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Introduction to Networks Companion Guide, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Cisco Networking Academy

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Nov 20, 2013

Description

This is the only Cisco-authorized companion guide to the official Cisco Networking Academy curriculum for the new CCNA Version 5 certification. Fully aligned to CNA’s online course chapters, it offers additional book-based pedagogy to reinforce key concepts, enhance student comprehension, and promote retention. Using it, students can focus scarce study time, organize review for quizzes and exams, and get the day-to-day reference answers they’re looking for. The Companion Guide also offers instructors additional opportunities to assign take-home reading or vocabulary homework, helping students prepare more for in-class lab work and discussions. A companion CD-ROM contains additional visual and interactive learning aids designed to accelerate mastery and deepen understanding.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxvi

Chapter 1 Exploring the Network 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 3

Globally Connected (1.1) 4

    Networking Today (1.1.1) 4

        Networks in Our Daily Lives (1.1.1.1) 4

        Technology Then and Now (1.1.1.2) 5

        The Global Community (1.1.1.3) 6

    Networks Support the Way We Learn (1.1.1.4) 7

        Networks Support the Way We Communicate (1.1.1.5) 8

        Networks Support the Way We Work (1.1.1.6) 10

        Networks Support the Way We Play (1.1.1.7) 10

    Providing Resources in a Network (1.1.2) 11

        Networks of Many Sizes (1.1.2.1) 12

        Clients and Servers (1.1.2.2, 1.1.2.3) 13

        Peer-to-Peer (1.1.2.4) 13

LANs, WANs, and the Internet (1.2) 14

    Components of a Network (1.2.1, 1.2.1.1) 15

        End Devices (1.2.1.2) 16

        Intermediary Network Devices (1.2.1.3) 16

        Network Media (1.2.1.4) 17

        Network Representations (1.2.1.5) 18

        Topology Diagrams (1.2.1.6) 19

    LANs and WANs (1.2.2) 21

        Types of Networks (1.2.2.1) 21

        Local-Area Networks (1.2.2.2) 22

        Wide-Area Networks (1.2.2.3) 22

    The Internet (1.2.3, 1.2.3.1) 22

        Intranet and Extranet (1.2.3.2) 23

    Internet Access Technologies (1.2.4.1) 25

    Connecting Remote Users to the Internet (1.2.4.2) 25

    Connecting Businesses to the Internet (1.2.4.3) 27

The Network as a Platform (1.3) 28

    The Converging Network (1.3.1.1) 29

    Planning for the Future (1.3.1.2) 30

    The Supporting Network Architecture (1.3.2.1) 31

    Fault Tolerance in Circuit-Switched Networks (1.3.2.2) 32

        Fault Tolerance 32

        Circuit-Switched Connection-Oriented Networks 33

    Fault Tolerance in Packet-Switched Networks (1.3.2.3) 34

        Packet-Switched Networks 34

    Scalable Networks (1.3.2.4) 35

        Scalability 35

    Providing QoS (1.3.2.5) 37

        Quality of Service 37

    Providing Network Security (1.3.2.6) 39

        Security 39

The Changing Network Environment (1.4) 41

    Network Trends (1.4.1) 41

        New Trends (1.4.1.1) 41

        Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) (1.4.1.2) 43

        Online Collaboration (1.4.1.3) 43

        Video Communication (1.4.1.4) 44

        Cloud Computing (1.4.1.5) 46

        Data Centers (1.4.1.6) 47

    Technology Trends in the Home (1.4.2.1) 48

    Powerline Networking (1.4.2.2) 49

    Wireless Broadband (1.4.2.3) 50

        Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP) 50

        Wireless Broadband Service 50

    Security Threats (1.4.3.1) 50

    Security Solutions (1.4.3.2) 51

