PART ONE PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 1
1 Standards and Content in Schools 3
Chapter Objectives 3
The Importance of Planning 3
How Learning Happens 5
Student Characteristics That Affect Learning 7
Standards and Academic Content 8
Analyzing Content 9
Ordering Content 10
Strategy Alert KWL 10
Elements of Instructional Planning 11
Scope 11
Focus 12
Sequence 13
Chunking Instruction: Units and Lessons 14
Developing Lesson Plans 14
Summary 14
Extensions 15
2 Objectives, Assessment, and Instruction 16
Chapter Objectives 16
The Purpose of Instructional Objectives 17
The KUD Format for Instructional Objectives 21
Know Objectives 21
Understand Objectives 24
Able to Do Objectives 26
Moving from Standards to Objectives 29
Instructional Alignment 29
Assessing Instructional Objectives 31
Formative Assessments 31
Summative Assessments 32
Summary 33
Extensions 33
Part One Summary 35
PART TWO BASIC INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS 37
3 The Direct Instruction Model 40
Chapter Objectives 40
In the Elementary Classroom 40
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom 41
Basis for the Direct Instruction Model 43
Steps in the Direct Instructional Model 44
Step 1: Review Previously Learned Material 44
Step 2: State Objectives for The Lesson 44
Strategy Alert Advance Organizers 45
Step 3: Present New Material 45
Step 4: Guide Practice, Assess Performance, and Provide Corrective
Feedback 47
Step 5: Assign Independent Practice, Assess Performance, and Provide
Corrective Feedback 49
Step 6: Review Periodically, Offering Corrective Feedback If Necessary 50
Summary of Steps in the Direct Instruction Model 50
Evaluating Learning in the Direct Instruction Model 51
Meeting Individual Needs in Direct Instruction 53
Flexible Grouping 53
Varying Questions 53
Benefits of the Direct Instruction Model 54
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Direct Instruction: Rhyming with Mother Goose 54
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Direct Instruction: Writing Haiku 56
Summary 57
Extensions 57
4 The Concept Attainment Model 59
Chapter Objectives 59
In the Elementary Classroom 59
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom 60
Basis for the Concept Attainment Model 62
Steps in the Concept Attainment Model 63
Step 1: Select and Define a Concept through the Concept’s Essential
Characteristics 63
Step 2: Develop Positive and Negative Examples 65
Step 3: Review the Concept Attainment Process with the Class 66
Step 4: Present the Examples 66
Step 5: Generate Hypotheses and Continue the Example/Hypothesis
Cycle 67
Step 6: Develop a Concept Label and Definition 67
Strategy Alert Generating and Testing Hypotheses 67
Step 7: Provide Test Examples to Solidify the Definition 68
Step 8: Discuss the Process with the Class 68
Summary of Steps in the Concept Attainment Model 68
Variations on the Concept Attainment Model 69
Evaluating Learning in the Concept Attainment Model 70
Meeting Individual Needs with the Concept Attainment Model 71
Benefits of the Concept Attainment Model 72
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Concept Attainment: Hibernation 72
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Concept Attainment: Metaphors 73
Summary 75
Extensions 77
5 The Concept Development Model 78
Chapter Objectives 78
In the Elementary Classroom 78
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom 80
Basis for the Concept Development Model 82
Steps in the Concept Development Model 85
Step 1: List as Many Items as Possible That Are Associated with the
Subject 86
Strategy Alert Brainstorming 86
Step 2: Group the Items Because They Are Alike in Some Way 87
Step 3: Label the Groups by Defining the Reasons for Grouping 87
Step 4: Regroup or Subsume Individual Items or Whole Groups under Other
Groups 87
Step 5: Synthesize the Information by Summarizing the Data and Forming
Generalizations 88
Summary of Steps in the Concept Development Model 89
Evaluating Learning in the Concept Development Model 89
Meeting Individual Needs with the Concept Development
Model 91
Benefits of Using the Concept Development Model 91
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Concept Development: Living and Nonliving Things 92
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Concept Development: Grudge 93
Summary 93
Extensions 94
6 The Cause-and-Effect Model 95
Chapter Objectives 95
In the Elementary Classroom 95
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom 98
The Basis of the Cause-and-Effect Model 99
Steps in the Cause-and-Effect Model 100
Step 1: Choose the Data or Topic, Action, or Problem to Be Analyzed 101
Step 2: Ask for Causes and Support for Those Causes 101
Step 3: Ask for Effects and Support 101
Step 4: Ask for Prior Causes and Support 101
Step 5: Ask for Subsequent Effects and Support 101
Strategy Alert Flow Charts 102
Step 6: Ask for Conclusions 103
Step 7: Ask for Generalizations 103
Summary of Steps in the Cause-and-Effect Model 104
Evaluating Learning in the Cause-and-Effect Model 104
