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Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers, 8th Edition

By James F. Shackelford

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Apr 2, 2014


This book is intended for use in a first course in Materials Sciences and Engineering taught in the departments of materials science, mechanical, civil and general engineering. It is also a suitable reference for mechanical and civil engineers and machine designers.


Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers provides balanced, current treatment of the full spectrum of engineering materials, covering all the physical properties, applications and relevant properties associated with engineering materials. It explores all of the major categories of materials while also offering detailed examinations of a wide range of new materials with high-tech applications.


MasteringEngineering for Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers is a total learning package. This innovative online program emulates the instructor’s office—hour environment, guiding students through engineering concepts from Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers with self-paced individualized coaching.


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This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience–for you and your students. It provides:

  • Individualized Coaching with MasteringEngineering: MasteringEngineering emulates the instructor’s office-hour environment using self-paced individualized coaching.
  • A Balanced Approach Designed for a First Course in Engineering Materials: This concise textbook covers concepts and applications of materials science for the beginning student.
  • Coverage of the Most Important Advances in Engineering Materials: Content is refreshed to provide the most up-to-date information for your course.
  • In-text Features that Reinforce Concepts: An assortment of case studies, examples, practice problems, and homework problems give students plenty of opportunities to develop their understanding.
  • Enhance Learning with Instructor Supplements: An Instructors Solution Manual and PowerPoint slides are available to expand on the topics presented in the text.

Note: You are purchasing a standalone product; MasteringEngineering does not come packaged with this content. If you would like to purchase both the physical text and MasteringEngineering¿ search for ISBN-10: 0133789713/ISBN-13: 9780133789713. That package includes ISBN-10: 0133826651/ISBN-13: 9780133826654¿ and ISBN-10: 0133828921 /ISBN-13: 9780133828924.

MasteringEngineering is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor.