Cisco Network Architectures (1.4.4.1) 52

CCNA (1.4.4.2) 53

Summary (1.5) 54

    Practice 55

    Class Activities 55

    Labs 55

    Packet Tracer Activities 55

Check Your Understanding 56

Chapter 2 Configuring a Network Operating System 59

Objectives 59

Key Terms 59

Introduction (2.0.1) 60

    Introduction to Cisco IOS (2.0.1.1) 60

IOS Boot Camp (2.1) 61

    Cisco IOS (2.1.1) 61

        Operating Systems (2.1.1.1) 61

        Purpose of OS (2.1.1.2) 63

        Location of the Cisco IOS (2.1.1.3) 63

        IOS Functions (2.1.1.4) 64

    Accessing a Cisco IOS Device (2.1.2) 65

        Console Access Method (2.1.2.1) 65

        Telnet, SSH, and AUX Access Methods (2.1.2.2) 66

        Terminal Emulation Programs (2.1.2.3) 67

    Navigating the IOS (2.1.3) 67

        Cisco IOS Modes of Operation (2.1.3.1) 68

        Primary Modes (2.1.3.2) 69

        Global Configuration Mode and Submodes (2.1.3.3) 69

        Navigating Between IOS Modes (2.1.3.4, 2.1.3.5) 71

    The Command Structure (2.1.4) 72

        IOS Command Structure (2.1.4.1) 73

        Cisco IOS Command Reference (2.1.4.2) 75

        Context-Sensitive Help (2.1.4.3) 76

        Command Syntax Check (2.1.4.4) 78

        Hot Keys and Shortcuts (2.1.4.5) 79

        IOS Examination Commands (2.1.4.6) 83

        The show version Command (2.1.4.7) 83

Getting Basic (2.2) 86

    Host Names (2.2.1) 86

        Why the Switch (2.2.1.1) 86

        Device Names (2.2.1.2) 87

        Host Names (2.2.1.3) 87

        Configuring Host Names (2.2.1.4) 88

    Limiting Access to Device Configurations (2.2.2) 89

        Securing Device Access (2.2.2.1) 89

        Securing Privileged EXEC Access (2.2.2.2) 90

        Securing User EXEC Access (2.2.2.3) 91

        Encrypting Password Display (2.2.2.4) 92

    Banner Messages (2.2.2.5) 94

    Saving Configurations (2.2.3) 96

        Configuration Files (2.2.3.1) 96

        Capturing Text (2.2.3.2) 98

Address Schemes (2.3) 100

    Ports and Addresses (2.3.1) 100

        IP Addressing of Devices (2.3.1.1) 100

        Interfaces and Ports (2.3.1.2) 101

    Addressing Devices (2.3.2) 102

        Configuring a Switch Virtual Interface (2.3.2.1) 102

    Manual IP Address Configuration for End Devices (2.3.2.2) 103

        Automatic IP Address Configuration for End Devices (2.3.2.3) 104

        IP Address Conflicts (2.3.2.4) 105

    Verifying Connectivity (2.3.3) 106

        Test the Loopback Address on an End Device (2.3.3.1) 106

        Testing the Interface Assignment (2.3.3.2) 107

        Testing End-to-End Connectivity (2.3.3.3) 108

Summary (2.4) 109

Practice 110

    Class Activities 110

    Labs 111

    Packet Tracer Activities 111

Check Your Understanding 111

Chapter 3 Network Protocols and Communications 115

Objectives 115

Key Terms 115

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 116

Rules of Communication (3.1) 116

    The Rules (3.1.1) 117

        What Is Communication? (3.1.1.1) 117

        Establishing the Rules (3.1.1.2) 118

        Message Encoding (3.1.1.3) 119

        Message Formatting and Encapsulation (3.1.1.4) 120

        Message Size (3.1.1.5) 121

        Message Timing (3.1.1.6) 121

        Message Delivery Options (3.1.1.7) 122

Network Protocols and Standards (3.2) 123

    Protocols (3.2.1) 123

        Protocols: Rules That Govern Communications (3.2.1.1) 123

        Network Protocols (3.2.1.2) 124

        Interaction of Protocols (3.2.1.3) 125

    Protocol Suites (3.2.2) 127

        Protocol Suites and Industry Standards (3.2.2.1) 127

        Creation of the Internet and Development of TCP/IP (3.2.2.2) 128

        TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication Process (3.2.2.3) 129

