acceptance
Gender Typing in Middle Childhood.
Gender-Stereotyped Beliefs • Gender-Role Identity and Behavior • Cultural Influences on Gender Typing.
Family Influences in Middle Childhood.
Parent-Child Relationships • Siblings • Divorce • Remarriage • Maternal Employment
Some Common Problems of Development.
Fears and Anxieties • Child Sexual Abuse
From Research to Practice: Children's Eyewitness Testimony.
Stress and Coping in Middle Childhood.
Social Influences: Children of War.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.
Milestones of Development in Middle Childhood.


14. Physical Development in Adolescence
Conceptions of Adolescence.
Biologically Oriented Views • The Environmental Perspective • A Balanced Point of View
Puberty: The Physical Transition to Adulthood.
Hormonal Changes • Changes in Body Size and Proportions • Muscle-Fat Makeup and Other Internal Changes • Sexual Maturation • Individual and Group Differences in Pubertal Growth • The Secular Trend
The Psychological Impact of Pubertal Events.
Reactions to Pubertal Changes • Pubertal Change, Emotion, and Social Behavior • Early versus Late Maturation.
Cultural Influences: Adolescent Initiation Ceremonies.
Health Issues during Adolescence.
Nutritional Needs • Serious Eating Disturbances • Sexual Activity • Teenage Pregnancy and Childbearing • Sexually Transmitted Disease • Substance Use and Abuse • Unintentional Injuries
From Research to Practice: A New Approach to Sex Education.
Motor Development During Adolescence.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

15. Cognitive Development in Adolescence.
Piaget's Theory: The Formal Operational Stage.
Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning • Propositional Thought • Recent Research on Formal Operational Thought
An Information-Processing View of Adolescent Cognitive Development.
Siegler's Rule-Assessment Approach • Gradual Mastery of Formal Operational Abilities
Consequences of Abstract Thought.
Argumentativeness • Self-Consciousness and Self-Focusing • Idealism and Criticism • Planning and Decision Making
Sex Differences in Mental Abilities.
Language Development in Adolescence.
Vocabulary and Grammar • Pragmatics • Second-Language Learning
Learning in School.
School Transitions • Academic Achievement • Dropping Out
Social Issues: The Nation's Report Card: How Academically Competent are American Adolescents?
Vocational Development.
Selecting a Vocation • Making the Transition from School to Work
Cultural Influences: Work-Study Apprenticeships in Germany.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.

16. Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence.
Erikson's Theory: Identity versus Identity Diffusion.
Self-Development in Adolescence.
Changes in Self-Concept • Changes in Self-Esteem • Paths to Identity • Identity Status and Personality Characteristics • Factors that Affect Identity
Cultural Influences: Identity Development among Ethnic Minority Adolescents.
Moral Development in Adolescence.
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development • Kohlberg's Extension of Piaget's Theory • Environmental Influences on Moral Reasoning • Are There Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning? • Moral Reasoning and Behavior
From Research to Practice: Moral Education: The Just Community.
Gender Typing in Adolescence.
The Family in Adolescence.
Parent-Child Relationships • Siblings
Peer Relations in Adolescence.
Adolescent Friendships • Cliques and Crowds • Dating • Peer Pressure and Conformity
Problems of Development.
Depression • Suicide • Delinquency
Social Issues: Youth Gangs.
At the Threshold.
Chapter Summary.
Important Terms and Concepts.
For Further Information and Special Help.
Milestones of Development in Adolescence.




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Infants, Children and Adolescents, 2nd Edition

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