## Description

The 14th Edition of *Introduction to Logic*, written by Copi, Cohen & McMahon, is dedicated to the many thousands of students and their teachers - *at hundreds of universities in the United States and around the world* - who have used its fundamental methods and techniques of correct reasoning in their everyday lives.

To those who have not previously used or reviewed *Introduction to Logic* we extend the very warmest welcome. Please join us and our international family of users! Let us help you teach students the methods and principles needed in order to distinguish correct from incorrect reasoning.

For, *Introduction to Logic* is a proven textbook that has been honed through the collaborative efforts of many scholars over the last five decades. Its scrupulous attention to detail and precision in exposition and explanation is matched by the greatest accuracy in all associated detail. In addition, it continues to capture student interest through its personalized human setting and current examples.

## Table of Contents

**PART I LOGIC AND LANGUAGE**

**SECTION A REASONING**

CHAPTER 1 Basic Logical Concepts

1.1 What Logic Is

1.2 Propositions and Arguments

1.3 Recognizing Arguments

1.4 Arguments and Explanations

1.5 Deductive and Inductive Arguments

1.6 Validity and Truth

CHAPTER 2 Analyzing Arguments

2.1 Paraphrasing Arguments

2.2 Diagramming Arguments

2.3 Complex Argumentative Passages

2.4 Problems in Reasoning

**SECTION B INFORMAL LOGIC **

CHAPTER 3 Language and Definitions

3.1 Language Functions

3.2 Emotive Language, Neutral Language, and Disputes

3.3 Disputes and Ambiguity

3.4 Definitions and Their Uses

3.5 The Structure of Definitions: Extension and Intension

3.6 Definition by Genus and Difference

CHAPTER 4 Fallacies

4.1 What Is a Fallacy?

4.2 Classification of Fallacies

4.3 Fallacies of Relevance

4.4 Fallacies of Defective Induction

4.5 Fallacies of Presumption

4.6 Fallacies of Ambiguity

**PART II DEDUCTION**

**SECTION A CLASSICAL LOGIC**

CHAPTER 5 Categorical Propositions

5.1 The Theory of Deduction

5.2 Classes and Categorical Propositions

5.3 The Four Kinds of Categorical Propositions

5.4 Quality, Quantity, and Distributions

5.5 The Traditional Square of Opposition

5.6 Further Immediate Inferences

5.7 Existential Import and the Interpretation of Categorical Propositions

5.8 Symbolism and Diagrams for Categorical Propositions

CHAPTER 6 Categorical Syllogisms

6.1 Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms

6.2 The Formal Nature of Syllogistic Argument

6.3 Venn Diagram Technique for Testing Syllogisms

6.4 Syllogistic Rules and Syllogistic Fallacies

6.5 Exposition of the Fifteen Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogism

**Appendix: **Deduction of the Fifteen Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogism

CHAPTER 7 Syllogisms in Ordinary Language

7.1 Syllogistic Arguments

7.2 Reducing the Number of Terms to Three

7.3 Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Form

7.4 Uniform Translation

7.5 Enthymemes

7.6 Sorites

7.7 Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogisms

7.8 The Dilemma

**SECTION B MODERN LOGIC**

CHAPTER 8 Symbolic Logic

8.1 Modern Logic and Its Symbolic Language

8.2 The Symbols for Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunction

8.3 Conditional Statements and Material Implication

8.4 Argument Forms and Refutation by Logical Analogy

8.5 The Precise Meaning of “Invalid” and “Valid”

8.6 Testing Argument Validity Using Truth Tables

8.7 Some Common Argument Forms

8.8 Statement Forms and Material Equivalence

8.9 Logical Equivalence

8.10 The Three “Laws of Thought”

CHAPTER 9 Methods of Deduction

9.1 Formal Proof of Validity

9.2 The Elementary Valid Argument Forms

9.3 Formal Proofs of Validity Exhibited

9.4 Constructing Formal Proofs of Validity

9.5 Constructing More Extended Formal Proofs

9.6 Expanding the Rules of Inference: Replacement Rules

9.7 The System of Natural Deduction

9.8 Constructing Formal Proofs Using the Nineteen Rules of Inference

9.9 Proof of Invalidity

9.10 Inconsistency

9.11 Indirect Proof of Validity

9.12 Shorter Truth-Table Technique

CHAPTER 10 Quantification Theory

10.1 The Need for Quantification

10.2 Singular Propositions

10.3 Universal and Existential Quantifiers

10.4 Traditional Subject—Predicate Propositions

10.5 Proving Validity

10.6 Proving Invalidity

10.7 Asyllogistic Inference

**PART III INDUCTION**

**SECTION A ANALOGY AND CAUSATION**

CHAPTER 11 Analogical Reasoning

11.1 Induction and Deduction Revisited

11.2 Argument by Analogy

11.3 Appraising Analogical Arguments

11.4 Refutation by Logical Analogy

CHAPTER 12 Causal Reasoning

12.1 Cause and Effect

12.2 Causal Laws and the Uniformity of Nature

12.3 Induction by Simple Enumeration

12.4 Methods of Causal Analysis

12.5 Limitations of Inductive Techniques

**SECTION B SCIENCE AND PROBABILITY**

CHAPTER 13 Science and Hypothesis

13.1 Scientific Explanation

13.2 Scientific Inquiry: Hypothesis and Confirmation

13.3 Evaluating Scientific Explanations

13.4 Classification as Hypothesis

CHAPTER 14 Probability

14.1 Alternative Conceptions of Probability

14.2 The Probability Calculus

14.3 Probability in Everyday Life