    Standards Organizations (3.2.3) 133

        Open Standards (3.2.3.1) 133

        ISOC, IAB, and IETF (3.2.3.2) 134

        IEEE (3.2.3.3) 135

        ISO (3.2.3.4) 136

        Other Standards Organizations (3.2.3.5) 136

    Reference Models (3.2.4) 137

        The Benefits of Using a Layered Model (3.2.4.1) 138

        The OSI Reference Model (3.2.4.2) 139

        The TCP/IP Protocol Model (3.2.4.3) 140

        Comparing the OSI Model with the TCP/IP Model (3.2.4.4) 141

Moving Data in the Network (3.3) 143

    Data Encapsulation (3.3.1) 143

        Communicating the Messages (3.3.1.1) 143

        Protocol Data Units (PDU) (3.3.1.2) 144

        Encapsulation (3.3.1.3) 145

        Deencapsulation (3.3.1.4) 146

    Accessing Local Resources (3.3.2) 146

        Network Addresses and Data-Link Addresses (3.3.2.1) 146

        Communicating with a Device on the Same Network (3.3.2.2) 148

        MAC and IP Addresses (3.3.2.3) 149

    Accessing Remote Resources (3.3.3) 150

        Default Gateway (3.3.3.1) 150

        Communicating with a Device on a Remote Network (3.3.3.2) 151

Summary (3.4) 154

Practice 155

    Class Activities 155

    Labs 155

    Packet Tracer Activities 155

Check Your Understanding 156

Chapter 4 Network Access 161

Objectives 161

Key Terms 161

Introduction (4.0.1.1) 163

Physical Layer Protocols (4.1) 164

    Getting It Connected (4.1.1) 164

        Connecting to the Network (4.1.1.1) 164

        Network Interface Cards (4.1.1.2) 165

    Purpose of the Physical Layer (4.1.2) 166

        The Physical Layer (4.1.2.1) 166

        Physical Layer Media (4.1.2.2) 167

        Physical Layer Standards (4.1.2.3) 168

    Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 (4.1.3) 169

        Physical Layer Fundamental Principles (4.1.3.1) 169

        Bandwidth (4.1.3.2) 171

        Throughput (4.1.3.3) 172

        Types of Physical Media (4.1.3.4) 173

Network Media (4.2) 173

    Copper Cabling (4.2.1) 173

        Characteristics of Copper Media (4.2.1.1) 173

        Copper Media (4.2.1.2) 175

        Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable (4.2.1.3) 176

        Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable (4.2.1.4) 176

        Coaxial Cable (4.2.1.5) 177

        Copper Media Safety (4.2.1.6) 178

    UTP Cabling (4.2.2) 179

        Properties of UTP Cabling (4.2.2.1) 179

        UTP Cabling Standards (4.2.2.2) 180

        UTP Connectors (4.2.2.3) 182

        Types of UTP Cable (4.2.2.4) 183

        Testing UTP Cables (4.2.2.5) 185

    Fiber-Optic Cabling (4.2.3) 185

        Properties of Fiber-Optic Cabling (4.2.3.1) 185

        Fiber Media Cable Design (4.2.3.2) 186

        Types of Fiber Media (4.2.3.3) 187

        Network Fiber Connectors (4.2.3.4) 189

        Testing Fiber Cables (4.2.3.5) 191

        Fiber Versus Copper (4.2.3.6) 192

    Wireless Media (4.2.4) 193

        Properties of Wireless Media (4.2.4.1) 193

        Types of Wireless Media (4.2.4.2) 194

        Wireless LAN (4.2.4.3) 196

        802.11 Wi-Fi Standards (4.2.4.4) 196

Data Link Layer Protocols (4.3) 198

    Purpose of the Data Link Layer (4.3.1) 198

        The Data Link Layer (4.3.1.1) 198

        Data Link Sublayers (4.3.1.2) 199

        Media Access Control (4.3.1.3) 200

        Providing Access to Media (4.3.1.4) 201

    Layer 2 Frame Structure (4.3.2) 202

        Formatting Data for Transmission (4.3.2.1) 202

        Creating a Frame (4.3.2.2) 203

    Layer 2 Standards (4.3.3) 204

        Data Link Layer Standards (4.3.3.1) 204

Media Access Control (4.4) 205

    Topologies (4.4.1) 206

        Controlling Access to the Media (4.4.1.1) 206

        Physical and Logical Topologies (4.4.1.2) 207

    WAN Topologies (4.4.2) 208

        Common Physical WAN Topologies (4.4.2.1) 208

        Physical Point-to-Point Topology (4.4.2.2) 209

        Logical Point-to-Point Topology (4.4.2.3) 209