Meeting Individual Needs with the Cause-and-Effect Model 105
Benefits of the Cause-and-Effect Model 106
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Cause and Effect: Water Cycle, Blizzards, and The Long Winter 106
SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Cause and Effect: Hamlet and Claudius 107
Summary 108
Extensions 110
7 The Vocabulary Acquisition Model 111
Chapter Objectives 111
In the Elementary Classroom 111
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom 113
The Basis of the Vocabulary Acquisition Model 115
The Spelling—Meaning Connection 115
Principles Underlying the Vocabulary Acquisition Model 116
How Vocabulary Is Acquired 118
Steps in the Vocabulary Acquisition Model 119
Step 1: Pretest Knowledge of Words Critical to Content 119
Step 2: Elaborate and Discuss Spellings and Meanings 119
Step 3: Directly Teach Words on Which Comprehension Will Hinge 120
Strategy Alert Linking Strategies 121
Strategy Alert Think-Pair-Share121
Step 4: Read and Study 124
Step 5: Evaluate and Posttest 124
Summary of Steps in the Vocabulary Acquisition Model 125
Evaluating Learning in the Vocabulary Acquisition Model 126
Meeting Individual Needs with the Vocabulary Acquisition Model 126
Benefits of the Vocabulary Acquisition Model 128
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Vocabulary Acquisition: Units of Measurement 128
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Vocabulary Acquisition: The Middle Ages 129
Summary 130
Extensions 131
Part Two Summary 133
PART THREE TEACHING WITH ADVANCED INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS 135
8 The Integrative Model 137
Chapter Objectives 137
In the Elementary Classroom 137
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom 139
Basis for the Integrative Model 142
Steps in the Integrative Model 143
Step 1: Planning for the Integrative Model 143
Step 2: Describe, Compare, and Search for Patterns in a Data Set 146
Step 3: Explain the Identified Similarities and Differences 147
Step 4: Hypothesize What Would Happen under Different
Conditions 147
Step 5: Make Broad Generalizations about the Topic and the
Discussion 147
Strategy Alert Summarizing 148
Summary of Steps in the Integrative Model 148
Evaluating Learning in the Integrative Model 150
Meeting Individual Needs with the Integrative Model 152
Strategy Alert Cubing 152
Benefits of the Integrative Model 153
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Integrative Model: Fractions 153
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Integrative Model: Societal Changes Affecting Families 155
Summary 156
Extensions 156
9 The Socratic Seminar Model 157
Chapter Objectives 157
In the Elementary Classroom 157
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom 159
The Basis for the Socratic Seminar Model 160
Versions of the Socratic Seminar 161
Questioning 163
Examples of Question Types 163
Steps in the Socratic Seminar Model 165
Step 1: Choose the Text–Written, Visual, or Audio 165
Step 2: Plan and Cluster Several Questions of Varying Cognitive
Demand 165
Step 3: Introduce the Model to the Students 166
Step 4: Conduct the Dialogue 167
Step 5: Review and Summarize the Seminar 168
Step 6: Evaluate the Seminar with the Students Based on Previously Stated
Criteria 168
Summary of Steps in the Socratic Seminar Model 170
Strategy Alert Reciprocal Teaching 171
Evaluating Learning in the Socratic Seminar Model 173
Meeting Individual Needs with the Socratic Seminar Model 173
Benefits of the Socratic Seminar Model 174
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Socratic Seminar: Old Henry, by Joan W. Blos 174
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Socratic Seminar: The War Prayer and “Sullivan Ballou’s Letter to His
Wife” 176
Summary 177
Extensions 177
10 Cooperative Learning Models 179
Chapter Objectives 179
In the Elementary Classroom 179
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom 181
Basis of Cooperative Learning Models 182
The Cooperative Learning Model: The Template 184
Strategy Alert Numbered Heads 184
Planning Steps 185
Implementation Steps 185
Summary of Steps in the Cooperative Learning Template Model 186
Specific Cooperative Models 186
The Graffiti Model 186
The Jigsaw Model 188
The Structured Academic Controversy Model 192
The Student Teams-Achievement Division (STAD) Model 196
Evaluating Learning in the Cooperative Learning Models 199
Meeting Individual Needs with the Cooperative Learning Models 200
Benefits of the Cooperative Learning Models 201
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Cooperative Learning Jigsaw: Clouds 201
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Cooperative Learning Graffiti: Formal and Informal Speech 202
Summary 203
Extensions 203
11 Inquiry Models 205
Chapter Objectives 205
In the Elementary Classroom 205
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom 206
The Basis for an Inquiry Approach to Instruction 209
Inquiry Model 1: The Suchman Inquiry Model 212
Step 1: Select a Problem and Conduct Research 212
