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Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition

By Michael M. Domach

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Jun 18, 2009

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Description

 

For freshman and limited calculus-based courses in Introduction to Biomedical Engineering or Introduction to Bioengineering.

This text presents freshman-level students with a study of some of the best engineering designs provided by nature and exposes them to bioengineering practice from a variety of perspectives. Examining the living system from the molecular to the the human scale, this text covers such key issues as optimization, scaling, and design; and introduces these concepts in a sequential, layered manner. Analysis strategies, science, and technology are illustrated in each chapter.

Table of Contents

PART I: OVERVIEW OF BIOENGINEERING

AND MODERN BIOLOGY 1

 

0 What Is Bioengineering? 3

0.1 Purpose of This Chapter 3

0.2 Engineering versus Science 4

0.3 Bioengineering 4

0.4 Career Opportunities 11

0.5 Further Consideration of the Ethical Dimensions

of Bioengineering 15

 

1 Cellular, Elemental, and Molecular Building Blocks

of Living Systems 19

1.1 Purpose of This Chapter 19

1.2 Origins and Divergence of Basic Cell Types 20

1.3 Elemental and Molecular Composition of a Cell 23

1.4 Molecules That Contain Information 25

1.5 Unique versus Interchangeable Parts Leads to Molecular-Based

Classification 28

1.6 Cellular Anatomy 29

1.7 Cellular Physiological Lifestyles 30

1.8 Viruses 31

1.9 Prions 31

 

PART II: SYSTEM PRINCIPLES OF LIVING

SYSTEMS 35

 

2 Mass Conservation, Cycling, and Kinetics 37

2.1 Purpose of This Chapter 37

2.2 Open versus Closed Systems 39

2.3 Steady State versus Unsteady State 39

2.4 Approaches to Performing Mass Balances 40

2.5 Recycle, Bypass, and Purge 44

2.6 Kinetics 47

2.7 Unsteady-State Mass Balances 50

2.8 Review of Moles, Molecular Formulas,

and Gas Compositions 53

 

3 Requirements and Features of a Functional

and Coordinated System 58

3.1 Purpose of This Chapter 58

3.2 Chemical Reaction Rate Acceleration 59

3.3 Energy Investment to Provide Driving Forces

for Nonspontaneous Processes 61

3.4 Control and Communication Systems 63

 

4 Bioenergetics 70

4.1 Purpose of This Chapter 72

4.2 Bioenergetic Units 72

4.3 Sensible versus Latent Heat 73

4.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics Works on All Scales 73

4.5 Using the First Law in Energy Balancing 74

4.6 Bioenergetics at the Human Scale 74

4.7 How Energy Is Produced, Stored, and Transduced

at the Cellular Level 80

4.8 Representative Energetic Values at the Cellular

Level 85

4.9 More Sophisticated Chemical Energy Accounting

(Optional) 86

4.10 Electrochemical Potential Calculation Examples

and Applications (Optional) 89

4.11 Why Coupling between Energy Evolving Reactions and ATP

Formation Is Imperfect (Optional) 93

4.12 Biological and Medical Applications of Membrane

Energetization 94

 

 

PART III: BIOMOLECULAR AND CELLULAR

FUNDAMENTALS AND ENGINEERING

APPLICATIONS 99

 

5 Molecular Basis of Catalysis and Regulation 101

5.1 Purpose of This Chapter 102

5.2 Binding in the Biological Context 102

5.3 Binding Is Dynamic 103

5.4 Different Venues in Which Binding Operates 104

 

6 Analysis of Molecular Binding Phenomena 111

6.1 Purpose of This Chapter 111

6.2 General Strategy for Problem Formulation and Solution 112

6.3 Analysis of a Single Ligand-Single Binding Site System 114

6.4 How to Decide What the Free Ligand Concentration Is 116

6.5 Examples of Binding Calculations 117

6.6 Analysis of Binding When Enzyme Catalysis Occurs 117

6.7 A Protein with Multiple Binding Sites 120

6.8 Further Thoughts on How Living Systems Are Designed

and Function 123

 

7 Applications and Design in Biomolecular

Technology 128

7.1 Purpose of This Chapter 128

7.2 Binding Applications 129

7.3 Enzyme Catalysis Application 132

7.4 Using Enzymes in Food Processing 138

7.5 Bioresource Engineering 138

7.6 Immobilized Enzymes in Chemical Weapon Defense

and Toxic Chemical Destruction 139

 

8 Cellular Technologies and Bioinformatics Basics 144

8.1 Purpose of This Chapter 144

8.2 Microbial Metabolic Engineering 145

8.3 Tissue Engineering 154

8.4 Gene Therapy and DNA Vaccines 160

8.5 An Experimental Facet of Bioinformatics 161

8.6 Computational Component to Bioinformatics:

Eigenvalue-Based Methods 164

8.7 Future Studies 169

 

PART IV: MEDICAL ENGINEERING 173

 

9 Primer on Organs and Function 175

9.1 Purpose of This Chapter 175

9.2 Basic Parameters and Inventories in the Human Body 176

9.3 Digestive System 178

9.4 Circulatory Systems 182

9.5 Heart Structure and Function 183

9.6 Removal versus Preservation of Substances in the Blood 184

9.7 Activity Coordination: Endocrine System 187

9.8 Follow-On Biomedical Engineering Considerations 188

 

10 Biomechanics 192

10.1 Purpose of This Chapter 192

10.2 Power Expenditure in Walking 194

10.3 Optimization Illustration: Least Power Expenditure

Stride Length 196

10.4 Scaling the Result in an Ergonomic Analysis 197

10.5 Using the Solution to Solve a Larger Problem 200

 

11 Biofluid Mechanics 205

11.1 Purpose of This Chapter 205

11.2 Mechanics of Fluid Flow 206

11.3 Blood versus Water 213

11.4 Example: How Much Force Is Needed to Inject

a Drug? 214

11.5 Example: How Does the Heart Compare to a Lawn

Mower Engine in Horsepower? 215

11.6 Example: What Is the Stress on a Red Blood Cell? 216

11.7 Operation and Design of the Circulatory System 217

11.8 Biomedical Engineering Applications, Accomplishments,

and Challenges 220

 

12 Biomaterials 231

12.1 Purpose of This Chapter 231

12.2 Three Basic Quantifiable Features of Biomaterials 233

12.3 Body Response to Wounding 237

12.4 Immune System Defense 240

12.5 Examples of the Role of Mechanical Properties

of Biomaterials 242

12.6 Examples of Biomaterials Engineering Strategies That Attempt

to Minimize Clotting Through Surface Modification 242

12.7 Examples of Immune System Links to Biomaterials 246

 

13 Pharmacokinetics 252

13.1 Purpose of This Chapter 252

13.2 Pharmacokinetic Modeling Basics 254

13.3 Limits of Pharmacokinetic Models and Gaining

More Predictive Power 258

13.4 Appendix: Solution of Pharmacokinetic Model 260

 

14 Noninvasive Sensing and Signal Processing 263

14.1 Purpose of This Chapter 264

14.2 Physics of NMR 265

14.3 Signal Processing: Converting Raw Signal into Useful

Information 272

14.4 NMR Applications 275

Index 287

 

 


 

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Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition
Format: Safari Book

$67.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-609775-4