        Half and Full Duplex (4.4.2.4) 210

    LAN Topologies (4.4.3) 210

        Physical LAN Topologies (4.4.3.1) 210

        Logical Topology for Shared Media (4.4.3.2) 211

        Contention-Based Access (4.4.3.3) 212

        Multiaccess Topology (4.4.3.4) 213

        Controlled Access (4.4.3.5) 213

        Ring Topology (4.4.3.6) 214

    Data-Link Frame (4.4.4) 215

        The Frame (4.4.4.1) 215

        The Header (4.4.4.2) 215

        Layer 2 Address (4.4.4.3) 216

        The Trailer (4.4.4.4) 217

        LAN and WAN Frames (4.4.4.5) 218

        Ethernet Frame (4.4.4.6) 220

        PPP Frame (4.4.4.7) 221

        802.11 Wireless Frame (4.4.4.8) 222

Summary (4.5) 225

Practice 227

    Class Activities 227

    Labs 227

    Packet Tracer Activities 227

Check Your Understanding 227

Chapter 5 Ethernet 231

Objectives 231

Key Terms 231

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 233

Ethernet Protocol (5.1) 234

    Ethernet Operation (5.1.1) 234

        LLC and MAC Sublayers (5.1.1.1) 235

        MAC Sublayer (5.1.1.2) 235

        Media Access Control (5.1.1.3) 236

        MAC Address: Ethernet Identity (5.1.1.4) 238

        Frame Processing (5.1.1.5) 239

    Ethernet Frame Attributes (5.1.2) 240

        Ethernet Encapsulation (5.1.2.1) 241

        Ethernet Frame Size (5.1.2.2) 242

        Introduction to the Ethernet Frame (5.1.2.3) 243

    Ethernet MAC (5.1.3) 244

        MAC Addresses and Hexadecimal (5.1.3.1) 244

        MAC Address Representations (5.1.3.2) 246

        Unicast MAC Address (5.1.3.3) 247

        Broadcast MAC Address (5.1.3.4) 248

        Multicast MAC Address (5.1.3.5) 248

    MAC and IP (5.1.4, 5.1.4.1) 249

        End-to-End Connectivity, MAC, and IP (5.1.4.2) 250

Address Resolution Protocol (5.2, 5.2.1, 5.2.1.1) 252

        ARP Functions (5.2.1.2) 252

        ARP Operation (5.2.1.3) 253

        ARP Role in Remote Communication (5.2.1.4) 256

        Removing Entries from an ARP Table (5.2.1.5) 258

        ARP Tables on Networking Devices (5.2.1.6) 258

    ARP Issues (5.2.2) 259

        How ARP Can Create Problems (5.2.2.1) 259

        Mitigating ARP Problems (5.2.2.2) 260

LAN Switches (5.3) 260

    Switching (5.3.1) 260

        Switch Port Fundamentals (5.3.1.1) 261

        Switch MAC Address Table (5.3.1.2) 261

        Duplex Settings (5.3.1.3) 263

        Auto-MDIX (5.3.1.4) 265

        Frame-Forwarding Methods on Cisco Switches (5.3.1.5) 265

        Cut-Through Switching (5.3.1.6) 266

        Memory Buffering on Switches (5.3.1.8) 267

    Fixed or Modular (5.3.2) 268

        Fixed Versus Modular Configuration (5.3.2.1) 268

        Module Options for Cisco Switch Slots (5.3.2.2) 270

    Layer 3 Switching (5.3.3) 272

        Layer 2 Versus Layer 3 Switching (5.3.3.1) 272

        Cisco Express Forwarding (5.3.3.2) 273

        Types of Layer 3 Interfaces (5.3.3.3) 274

        Configuring a Routed Port on a Layer 3 Switch (5.3.3.4) 275

Summary (5.4) 277

Practice 278

    Class Activities 278

    Labs 279

    Packet Tracer Activities 279

Check Your Understanding 279

Chapter 6 Network Layer 283

Objectives 283

Key Terms 283

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 284

Network Layer Protocols (6.1) 285

    Network Layer in Communication (6.1.1) 285

        The Network Layer (6.1.1.1) 285

        Network Layer Protocols (6.1.1.2) 286

    Characteristics of the IP Protocol (6.1.2) 287

        Characteristics of IP (6.1.2.1) 287

        IP—Connectionless (6.1.2.2) 288

        IP—Best-Effort Delivery (6.1.2.3) 288

        IP—Media Independent (6.1.2.4) 289

        Encapsulating IP (6.1.2.5) 290

    IPv4 Packet (6.1.3) 291

        IPv4 Packet Header (6.1.3.1) 291

        IPv4 Header Fields (6.1.3.2) 293

        Sample IPv4 Headers (6.1.3.3) 293

    IPv6 Packet (6.1.4) 295

        Limitations of IPv4 (6.1.4.1) 295

        Introducing IPv6 (6.1.4.2) 296