Step 2: Introduce the Process and Present the Problem 213
Step 3: Gather Data 213
Step 4: Develop a Hypothesis and Test It 214
Step 5: Explain the Hypothesis and State the Rules Associated
with It 214
Step 6: Analyze the Process 214
Step 7: Evaluate 214
Summary of Steps in the Suchman Inquiry Model 215
Inquiry Model 2: The WebQuest Model 217
Step 1: The Teacher Selects a Problem and Conducts Preliminary
Research 217
Step 2: Present the Problem in the WebQuest Unit 218
Step 3: Students Gather Data and Information to Solve the Problem 218
Step 4: Students Develop and Verify Their Solutions 219
Summary of Steps in the WebQuest Model of Inquiry 219
Inquiry Model 3: The Problem-Based Inquiry Model 219
Step 1: Engage with a Problem 221
Strategy Alert Generating and Testing Hypotheses 222
Step 2: Explore the Problem with the PBL Inquiry Chart 222
Step 3: Explain and Share the Information 223
Step 4: Elaborate and Take Action 223
Step 5: Evaluate the Process 223
Summary of Steps in the Problem-
Based
Inquiry Model 223
Evaluating Learning in the Inquiry Models 224
Meeting Individual Needs with the Inquiry Models 226
Benefits of Inquiry Models 226
Connections between Models 227
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Problem-Based Inquiry: Monarch Butterflies and Stewardship 227
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Suchman Inquiry: Toxins 228
Summary 229
Extensions 230
12 The Synectics Model 231
Chapter Objectives 231
In the Elementary Classroom 231
In the Middle/Secondary Classroom 232
Basis for the Synectics Model 235
Making the Familiar Strange 236
Step 1: Describe the Topic 236
Step 2: Create Direct Analogies 237
Step 3: Describe Personal Analogies 237
Step 4: Identify Compressed Conflicts 238
Step 5: Create a New Direct Analogy 238
Step 6: Reexamine the Original Topic 239
Summary of Steps in Making the Familiar Strange 239
Making the Strange Familiar 241
Step 1: Provide Information 241
Step 2: Present the Analogy 241
Step 3: Use Personal Analogies to Create Compressed Conflicts 241
Step 4: Compare the Compressed Conflict with the Subject 241
Step 5: Identify Differences 241
Step 6: Reexamine the Original Subject 242
Step 7: Create New Direct Analogies 242
Summary of Steps in Making the Strange Familiar 242
The Synectics Excursion 244
Step 1: Present the Problem 244
Step 2: Provide Expert Information 244
Step 3: Question Obvious Solutions and Purge 244
Step 4: Generate Individual Problem Statements 244
Step 5: Choose One Problem Statement for Focus 245
Step 6: Question through the Use of Analogies 245
Step 7: Force Analogies to Fit the Problem 245
Step 8: Determine a Solution from a New Viewpoint 245
Summary of Steps in the Synectics Excursion 246
Evaluating Learning in the Synectics Model 246
Meeting Individual Needs with the Synectics Model 248
Strategy Alert Graphic Organizers 249
Benefits of the Synectics Model 249
ELEMENTARY GRADES LESSON
Synectics Model: The Civil War 250
MIDDLE/SECONDARY GRADES LESSON
Synectics Model: Witches 251
Summary 252
Extensions 252
Part Three Summary 253
PART FOUR PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 255
13 A Fourth Grade Case Study 257
Chapter Objectives 257
Mrs. Evans’ Plan 258
Lesson One: Words We Use to Talk about Angles 259
Lesson Two: Exploring Angles 261
Lesson Three: Measuring Angles 262
Epilogue 264
Summary 264
Extensions 265
14 A Middle School Case Study 266
Chapter Objectives 266
The Mumford Plan 270
Unit: Perspective–It All Depends on Where You Were When 272
Lesson One: Toward a Perspective on Point of View 272
Lesson Two: Perception–It Depends on Where You Are Coming from 273
Lesson Three: Relating Perception and Perspective 275
Epilogue 276
Summary 276
Extensions 277
15 A High School Case Study 278
Chapter Objectives 278
Mr. Samuels’s Plan 279
Unit: Macbeth–A Study in Ambition Turned to Avarice 284
Epilogue 286
Summary 288
Extensions 288
16 The Wisdom of Practice 289
Chapter Objectives 289
Good Teachers Are the Leaders of Their Classrooms 290
Good Teachers Create a Productive Environment for Learning 291
Relationship to Student Learning 292
Furniture Arrangement/Seating 292
Climate Control 292
Equipment and Displays 293
Good Teachers Manage Human Relations Effectively 293
Good Teachers Engage Learners in Their Own Learning 294
Good Teachers Teach Up 295
Capitalizing on What Students Know 296
Celebrating Differences between Students 296
Realizing That There Is More Than One Right Answer 296
Providing Appropriate, Quality Feedback 297
Good Teachers Are Good Learners 297
Recognizing the Importance of Professional Knowledge 297
Acting as Researchers 298
Good Teachers Develop Instructional Objectives with Learners 298
Good Teachers Find Out Why a Plan Is Not Working 299
Good Teachers Strive to Make Their Teaching Engaging 300
Good Teachers Give Learners Access to Information and Opportunity to
Practice 300
Good Teachers Teach for Two Kinds of Knowledge 301
Summary 302
Extensions 302
Part Four Summary 303
Glossary 305
References 308
Index 312