Table of Contents

Preface vii

About the Author xii

1 Materials for Engineering 1

1.1 The Material World 1

1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 2

1.3 Six Materials That Changed Your World 3

Steel Bridges–Introducing Metals 3

Lucalox Lamps– Introducing Ceramics 5

Optical Fibers– Introducing Glasses 9

Nylon Parachutes– Introducing Polymers 11

Kevlar®-Reinforced Tires– Introducing Composites 13

Silicon Chips– Introducing Semiconductors 14

1.4 Processing and Selecting Materials 15

1.5 Looking at Materials by Powers of Ten 17

Part I The Fundamentals

2 Atomic Bonding 23

2.1 Atomic Structure 23

2.2 The Ionic Bond 29

Coordination Number 33

2.3 The Covalent Bond 41

2.4 The Metallic Bond 47

2.5 The Secondary, or van der Waals, Bond 49

2.6 Materials– The Bonding Classification 52

3 Crystalline Structure–Perfection 59

3.1 Seven Systems and Fourteen Lattices 59

3.2 Metal Structures 63

3.3 Ceramic Structures 67

3.4 Polymeric Structures 76

3.5 Semiconductor Structures 77

3.6 Lattice Positions, Directions, and Planes 81

3.7 X-Ray Diffraction 93

4 Crystal Defects and Noncrystalline Structure–Imperfection 104

4.1 The Solid Solution– Chemical Imperfection 104

4.2 Point Defects– Zero- Dimensional Imperfections 110

4.3 Linear Defects, or Dislocations–One-Dimensional Imperfections 112

4.4 Planar Defects–Two-DimensionalImperfections 114

4.5 Noncrystalline Solids–Three-Dimensional Imperfections 118

5 Diffusion 126

5.1 Thermally Activated Processes 126

5.2 Thermal Production of Point Defects 130

5.3 Point Defects and Solid-State Diffusion 132

5.4 Steady-State Diffusion 142

5.5 Alternate Diffusion Paths 146

6 Mechanical Behavior 152

6.1 Stress Versus Strain 153 Metals 153

Ceramics and Glasses 164

Polymers 168

6.2 Elastic Deformation 173

6.3 Plastic Deformation 174

6.4 Hardness 181

6.5 Creep and Stress Relaxation 185

6.6 Viscoelastic Deformation 192

Inorganic Glasses 194

Organic Polymers 196

Elastomers 199

7 Thermal Behavior 210

7.1 Heat Capacity 210

7.2 Thermal Expansion 213

7.3 Thermal Conductivity 216

7.4 Thermal Shock 221

8 Failure Analysis and Prevention 227

8.1 Impact Energy 228

8.2 Fracture Toughness 233

8.3 Fatigue 237

8.4 Nondestructive Testing 246

8.5 Failure Analysis and Prevention 249

9 Phase Diagrams–Equilibrium Microstructural Development 257

9.1 The Phase Rule 258

9.2 The Phase Diagram 261

Complete Solid Solution 262

Eutectic Diagram with No Solid Solution 265

Eutectic Diagram with Limited Solid Solution 267

Eutectoid Diagram 270

Peritectic Diagram 271

General Binary Diagrams 275

9.3 The Lever Rule 281

9.4 Microstructural Development During Slow Cooling 285

10 Kinetics– Heat Treatment 304

10.1 Time–The Third Dimension 304

10.2 The TTT Diagram 309

Diffusional Transformations 310

Diffusionless (Martensitic) Transformations 311

Heat Treatment of Steel 316

10.3 Hardenability 324

10.4 Precipitation Hardening 327

10.5 Annealing 331

Cold Work 331

Recovery 332

Recrystallization 332

Grain Growth 334

10.6 The Kinetics of Phase Transformations for Nonmetals 335

Part II Materials and Their Applications

11 Structural Materials– Metals, Ceramics, and Glasses 349

11.1 Metals 349

Ferrous Alloys 350

Nonferrous Alloys 356

11.2 Ceramics and Glasses 360

Ceramics–Crystalline Materials 361

Glasses–Noncrystalline Materials 362

Glass- Ceramics 364

11.3 Processing the Structural Materials 366

Processing of Metals 367

Processing of Ceramics and Glasses 374

12 Structural Materials–Polymers and Composites 383

12.1 Polymers 383

Polymerization 384

Structural Features of Polymers 389

Thermoplastic Polymers 393

Thermosetting Polymers 394

Additives 396

12.2 Composites 398

Fiber-Reinforced Composites 398

Aggregate Composites 404

Property Averaging 406

Mechanical Properties of Composites 412

12.3 Processing the Structural Materials 417

Processing of Polymers 417

Processing of Composites 420

13 Electronic Materials 429

13.1 Charge Carriers and Conduction 430

13.2 Energy Levels and Energy Bands 434

13.3 Conductors 440

Thermocouples 443

Superconductors 444

13.4 Insulators 452

Ferroelectrics 453

Piezoelectrics 456

13.5 Semiconductors 460

Intrinsic, Elemental Semiconductors 461

Extrinsic, Elemental Semiconductors 466

Compound Semiconductors 478

Processing of Semiconductors 482

Semiconductor Devices 485

13.6 Composites 495

13.7 Electrical Classification of Materials 496

14 Optical and Magnetic Materials 504

14.1 Optical Materials 505

Optical Properties 508

Optical Systems and Devices 518

14.2 Magnetic Materials 526

Ferromagnetism 530

Ferrimagnetism 536

Metallic Magnets 540

Ceramic Magnets 546

15 Materials in Engineering Design 557

15.1 Material Properties–Engineering Design Parameters 557

15.2 Selection of Structural Materials–Case Studies 562

Materials for Hip-and Knee-Joint Replacement 563

Metal Substitution with Composites 566

15.3 Selection of Electronic, Optical, and Magnetic Materials–Case

Studies 567

Light-Emitting Diode 568

Glass for Smart Phone and Tablet Touch Screens 571

Amorphous Metal for Electric-Power Distribution 572

15.4 Materials and Our Environment 573

Environmental Degradation of Materials 573

Environmental Aspects of Design 589

Recycling 592


Appendix 1

Physical and Chemical Data for the Elements A-1

Appendix 2 Atomic and Ionic Radii of the Elements A-4

Appendix 3 Constants and Conversion Factors A- 7

Appendix 4 Properties of the Structural Materials A-8

Appendix 5 Properties of the Electronic, Optical, and Magnetic Materials A-17

Appendix 6 Glossary A-22

Answers to Practice Problems (PP) and Odd-Numbered Problems


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ISBN-10: 0-13-382665-1

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-382665-4

Format: Alternate Binding

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