        Encapsulating IPv6 (6.1.4.3) 297

        IPv6 Packet Header (6.1.4.4) 298

        Sample IPv6 Header (6.1.4.5) 298

Routing (6.2) 299

    How a Host Routes (6.2.1) 299

        Host Forwarding Decision (6.2.1.1) 300

        Default Gateway (6.2.1.2) 300

        IPv4 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.3) 301

        IPv4 Host Routing Entries (6.2.1.4) 303

        Sample IPv4 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.5) 305

        Sample IPv6 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.6) 306

    Router Routing Tables (6.2.2) 307

        Router Packet-Forwarding Decision (6.2.2.1) 307

        IPv4 Router Routing Table (6.2.2.2) 308

        Directly Connected Routing Table Entries (6.2.2.3) 310

        Remote Network Routing Table Entries (6.2.2.4) 311

        Next-Hop Address (6.2.2.5) 312

        Sample Router IPv4 Routing Table (6.2.2.6) 312

Routers (6.3) 315

    Anatomy of a Router (6.3.1) 315

        A Router Is a Computer (6.3.1.1) 315

        Router CPU and OS (6.3.1.2) 315

        Router Memory (6.3.1.3) 316

        Inside a Router (6.3.1.4) 318

        Router Backplane (6.3.1.5) 319

        Connecting to a Router (6.3.1.6) 320

        LAN and WAN Interfaces (6.3.1.7) 321

        Router Bootup (6.3.2) 322

        Cisco IOS (6.3.2.1) 322

        Bootset Files (6.3.2.2) 323

        Router Bootup Process (6.3.2.3) 323

        Show Version Output (6.3.2.4) 325

Configuring a Cisco Router (6.4) 326

    Configure Initial Settings (6.4.1) 326

        Router Configuration Steps (6.4.1.1) 326

        Configure Interfaces (6.4.2) 328

        Configure LAN Interfaces (6.4.2.1) 328

        Verify Interface Configuration (6.4.2.2) 330

        Configuring the Default Gateway (6.4.3) 332

        Default Gateway on a Host (6.4.3.1) 332

        Default Gateway on a Switch (6.4.3.2) 333

Summary (6.5) 335

Practice 336

    Class Activities 337

    Labs 337

    Packet Tracer Activities 337

Check Your Understanding 337

Chapter 7 Transport Layer 341

Objectives 341

Key Terms 341

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 342

    Learning Objectives 342

Transport Layer Protocols (7.1) 343

    Transportation of Data (7.1.1) 343

        Role of the Transport Layer (7.1.1.1, 7.1.1.2) 343

        Conversation Multiplexing (7.1.1.3) 347

        Transport Layer Reliability (7.1.1.4) 347

        TCP (7.1.1.5) 348

        UDP (7.1.1.6) 349

        The Right Transport Layer Protocol for the Right

        Application (7.1.1.7) 350

    Introducing TCP and UDP (7.1.2) 352

        Introducing TCP (7.1.2.1) 352

        Role of TCP (7.1.2.2) 353

        Introducing UDP (7.1.2.3) 355

        Role of UDP (7.1.2.4) 355

        Separating Multiple Communications (7.1.2.5) 356

        TCP and UDP Port Addressing (7.1.2.6 – 7.1.2.9) 357

        TCP and UDP Segmentation (7.1.2.10) 362

TCP and UDP (7.2) 363

    TCP Communication (7.2.1) 364

        TCP Reliable Delivery (7.2.1.1) 364

        TCP Server Processes (7.2.1.2) 364

        TCP Connection Establishment and Termination (7.2.1.3) 365

        TCP Three-Way Handshake Analysis—Step 1 (7.2.1.4) 367

        TCP Three-Way Handshake Analysis—Step 2 (7.2.1.5) 368

        TCP Three-Way Handshake Analysis—Step 3 (7.2.1.6) 369

        TCP Session Termination Analysis (7.2.1.7) 370

        Reliability and Flow Control (7.2.2) 373

        TCP Reliability—Ordered Delivery (7.2.2.1) 373

        TCP Reliability—Acknowledgement and Window Size (7.2.2.2) 374

        TCP Reliability—Data Loss and Retransmission (7.2.2.3) 376

        TCP Flow Control—Window Size and Acknowledgements (7.2.2.4) 376

        TCP Flow Control—Congestion Avoidance (7.2.2.5) 378

    UDP Communication (7.2.3) 379

        UDP Low Overhead Versus Reliability (7.2.3.1) 379

        UDP Datagram Reassembly (7.2.3.2) 380

        UDP Server Processes and Requests (7.2.3.3) 381

        UDP Client Processes (7.2.3.4) 381

    TCP or UDP, That Is the Question (7.2.4) 382

        Applications That Use TCP (7.2.4.1) 382

        Applications That Use UDP (7.2.4.2) 382

Summary (7.3) 384

Practice 386

    Class Activities 386

    Labs 386

    Packet Tracer Activities 386

Check Your Understanding 386

Chapter 8 IP Addressing 391

Objectives 391

Key Terms 391

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 393

IPv4 Network Addresses (8.1) 393

    IPv4 Address Structure (8.1.1) 394

        Binary Notation (8.1.1.1) 394

        Binary Number System (8.1.1.2) 395

        Converting a Binary Address to Decimal (8.1.1.3) 397

        Converting from Decimal to Binary (8.1.1.5, 8.1.1.6) 399

    IPv4 Subnet Mask (8.1.2) 400

        Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address (8.1.2.1) 400

        Examining the Prefix Length (8.1.2.2) 402

        IPv4 Network, Host, and Broadcast Addresses (8.1.2.3) 403

        First Host and Last Host Addresses (8.1.2.4) 405

        Bitwise AND Operation (8.1.2.5) 406

        Importance of ANDing (8.1.2.6) 407

    IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast (8.1.3) 408

        Assigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host (8.1.3.1) 408

        Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host (8.1.3.2) 409

        Unicast Transmission (8.1.3.3) 410

        Broadcast Transmission (8.1.3.4) 412

        Multicast Transmission (8.1.3.5) 413

    Types of IPv4 Addresses (8.1.4) 416

        Public and Private IPv4 Addresses (8.1.4.1) 416

        Special-Use IPv4 Addresses (8.1.4.3) 417

        Legacy Classful Addressing (8.1.4.4) 419

        Assignment of IP Addresses (8.1.4.5, 8.1.4.6) 422

IPv6 Network Addresses (8.2) 424

    IPv4 Issues (8.2.1) 424

        The Need for IPv6 (8.2.1.1) 425

        IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence (8.2.1.2) 426

        IPv6 Addressing (8.2.2) 427

    Hexadecimal Number System (8.2.2.1) 427

        IPv6 Address Representation (8.2.2.2) 429

        Rule 1: Omit Leading 0s (8.2.2.3) 430

        Rule 2: Omit All 0 Segments (8.2.2.4) 430

    Types of IPv6 Addresses (8.2.3) 431

        IPv6 Address Types (8.2.3.1) 431

        IPv6 Prefix Length (8.2.3.2) 432

        IPv6 Unicast Addresses (8.2.3.3) 432

        IPv6 Link-Local Unicast Addresses (8.2.3.4) 434

    IPv6 Unicast Addresses (8.2.4) 435

        Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address (8.2.4.1) 435

        Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address (8.2.4.2) 437

        Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Using SLAAC (8.2.4.3) 439

        Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address

        Using DHCPv6 (8.2.4.4) 441

        EUI-64 Process or Randomly Generated (8.2.4.5) 442

        Dynamic Link-Local Addresses (8.2.4.6) 444

        Static Link-Local Addresses (8.2.4.7) 445

        Verifying IPv6 Address Configuration (8.2.4.8) 447

    IPv6 Multicast Addresses (8.2.5) 449

        Assigned IPv6 Multicast Addresses (8.2.5.1) 449

        Solicited-Node IPv6 Multicast Addresses (8.2.5.2) 450

Connectivity Verification (8.3) 451

    ICMP (8.3.1) 451

        ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Messages (8.3.1.1) 451

        ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages (8.3.1.2) 453

        ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor

        Advertisement Messages (8.3.1.3) 454

    Testing and Verification (8.3.2) 455

        Ping: Testing the Local Stack (8.3.2.1) 455

        Ping: Testing Connectivity to the Local LAN (8.3.2.2) 456

        Ping: Testing Connectivity to Remote (8.3.2.3) 456

        Traceroute: Testing the Path (8.3.2.4) 456

Summary (8.4) 460

Practice 461

    Class Activities 462

    Labs 462

    Packet Tracer Activities 462

Check Your Understanding 462

Chapter 9 Subnetting IP Networks 465

Objectives 465

Key Terms 465

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 466

Subnetting an IPv4 Network (9.1) 467

    Network Segmentation (9.1.1) 467

        Reasons for Subnetting (9.1.1.1) 467

        Communication Between Subnets (9.1.1.2) 468

    IP Subnetting Is FUNdamental (9.1.2) 468

        The Plan (9.1.2.1) 468

        The Plan: Address Assignment (9.1.2.2) 470

    Subnetting an IPv4 Network (9.1.3) 470

        Basic Subnetting (9.1.3.1) 470

        Subnets in Use (9.1.3.2) 472

        Subnetting Formulas (9.1.3.3) 474

        Creating Four Subnets (9.1.3.4) 475

        Creating Eight Subnets (9.1.3.5) 478

        Creating 100 Subnets with a /16 prefix (9.1.3.10) 481

        Calculating the Hosts (9.1.3.11) 483

        Calculating the Hosts (9.1.3.12) 484

    Determining the Subnet Mask (9.1.4) 487

        Subnetting Based on Host Requirements (9.1.4.1) 487

        Subnetting Network-Based Requirements (9.1.4.2) 488

        Subnetting to Meet Network Requirements (9.1.4.3, 9.1.4.4) 488

    Benefits of Variable-Length Subnet Masking (9.1.5) 492

        Traditional Subnetting Wastes Addresses (9.1.5.1) 492

        Variable-Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) (9.1.5.2) 493

        Basic VLSM (9.1.5.3) 494

        VLSM in Practice (9.1.5.4) 495

        VLSM Chart (9.1.5.5) 496

Addressing Schemes (9.2) 498

    Structured Design (9.2.1) 498

        Planning to Address the Network (9.2.1.1) 498

        Assigning Addresses to Devices (9.2.1.2) 499

Design Considerations for IPv6 (9.3) 501

    Subnetting an IPv6 Network (9.3.1) 501

        Subnetting Using the Subnet ID (9.3.1.1) 502

        IPv6 Subnet Allocation (9.3.1.2) 503

        Subnetting into the Interface ID (9.3.1.3) 505

Summary (9.4) 507

Practice 508

    Class Activities 508

    Labs 509

    Packet Tracer Activities 509

Check Your Understanding 509

Chapter 10 Application Layer 515

Objectives 515

Key Terms 515

Introduction (10.0.1.1) 516

Application Layer Protocols (10.1) 517

    Application, Session, and Presentation (10.1.1) 517

        OSI and TCP/IP Models Revisited (10.1.1.1) 517

        Application Layer (10.1.1.2) 518

        Presentation and Session Layers (10.1.1.3) 518

        TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols (10.1.1.4) 519

        How Application Protocols Interact with End-User Applications (10.1.2) 520

        Peer-to-Peer Networks (10.1.2.1) 520

        Peer-to-Peer Applications (10.1.2.2) 521

        Common P2P Applications (10.1.2.3) 522

        Client-Server Model (10.1.2.5) 523

Well-Known Application Layer Protocols and Services (10.2) 525

    Common Application Layer Protocols (10.2.1) 525

        Application Layer Protocols Revisited (10.2.1.1) 525

        Hypertext Transfer Protocol and Hypertext Markup Language (10.2.1.2) 525

        HTTP and HTTPS (10.2.1.3) 526

        SMTP, POP, and IMAP (10.2.1.4-10.2.1.7) 527

    Providing IP Addressing Services (10.2.2) 530

        Domain Name System (10.2.2.1) 530

        DNS Message Format (10.2.2.2) 530

        DNS Hierarchy (10.2.2.3) 532

        Nslookup (10.2.2.4) 533

        Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (10.2.2.6) 534

        DHCPv4 Operation (10.2.2.7) 535

    Providing File-Sharing Services (10.2.3) 538

        File Transfer Protocol (10.2.3.1) 538

        Server Message Block (10.2.3.4) 539

The Message Heard Around the World (10.3) 540

    Move It! (10.3.1) 540

        The Internet of Things (10.3.1.1) 540

        Message Travels Through a Network (10.3.1.2) 540

        Getting the Data to the End Device (10.3.1.3) 542

        Getting the Data Through the Internetwork (10.3.1.4) 542

        Getting the Data to the Right Application (10.3.1.5) 543

        Warriors of the Net (10.3.1.6) 545

Summary (10.4) 546

Practice 548

    Class Activities 548

    Labs 548

    Packet Tracer Activities 548

Check Your Understanding 549

Chapter 11 It’s a Network 551

Objectives 551

Key Terms 551

Introduction (11.0.1.1) 552

Create and Grow (11.1) 553

    Devices in a Small Network (11.1.1) 553

        Small-Network Topologies (11.1.1.1) 553

        Device Selection for a Small Network (11.1.1.2) 554

        IP Addressing for a Small Network (11.1.1.3) 555

        Redundancy in a Small Network (11.1.1.4) 556

        Design Considerations for a Small Network (11.1.1.5) 557

        Protocols in a Small Network (11.1.2) 559

        Common Applications in a Small Network (11.1.2.1) 559

        Common Protocols in a Small Network (11.1.2.2) 560

        Real-Time Applications for a Small Network (11.1.2.3) 561

    Growing to Larger Networks (11.1.3) 562

        Scaling a Small Network (11.1.3.1) 562

        Protocol Analysis of a Small Network (11.1.3.2) 563

        Evolving Protocol Requirements (11.1.3.3) 564

Keeping the Network Safe (11.2) 564

    Network Device Security Measures (11.2.1) 565

        Categories of Threats to Network Security (11.2.1.1) 565

        Physical Security (11.2.1.2) 566

        Types of Security Vulnerabilities (11.2.1.3) 566

    Vulnerabilities and Network Attacks (11.2.2) 569

        Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses (11.2.2.1) 569

        Reconnaissance Attacks (11.2.2.2) 570

        Access Attacks (11.2.2.3) 570

        DoS Attacks (11.2.2.4) 572

        Mitigating Network Attacks (11.2.3) 574

        Backup, Upgrade, Update, and Patch (11.2.3.1) 574

        Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (11.2.3.2) 575

        Firewalls (11.2.3.3) 577

        Endpoint Security (11.2.3.4) 578

    Securing Devices (11.2.4) 578

        Introduction to Securing Devices (11.2.4.1) 578

        Passwords (11.2.4.2) 579

        Basic Security Practices (11.2.4.3) 580

        Enable SSH (11.2.4.4) 581

Basic Network Performance (11.3) 583

    Ping (11.3.1) 583

        Interpreting Ping Results (11.3.1.1) 583

        Extended Ping (11.3.1.2) 585

        Network Baseline (11.3.1.3) 586

    Tracert (11.3.2) 587

        Interpreting Tracert Messages (11.3.2.1) 587

    Show Commands (11.3.3) 588

        Common Show Commands Revisited (11.3.3.1) 588

        Viewing Router Settings with the show version Command (11.3.3.2) 593

        Viewing Switch Settings with the show version Command (11.3.3.3) 595

    Host and IOS Commands (11.3.4) 595

        ipconfig Command Options (11.3.4.1) 595

        arp Command Options (11.3.4.2) 597

        show cdp neighbors Command Options (11.3.4.3) 597

        Using the show ip interface brief Command (11.3.4.4) 600

Managing IOS Configuration Files (11.4) 603

    Router and Switch File Systems (11.4.1) 603

        Router File Systems (11.4.1.1) 603

        Switch File Systems (11.4.1.2) 606

        Back Up and Restore Configuration Files (11.4.2) 607

        Backing Up and Restoring Using Text Files (11.4.2.1) 607

        Backing Up and Restoring Using TFTP (11.4.2.2) 608

        Using USB Ports on a Cisco Router (11.4.2.3) 609

        Backing Up and Restoring Using a USB Flash Drive (11.4.2.4) 610

Integrated Routing Services (11.5) 611

    Integrated Router (11.5.1) 611

        Multifunction Device (11.5.1.1) 611

        Types of Integrated Routers (11.5.1.2) 613

        Wireless Capability (11.5.1.3) 614

        Basic Security of Wireless (11.5.1.4) 615

    Configuring the Integrated Router (11.5.2) 616

        Configuring the Integrated Router (11.5.2.1) 616

        Enabling Wireless (11.5.2.2) 617

        Configure a Wireless Client (11.5.2.3) 618

Summary (11.6) 620

Practice 622

    Class Activities 622

    Labs 622

    Packet Tracer Activities 623

Check Your Understanding Questions 623

Appendix A Answers to the “Check Your Understanding” Questions 627

Glossary 641

TOC, 9781587133169, 11/7/2013

 

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